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Impacts of Air Pollution on Agriculture and Horticulture in Poland STEFAN GO D Z1K Institute of Environmental Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences In contrast to the condition of forestry in Poland (Chapter 10, this volume), a country-wide survey of the impact of air pollution on the quantity and quality of crops does not exist. Investigations carried out near sources of air pollution and in the Upper Silesian industrial region have shown a significant reduction in crop yield. It has also been shown that the quality of plants is reduced in areas of high heavy-metal concentration. However, a direct cause-and-effect relationship has not been established in all cases. In addition, the problem of air pollution generally is not considered to be important for agricultural sciences or practices (Rutkowski, 1986~. The purpose of this chapter is to confirm the importance of air pollu- tant effects on agricultural and horticultural crops, in terms of their quantity and quality, relying on research results from the Upper Silesian industrial region as the major source of information. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION The greatest threat to the terrestrial environment is air pollution, which comes primarily from industrial sources. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the most important gaseous pollutants in Poland. Emission of these gases from Polish sources ranges from 2.4 to 4.3 TG per year, with emission of nitrogen oxides calculated at about 1.1 TG per year. Differences in the emission of air pollutants given are due to calculation method (GUS, 1986; Juda et al., 1980; Cofala and Bojarski, 1988; National Program, 1988~. Fluorine compounds, hydrocarbons, and particulates, including metals, are of local importance, and may have a significant impact on the local environment. The processing and use of coal for energy production is limited to fairly small areas of the country; for this reason, levels of 196

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HUAL4N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT TABLE 1 Emission of sulfur dioxide in Poland in 1982. Region or Area Population SO2 emission Area ~ ) Total (tans) tons~m2 Poland 312,683 35,163,505 2,433,000 7.78 AEH 35,237 12,335,862 1,986,700 56.4 AEH~O2* 23,413 8,551,428 1,805,900 77.1 AEH-Uwer Silesia** 3,134 2,753,366 604,600 192.9 AEH-Rybnik** 1,038 554,731 lT7,400 170.9 * 12 areas win largest SO2 emission ** SO2 amount were taken into account in AEH and AEH~O2 SOURCE: GUS, 1984. 197 environmental pollution differ significantly within Poland (Figure 1, Table 1~. Similarly, areas of forest and other natural vegetation occur almost as islands within the agricultural and industrial regions. This has led to the designation of 27 locations as Areas of Ecological Hazard (AEH) (Kassenberg, 1986; Chapter 22, this volume). Their distribution is shown in Figure 1 along with the index of agricultural land quality (GUS, 1984~. Table 1 contains data on sulfur dioxide emissions for 12 of the 27 AEHs. Data for the Upper Silesian and Rybnik AEHs were separated, as detailed air pollution measurements are available for these two areas (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988~. Air pollutants from industrial regions of Czechoslovakia (e.g., the Ostrava region) are transported to these areas as well. ~ansboundary transport is based on modeling of distribution of sulfur dioxide (Figure 2), but has been confirmed by measurements carried out for the Katowice district (Figures 4 and 5~. This is a significant contribution to the major sources located in Upper Silesian and Rybn~ areas, where the highest concentrations of all pollutants measured have been determined (Figures 3-8~. Measurements earned out for several years in the Katowice district indicate that the concentration of sulfur dioxide is increasing (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988~. Annual mean concentrations higher than the national standard (64 fig m~3) exists mainly in the central part of Upper Silesia. (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988~. Other parts of the region Epically have concentrations below the national standard (Figure 3~. A similar pattern exists for concentrations of nitrogen oxides and some other pollutants, e.g., aerosols (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1986~. The national standard for nitrogen oxides (32 fig m-3) is exceeded in the entire area of Upper Silesia, and especially in the central part (Figure 4~.

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198 ~,\ ECOLOGICAL RISKS .~ ALQ F//~' r/////~ ////// 65.9 - 70.8 //////// > 70.8 ~////1 / / ~~ _ ~ _ ~ .~\ < 60.9 60.9 - 65.8 ~C~ ~ ~ ~ AEH FIGURE 1 13wenty-seven Areas of Ecological Hazard (AEH) and index of agricultural land quality (ALQ) (GUS, 1984). On the basis of calculations presented earlier, the total amount of nitrogen oxides is about one-third that of sulfur dioxide. The national standard for dust fall (250 tons km-2 year) is exceeded in a large part of the Katowice district, with the highest amount deposited - r --- Van ~~ ~~" ~`r~,~;u~ Hi. There has been some improvement in controlling the emission of particulates from industrial sources, and dust fall is declining. However, the concentration of aerosols is increasing simultaneously (Figure 6~. This is of concern not only because of possible impact on plant quality but, more significantly, on human health. In contrast to the pattern for dust fall, for a decade there has been a trend of increasing aerosol concentrations in the Katowice district (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988~. The direct impact of particulate matter on crop in the central part of Upper Silesia fria,.r" ~`

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HZJAL4~ EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRL4L ENVIRONMENT 199 . GorzOw Wlkp / /. . . . Ciechandw/ I; 5 4 _ _;x /d :;kc ,Wroc~ ~ >mu b 1~mY ~,.~ ~ /e/o chowri'~ ,~ K we l? ,, ;;;;,/ I ,. 64 9 m ~ 32 9 m 3 Areas of ecological risk: I / 1 tow 1! / A middle 1~////1 high _ crying forest ~..1 .- `-~`,j FIGURE 2 Distnbution of sulfur dioxide in Poland. Yearly mean values of sulfur dioxide concentration for the year 1985 (National Program, 1988~. yield seems to be of limited importance, and only in locations where the deposited amounts are very high due to the decline in crop quality from heavy metal content. This effect has been found for areas in which the national standard for dust fall has not been exceeded. AGRICULTURE AND PLANT PRODUCTION While the Katowice district, like other AEHs, is not a significant source of agricultural production on a national scale (Table 2), most agricultural and horticultural crops produced on farmland and in alloted garden plots

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200 ECOLOGICAL RISKS TABLE 2 Agncul~ral land use in AEH in Poland in 1982. Land in hectares Region or Area Arable Orchards Meadows Pasture Vegetables - Poland 14,550,953 270,151 2,520,365 1,550,063 232,090 AEH 1,422,789 31,945 288,991 139,519 54,212 AEH~O2* 926,430 21,267 197,302 89,630 35,662 AEH-Upper Silesia ** 94,637 3,430 21,855 9,269 9,559 AEH-Rybnik ** 46,617 1,129 9090 3,274 1989 . . =_ * 12 areas with largest SO2 emission ** SO2 amounts were taken into account in AEH and AEH~O2 SOURCE: GUS, 1984. ( l 1 \, ~ _ , :~7~W'r;~ All f r ; , ~ ~ ~ , ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' 11 1k / /\l I I~Wolbrom ~ W~usz; ., ( ,'-~w~zno/~._., ,~/7, /~/J a//s~t rz/e b i en / /~ `.: ' :W ,ug . m~ 3 11 i - 1 1 7 - 32 , . ' / /t 32 - 64 64 _ 115 Yearly mea n SO2 concentration / standard: 64 ,~9. m~ 3/ FIGURE 3 Concentration of sulfur dioxide in Katowice district with yearly mean values (in big m~3). The permissible concentration (national standard) is 64 big m~3 (District Office for Public Health and Epidemiology, Katowice).

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At HUAL4N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONME~ 201 , N2O5 Concentration /stondard: 39 dug. m3/ 1; ~1` ~ ~ j to' Wolbrom ~ LU0 i.' i ^9 . m~3 41 - 64 ~///~ 64 - 96 ............... . ..... ~ ~ I.1~_ ,rl, ~ I as ~~ ..... . ~ . ~ _ %, _ , _ _ FIGURE 4 Concentration of nitrogen oxides in the Katowice district with yearly mean values (in fig m~3~. The permissible concentration (national standard) is 32 big m~3 (Distnct Office for Public Health and Epidemiology, Katowice). are used by the local population in the area. Thus, local contamination is of great concern. A good database exists for heavy metal content in plants, air, and soil for the Katowice region. Data on the reduction of quality and quantity of agricultural and horticultural plant species can be used to predict effects in other polluted areas of Poland. Information is available on yields of the most important agricultural crops, the use of fertilizers, emissions of air pollutants, and the index of agriculture land quality (Ibble 3~. These specific areas have been selected for discussion purpose based on yield of crops (highest and lowest) and emissions of air pollutants. There is no clear correlation between emission of air pollutants and yield of crops. Yield data for the most polluted Katowice district are higher than or equal to the mean value for the whole country. Except for cereals, the correlation coefficient is also low between yield and agricultural land quality. However, a strong correlation exists between use of fertilizers and yield: 0.9991 for cereals, 0.8356 for potatoes, and 0.7570 for beets. These correlations suggest that the application of fertilizers increases the yield of

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202 ECOLOGICAL RISKS 7~ ~ , , ~.!~! ~ ~ ~ MOB - IZ! n nn~mw~//~ J.I OCR for page 196
HUA~1N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 203 Tarnowskie Gary A/ .] G\l'~~l!o)~O~ Cho z w Sosnowi 8 ~ ~ ~ A 14 (l - sil l i fault l I l l l: - t|~ flown i (I,D I ~ AL M ikot ~ hrza ndw , ~ Wolbrom i, ~ n Ll '*tD0n.Sie^.Sl', . . . Rcici b dry ~ ~ ~lWi : Wedzis~ _ `e a. A) ~-.~TJ.r%~ - ~ - A. ~ ~ , _ ~ ~- ,~9. m~3 110 - 220 i 1 1 1 1 1 11 220 -310 3 10 - 525 FIGURE 6 Concentration of aerosols in the Katowice district with yearly mean values (in fig mob. The permissible concentration (national standard) is 22 fig m~3 (District Office for Public Health and Epidemiology, Katowice). TABLE 3 Emission of pollutants, use of fertilizers, yield of crops, and index of agricultural land quality. . . _ Emission of Area or pollutants 2 NPK Yield Potatoes Beets District (l,OOO kg/km ~ kg/in cereal (lOO kg/he) Index Poland 21.5 175.2 27.6 168 331 65.8 Katowice 300.0 201.9 29.8 180 331 68.1 Krakow 215.7 173.6 28.0 159 298 8S.7 Opole 29.1 276.0 36.2 176 364 81.7 Ostroleka 16.2 101.0 21.5 147 315 51.0 SOURCE: GUS, 1986; GUS, 1984.

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204 ECOLOGICAL RISKS (Kucharski et al., 1984~. This figure would be much higher for all the AEHs (Tables 1 and 23. The concentration of several heavy metals in vegetables and fruits from these areas contributes to the overall intake of these metals by a large portion of the population, and is therefore of great concern for public health reasons (Karweta, 1980; Kucharski et al., 1984; Marchwinska and Kucharski, 1986; Grodzinska et al., 1987; Niklinska and Maryanski, 1988~. THE IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL PI^NTS: I VVO CASE STUDIES Investigations into the effects of air pollution on plants in industrial parts of Upper Silesia began many years ago (Szalonek and Warteresiewicz, 1966a). Most of these studies were carried out around major sources of air pollution, such as metallurgical works, lead and zinc smelters, and coking plants. The approach used is similar to that described by Schoenbeck (1968~. A series of holes 35 cm in diameter and 110 cm deep and sealed by a plastic sheet from the surrounding soil, are filled with a unified soiL Test plants are grown in these "experimental pots" which could be located at different distances and directions from the sources of pollutants. Instead of separate holes for a single or small group of plants, "microplots" of 1 m2 with unified soil are used (Warteresiewicz and Szalonek 1972~. For statistical reasons multiple plots are used, usually four on each site (location) and for each crop. ~ investigate the effect of a given source of pollutants, microplots are located at different distances and directions around the source. Assessment of losses is based on comparisons of harvest parameters for the same species at the location under investigation with that of those reference (control) locations. ~ avoid any major influence of variables other than air pollutants, the reference point must be located very close to the area under investigation. In areas with several or many air pollutant sources, it is difficult or even impossible to have an unpolluted locality. For this reason, crop losses may be underestimated when compared to clean air responses. Concentrations of air pollutants in locations accepted as reference points are much lower than in the areas investigated, but still higher than in areas characterized by background concentrations of pollutants. Effects of air pollutants on horticultural species were investigated both in experimental orchards of the Institute of Pomology in Skierniewice and in containers with uniform soil (Blidy et al., 1983; Kulawik, 1985~. Containers were located in areas of both low and high pollution; and growth and yield parameters of several plant species, or cultivars, were measured.

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HUA~N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 110 100 0 90 o c' a) o - o 0 c, ~ 60 80 70 50 40 b 0 bean 0 barley .~ ~ potatoes to .0 . 00 . J 0 100 200 300 CONCENTRATION,ug SO2 per m3 205 FIGURE 7 Erects of sulfur dioxide on yield of plants in the field; means of three yea m of expenments. Sulfur dioxide concentration (in fig m-3) is calculated from sulfit~on rate (Warteresiewicz, 1979~. Impacts on the yield of two apple cultivars (McIntosh and Jonathan), pear (c.v. Konferencja), and cherry (c.v. LutowEa) were evaluated, at the experimental orchards of the Institute of-Pomology. At weekly intervals, dusta mixture of coal powder and feldspar was suspended in water and spread in amounts equal to and double the national standard. The application of dust to plants started after the flowering period (Blidy et al., 1983~. RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDIES Agriculture Depending on the concentration of sulfur dioxide on the plant species studied in the microplots described above, decreases in yield have been found from less than 10% up to 555 for potatoes, 40% for bean, and 35% for barley (Warteresiewicz, 1979; Figure 7~. Comparison of data on air pollution measurements obtained by Warteresiewicz (1979, 1987) with data obtained using other methods for sulfur dioxide concentration in the same

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206 ECOLOGICAL RISKS 110 _ 100 _ . a, 90 9 80 70 60 0 yield 1984 yield 1985 yield 1986 o . . o of a . . a 30 40 50 60 70 80 CONCENTRATION fig SO2 per m3 FIGURE 8 Yield of barley (grains3 in the vicinity of a metallurgical plant, as percent calf the reference point. Data from three years of experiments (Warteresiewicz, 1987~. area is difficult (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988; Figure 3~. However, if the coefficient for calculating sulfur dioxide concentration from sulfatation rates is accepted, data presented in Figure 7 would agree with Roberts (1984) that-a decrease in yield can be expected if the sulfur dioxide concentration is higher than 60 Jug m~3. More recent data obtained by Warteresiewicz (1987) in experiments still in progress are presented in Figures 8-10. These data are from areas surrounding a steel mill in Upper Silesia, where there is high background air pollution independent of emissions from the source under study. Inde- pendent measurement of concentrations of some air pollutants were also carried out in the same region; the results are shown in Figures 3-6. For the area where the reference point was located, the concentration of SO2 was 29 fig m-3, and NOx was 51 ,ug m-3. No major differences in pol- lutant concentration within the area under investigation (i.e., surrounding the steel mill) have been found. The data collected are as follows: for SO2, from 50 to 70 fig m-3, and for NO=, from 65 to 85 fig m~3 (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988~. However, sulfur dioxide concentrations measured using sulfatation methods and presented in Figures 8-10 are higher.

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HUMAN EFFECTS ON TlIE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 207 TABLE 4 Some grown and harvest parameters of black currant (c.v. RoodJ=op) cultivated at B~zema and Zabrze. Mean of t}~ee-year experiment, calculated for one plant. Sum of Parameters, fruit shoot Harvest weight size distubanon (%) Location growth (an) number (g) ~ 8 8-10 > 10 . B~zezna 12,949 7,011 3,227 16.3 36.5 47.2 Zabrze 1,092 2,233 879 49.2 47.4 3.4 SOURCE: Kulawik, 1985. 110 100 - o 0 90 o so ~ 80 IL 70 60 ! - ~ 30 40 yield 1984 yield 1985 yield 1986 . to . to C3 O . . . 1 1 _ 1 , 1 50 60 70 80 CONCENTRATION p9 SO2 per m FIGURE 9 Yield of bean (Lucia faba f. minor) in the vicinity of a metallurgical plant, as percent of the reference point. Data from three yea m of experiments (Warteresiewic2, 1987). The data for yield loss and pollution level of sulfur dioxide are rather poorly correlated; however, the threshold concentration is lower than has been demonstrated by similar field measurements obtained earlier (Warteresiewicz, 1979~. Data published by Warteresiewicz (1979) indicate that crop losses between 3 and 4% occurred when the sulfur dioxide con- centration increased by 10 ,ug m~3 in a concentration range of 70-210 fig m~3 (Figure 7). According to the most recent field experiments (Wartere- siewicz, 1987), a crop loss of 4.5 to 7.1% takes place for every 10 fig m~3

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208 ECOLOGIC H5= 110 100 90 LL 80 70 60 _ _ yield 1984 yield 1985 yield 1986 A . . O to - . 1 , 1 . ~ o 1 ,1 30 40 50 60 70 80 CONCENTRATION p9 SO2 per m3 FIGURE 10 Yield of potatoes in the vicinity of a metallurgical plant, as percent of the reference point. Data from three years of experiments (Warteresiewicz:, 1987~. increase (Figures 8-10~. Data for higher concentrations are disparate and any numbers given must be interpreted with care. It may be that nitrogen oxides play some role in reduction of yields at concentrations measured near the industrial activity. These data are similar to that presented by Whitmore (1985) for long-term exposure of Poa pratensis of. Monoply to a mixture of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide at weekly mean concentrations of 0.062 ppm. Concentrations of both pollutants in this range are very likely to occur in most AEHs (Bible 1, Figures 1 and 2~. Horticulture Data for horticultural plants are fewer than for agricultural crops. Experiments were carried out in two locations: Zabrze as a polluted site, and Brzezna as a reference point. As in the previous discussion, data on sulfur dioxide data were collected. No data for nitrogen oxide concentrations are available for the reference point. Data for the growing season are in the range of 20 fig SO2 m-3 for Brzezna, while concentrations

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HUAf 4N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 209 for the polluted location (Zabrze) are 50 fig m~3 for SO2 and 150 fig m~3 for nitrogen oxides (Karczmarz and Cimander, 1988~. The differences between years are not large. Results from another study using similar SO2 methods show a level of 60 fig m~3 for the growing season in the polluted site (Kulawik 1987~. Dust applied to apple trees in the reference area caused a drop in yield up to 40% for McIntosh and 80% for Jonathan as compared to untreated trees in the same orchard. The impact of similar treatments in the polluted orchard was significantly less pronounced, with losses of about 8% and 18% for the two cultivars, respectively (Blidy et al., 1983~. Deposition of particulate matter in amounts above 250 metric tons/km2 per year is not typical in areas of large orchards. However, horticultural plants in garden plots are very commonly located in areas of high environmental impact (Table 2~. A substantial reduction of plant growth and yield of fruits has been found for apple trees, raspberries, strawberries, and black currants grown in containers; the data for black currants are given in liable 4. All parameters, both qualitative (i.e., size of berries) and quantitative, are significantly better in the less polluted area at Brzezna. It is difficult to say which of the parameters measured provides a better example of the effect of air pollutants. The total yield, size, number, and weight of fruits examined by Kulawik (1985) for other species were reduced in polluted areas up to two-thirds when compared to the reference point. In addition, elevated concentrations of heavy metals like lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd) were found in some fruits: Z2-5.5 ppm and 0.9 ppm for Pb and Cd, respectively. For Upper Silesia and some other AEHs, the reduction of crop quality because of elevated concentrations of some heavy metals may be of greater importance for consumers than the reduction of yield. However, data are scarce (Karweta, 198~, Marchwinska and Kucharski, 1984; Grodzinska et al., 1987; Niklinska and Maryanski, 1988~. The highest concentration of heavy metals in soils and plants are found surrounding zinc and lead smelters, all of which are located in Upper Silesia. The deposition of Pb and Cd for this region is shown in Figures 11 and 1Z Heavy metal concentrations which exceed the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) or the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) also have been found in Krakow (Figures 13 and 14) (Grodzinska et al., 1987; Niklinska and Maryanski, 1988~. However, the concentration of those pollutants in vegetables like carrots or potatoes, which are consumed in larger quantities, seems to be more dangerous for the population. No data are available on yield reductions for vegetables.

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210 ECOLOG CAL RISBS :~ ' mg m~2 r~1 ~ \ \1 ~///~ 182 360 I , ......... Irlllllllllll 360 540 ~_11 I__ 21 182 540 2~7 Pb deposition FIGURE 11 Deposition of lead in the Katowice district in mg m~2 per year (District Office for Public Health and Epidemiology, Katowice). CONCLUSION Existing databases on the impact of air pollutants on plants in Poland are limited to coverage of only a few locations; therefore, countrywide assessments are not possible except by estimation. The yield reduction of all agricultural and horticultural crops may be greater than that shown by data presented so far, due to the assessment~method used. Air pollution by sulfur dioxide in reference locations was much higher than background. In addition to reduction of yield, the quality of agricultural products is reduced. This is an effect of greater importance for consumers. On the basis of data available so far, the reduction of yield in all AEHs is not greater than 10%, except in Upper Silesia where it is significantly higher. On a national scale, this figure is lower because agricultural land in AEHs accounts for only 10% of the total for the country. Reductions in crop yield due to other factors including insufficient application of fertilizers, poor management, and inadequate use of pesticides seem to be higher than those caused by air pollutants. On a regional scale, however, the effects of air pollution are acute in both quantitative and qualitative

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HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 211 9~ 7~7~er~ie ~i~icc/ '~i joT 1 ~ om~ . Y /~/~ Ed. Rib 6= / =~//~Jc~ ~,';>,\f hi/ ----- ;, Cd deposition mg ma r~1 / / 1 0,`2 - 2,75 2,75- 5,50 550 - 8,25 8,25 - 74.09 FIGURE 12 Deposition of cadmium in the Katowice district in mg m~2 per year (District Office for Public Health and Epidemiology, Katowice). terms. Of particular importance for the population is the condition of fruit and vegetables grown in highly polluted areas, both in terms of their aesthetic quality and their possible effect on human health. As stated previously, more accurate determination of crop losses due to air pollution on a countrywide scale is not possible yet. The three main reasons for this are: limitation of methods actually used for determination of yield re- duction in polluted areas; lack of data on air pollution concentrations on larger than local- and, at best, regional-scale; lack of experimental results concerning yield decreases in regions other than Upper Silesia. Rough estimates of losses are possible for the AEHs in terms of SO2 only. Data presented in Figures 7-10 seem to confirm that some losses due to air pollution do occur in locations used as reference points. If this is correct, the threshold concentration will be well below that measured actually on relative large areas. Therefore, the results from microplots

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212 ECOLOGICAL RISKS 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 o ~ Stalowa Wola _ ~ Krakow Katowice O,'2.,' .... i.. . _ 0 ;~ , Beet Carrot Parsley FIGURE 13 Concentration of lead in vegetables from Stalowa Wola, Krakow, and Katowice (Niklinska and Ma~yanski, 1988~. 6 lo' y - 4 ~5 o ._ 4 a) 2 C' o Stalowa Wola Krakow Katowice : ' ~ Beet Carrot Parsley FIGURE 14 Concentration of cadmium in vegetables from Stalowa Wola, Krakow, and Katowice (Niklinska and Ma~yanslci, 1988~.

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HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 213 located in Upper Silesia are underestimated. Clearly, additional research Is needed to obtain data which uphill be more accurate on regional and countrywide scales. REFERENCES Blidy, J., P. Kolodzie~yk, S. Godzik, and B. Cisek. 1983. Yield of apple crops from trees treated with water suspension of non-toxic dusts. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa Ser C Biul Inf 1-3:155-156. Cofala, J., and W. Bojarski. 1988. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emissions resulting of energetic utilization of fuels the case of Poland. Archiwum Ochrony Srodowiska 3/4 (in press). Commitee for Plant Protection. 1986. Assumption concerning developments of science in the field of plant protection till the year 2000 and in the subsequent years. Postepy Nauk Rolniczych 2-3/86:293-300 (in Polish). Czembor, H., J. Jakubiec, B. Kubicki, E. Nalborczyk, S. Starycki, and K. Swierzynski. 1986. The main trends in development of plant physiology, genetics and breeding till the year 2000 and in subsequent years. Postepy Nauk Rolnicych 2-3186: 179-196 (in Polish). Godzik, S., and S.V. Krupa. 1982. Effects of sulfur dioxide on the growth and yield of agricultural and horticultural crops. Pp. 246-265 in Effects of Gaseous Air Pollution in Agriculture and Horticulture, hI.H. Unsworth and D.P.Ormrod, eds. Butterworth, London. Grodzinska, K, B. Godzik, and S.Szarek. 1987. Vegetables and soil contamination by heavy metals in allotment gardens in Krakow agglomeration (S.Poland). Bull. Poll Acad. Sci. Biol. Sci. 35:111-122. GUS (Glowny Unlead Statystyczny [Main Statistical Officers. 1984. Regional Documents. Areas of Ecological Hazard (AEH) in Poland. Warszawa. GUS. 1986. Statistical yearbook 1986. Warszawa. Juda? J., M. Nowicki, and W. Jaworski. 1980. Expert opinion on air pollution in Poland in the year 1978, as cited in GUS Environmental Protection and Water Management. Statistical Data. Warszawa (in Polish). Karczman, T., and B.Cimander. 1988. State and trends in air pollution in the Katowice region. Presentation at 2nd International Conference on Health and Environmental Pollution. Zabrze. To be published in Archiwum Ochrony Srodowiska. Karweta, S. 1980. Effects of air pollution on soil and plant contamination by heavy metals in Upper Silesian industrial region. Pp. 314-325 in the Proceedings of the Conference on Erects of Air Pollution on the Environment. Naczelna Organizacja Techniczna, Warszawa. Kassenberg, A. 1982. Areas of ecological hazards new planning category. Kosmos 35:153-160 (in Polish). Kucharski, R., E. Marchwinska, and J. Gzyl. 1984. A method for evaluation of vegetable crops in areas of increased emission of pollutants. Roczniki PHI 35:221-232 (in Polish). Marchwinska, E., and R. Kucharski 1986. Thresholds for agriculture and horticulture in industrial areas. Kosmos 35:125-132 (in Polish). National Program of Natural Environment Protection till the Year 2010 Project. Ministry for Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. Warsaw 1988 (in Polish). Niklinska, M., and Marianski. 1988. Heavy metals in vegetable crops. Aura 4/88:20-22 (in Polish). Roberts, T.M. 1984. Long-term effects of sulfur dioxide on crops: Analysis of dose/response relations. Phil. Itans. R. Soc. London B 305:299-316. Rutkowski, ~ 1986. Intends in development of agriculture and forest science Postepy Nauk Rolniczych 2-3/86:35-56 (in Polish).

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214 ECOLOGICAL RISKS Schoenbeck, H. 1968. Die Anwendung van Testpflanzenmethode, eine Modifikation des Sorauschen Fangpflanzenverfahrens zum Nachweis van Pflanzenschaedigenden Immis- sionen. Pp. 313-325 in the Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Effects of Air Pollution on Forests," Katowice 1968. Szalonek, I., and M. Warteresiewicz. 1966a. Effects of industrial pollutants on some vegetables. Biuletyn ZEN GOP PAN 8:59-74 (in Polish). Szalonek, I., and M. Warteresiewicz. 1966b. Growth and yield of potatos and industrial air pollution. Biuletyn ZBN GOP PAN 8:59-74,75-84 (in Polish). Warteresiewicz, M. 1979. Effects of air pollution by SO2 and same plant species in Upper Silesian industrial region. Archiwum Ochrony Srodowiska 7:95-166 (in Polish). Warteresiewicz, M. 1987. Growth and yield of some agricultural crops around large sources of air pollutants. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Environmental Engineering, internal report. Zabrze. Warteresiewicz, M., and I. Szalonek. 1972. Untersuchungen ueber die Schacden an Kul- turpflanzen in der Naehe eines metalurgischen Kombinates. Pp. 201-218 in Effects of Air Pollution on Forests. VII International Symposium of Forest Fume Damage Experts. Whitmore, M.E. 1985. Erects of SO2 and NOR on plant growth. Pp. 281-295 in Sulfur Dioxide and Vegetation, WE. Winner, H.A. Mooney, and R.A. Goldstein, eds. Stanford: Stanford University Press.