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Distribution and Movement of Selected Elements in Poland Using Pine Needle Analysis BOGUSLAW A. MOLSKI WO]CIECH DMUCHOWSKI Botanical Garden Polish Academy of Sciences Poland is under strong air pollution stress from industrial sauces in both Western and Eastern Europe. In addition, since Poland's primary source of energy is coal, pollution generated within the country is also a serious problem. Because of this, the Botanical Garden of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) began research in 1975 on problems of air pollution impacts on vegetation. The first stage, from 1975 to 1980, was in the area of methods development research. Scots pme needles (Pinus sylvesms L.) were chosen as the best bioindicator of pollutant impact on vegetation because Scots pine grows everywhere in the country (except in high mountains) and pollutant accumulation in needles occurs. The method development research was conducted in the Bialowieza Forest District, representing the cleanest place in Poland, and in Panewnik Forest District near Katowice, a location with the highest level of pollution in the country. Studies have been performed in these areas for several years. Pine needles were collected every second month and analyzed for all major elements, including such pollutants as sulfur, fluorine, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, and zinc. It has been found that the best time to collect samples is the winter months. In addition, the range of basic elements in clean and heavily polluted areas was determined (Figure 1~. The greatest changes were in the content of polluting elements such as lead, zinc, sulfur, fluorine, cadmium, chromium, and iron (300% to 600% increases). Only manganese concentration decreased by 50% in comparison to the control area (Bytnerowicz et al., 1980, 1981/1982, 1983/1984; Dmuchowski et al., 1981/1982; Molski and Dmuchowski, 1985, 1986; Dmuchowski and Molski, 1986~. In 1981, a survey of the entire territory of Poland was initiated. The 215

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216 o/o 600 50 40 300 200 100 ECOLOGICAL RISKS ._. ~._.._. ~ . ~11111~11 1 ] ~ rnntcr~l area ~ P K S ~~ ~ ~~ F GNU FIGURE 1 Chemical composition of pine needles in a fairly clean area (Bialowieza Forest) shown as a LOOM line and in a heavily polluted area as percent of the content of the clean area. The content of each element is shown in three columns: the first represents current growth; the second represents previous year's growth, and the third represents a third year's growth. country was divided into 8 x 8 km grids, and about 300 squares were selected by random sampling for sample collection. A single pine needle sample was representative of an area of about 1,200 km2. The Warsaw voivodship (district) was surveyed in more detail, i.e., one sample repre- sented only 70 km2. After elemental analyses were completed, maps of Poland and the Warsaw district were developed using a computer program (Molski et al., 1987~. Maps have been completed showing distribution of nine pollutant elements in Poland and in the Warsaw district: sulfur, chromium, arsenic, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel. Maps for an additional six elements are in preparation: fluoride, phosphorus, ni- trogen, manganese, calcium, and potassium. The following sections discuss the importance and distribution of selected elements. SAMPLING RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Sulfur Sulfur is an essential macronutrient which is required by plants in relatively large amounts. Sulfur is normally absorbed from soils in the form of sulfate as well as from the air as SO2. Sulfur as a macronutrient has an optimum concentration, and deficiencies or excesses can be deleterious for plant growth. Extensive studies conducted by the PAN Botanical Garden have identi- fied the normal, physiological requirement of sulfur for pine needles (fin us

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HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT Sutp~r content ~ Dine needles in ppm A 650 1300 1~0 217 500 000 1500 2000 2500 =0 Sppm BPercentage of the nor mat spur contend in pine needles . 100 150 200 Four different zones of air pollution in Polond . ~ 400 % C id_ Sppm 1 150 I[200III 250 1v /o DLevel of toxic ty of sulphur content in pine needles non tonic ~ ~toxic E Approximate relation to supper content . . . In air <20-25 25 40 60 > 60 SO2 ~/m3 FIGURE 2 Relationship between total sulfur content in pine needles in ppm and as normal or exceeded levels in percentage, as well as possible levels related to its toxicity to trees. Levels of total sulfur content in pine needles can be used to distinguish zones of air pollution impact on vegetation. In Poland, four different zones were differentiated and approximate SO2 content in air in micrograms per cubic meter are indicated. sylvestris L.~. The relationship between sulfur content in pine needles in their second year of growth is shown at normal or excessive levels in Fig- ure 2. A comparison is made of four distinct zones of air pollution in Poland and approximate SO2 content in air in micrograms per cubic meter. These data indicate a relationship between the expected and experimentally determined level of toxic effects and the sulfur content in pine needles. Sulfur concentration of 650 ppm (0.065~) in second-year pine needles is a minimum for growth; below that amount, there can be a deficiency. Therefore, 650 ppm can be considered a "normal" level of sulfur, and presented as 100% of its content. Elevated content up to 1,300 ppm (or 0.13%) can be considered a "luxury" concentration, i.e., not needed but also not toxic. Levels greater than 1,300 ppm can be considered phyto-toxic (Linzon et al., 1979~. Investigations published by Gasch and Wentzel (1981) on sulfur fractions in spruce needles showed that organic sulfur occurs at levels of 500-800 ppm, so that the excess sulfur is in inorganic fractions. A sulfur level of 3,000 ppm (0.3~) for pine needles in the second year of growth is critical, as above that level the tissue dies. All pine trees (R sylvestns) with sulfur content greater than 1,300 ppm may exhibit symptoms of toxicity, but 3,000 ppm generally results

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. 218 ECOLOGICAL RISKS ma / ~ .: ~ _ __ V. owe L -1 OCR for page 215
HUA4N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 219 ~~..' ~ 1 <'0.090%S i._.' A'. .. [' '] 0.~%~ 01~/~:_~'~ A ~ ' t~//~1 0.121%~ 0150%S ~ .i ~~ ;~' @ - ~ 0.150 % S FIGURE 3b Sulfur content in second-year pine needles in Ubmaw district (% in dry matter). different authors. All pine needles collected throughout Europe, regardless of the intensity or time, show that in areas of extensive forest damage, sulfur content is above 1,500 ppm, while in areas remote from industrial centers, sulfur content is about 650-900 ppm. In areas near large industrial centers, sulfur content is about 1,200 ppm (Molski and Dmuchowski, 1986~. Able 2 presents sulfur deposition in accordance with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and with the estimations of the PAN Botanical Garden. Sulfur deposition in different zones is consistent with the estimates of the authors, although higher than the estimates of EMEP (Table 2~. The number of zones presented by EMEP and in research conducted at the Botanical Garden are the same, be., four. There is also agreement with regard to the distribution of these zones in Poland, although the size of the zones are different. According to EMEP, sulfur deposition in Poland ranges from 15 to 120 kg per hectare, or 0.15-1.2 kg per k=2. These calculations would put total deposition in Poland at approximately 1,632 million tons of sulfur (or

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220 ECOLOGICAL RISKS . ~ . , ~ ~ l ;77 . U.15U o.os /o - 0.120 % S ~3 0.~% ~ 0.150 % S i,///// ~1 0.151% - 0.200% S . ~ l . ~ , . + . ~ . + . ~ /, , . , / l _ _ _ E _ - FIGURE 3c Sulfur content in second-year pine needles around a steel mill in Warsaw (as percentage). In this area, each sample represents about 5 km2. 3.2 million tons of SON. However, according to estimates of the PAN Botanical Garden, sulfur deposition is higher from 20 kg per hectare in the cleanest zone to 200 kg in the most polluted zone Cable 2~. Estimates suggest that total deposition of sulfur in Poland would be 2,562 million tons (or 5.1 million tons of SON. Figure 4 represents a schematic illustration of dry (SO2) and wet (H2SO4) deposition of sulfur in different areas of Poland. In the Katowice and Krakow districts, dry deposition of sulfur is much higher than wet deposition with precipitation, primarily due to heavy pollution transported from the German Democratic Republic and from Czechoslovakia, where large industrial centers are located near the Polish border. In the Warsaw district, which is located in the center of Poland, day deposition is less than in southern Poland (expressed in total amount as well as in percentage).

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HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT TABLE 1 Content of sulfur (in %) in leaves or needles of trees collected in contaminated and uncontaminated areas according to different authors. 221 PLANT SPECIES PLACE OF OR TYPES COLLECTION PRESUMED CONTAMI- UNCONTAMI- ATED NATED AREA AREA REFERENCES Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Punts sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus strobes Pinus nigra Picea abies Picea abies industrial region industrial region industrial region uncontaminated industrial region uncontaminated power station fertilizer plant power plant industrial region uncontaminated industrial region industrial region Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea abies Picea glauca Picea pungens populous trem~loides Betula papyrifera industrial region Tilia cordata industrial region Tilia cordata urban Platanus urban acerifolia Quercus robur Quercus robur Betula verrucosa Populus nigra Prunus serotina uncontaminated uncontaminated uncontaminated uncontaminated uncontaminated uncontaminated industrial region . . . . . ~naustnat region chemical plant chemical plant chemical plant chemical plant 0.06 0.09 0.12-0.13 0.03-0.09 0.08-0.17 0.1 1-0.18 0.29 0.14 0.07 0.09-0.13 0.17 0.08-0.18 0.02-0.06 0.03-0.08 0.04-0.25 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16-0.22 0.10-0.24 0.13 0.16 0.22 0.07 0.10-0.17 0.13-0.24 0.35 0.08-0.19 0.12-0.26 0.19-0.34 0.1 1-0.22 0.16-0.36 0.33 0.17-0.64 0.20-0.58 0.23 0.29 0.42 0.13 0.1 8-0.72 0.34-1.06 0.76-1.01 0.10-0.37 Hut~nen et al. 1979/1980 Grodz;inska 1977 Palvik 1965, cite Bengton et al. 1977 Matema 1978 Themlitz 1960 Linzon et al. 1979 Boratyaski 1983 Borowiec 1983 Karwata et al. 1987 Linzon et al. 1979 Linzon et al. 1979 Matema 1978 Palvik 1965, cit. Bengton et al. 1977 Stefan 1968 Thomas et al. 1965 Guderian 1970 Linzon et al. 1979 Linzon et al. 1979 Linzon et al. 1979 Linzon et al. 1979 Linzon et al. 1979 Karkanis 1976 Chmielewski et al. 1985 Chmielewski et al. 1985 Karkanis 1976 Bytnerowicz et al. 1980 Bymerowicz et al. 1980 Bytnerowicz et al. 1980 Bymerowicz et al. 1980 Wet deposition is less in total amount but is similar in percentage. In the Suwalki district, which is considered the cleanest part of Poland, the fraction of wet deposition from long-range transport is larger; however, the total amount of sulfur is much smaller. Dry deposition, mainly from local sources, is much smaller in this region than in other parts of Poland. Cadmium Cadmium is one of the most dangerous pollutants for humans and all mammals. It is dangerous in any quantity above background in foodstuffs, which is considered to be approximately 0.05 to 0.5 ppm. However, there is very often a much higher cadmium content in plants, and 5 ppm is

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222 ECOLOGICAL RISKS TABI"E 2 Sulfur deposition from air pollution in Poland according to EMEP data and estimates frown the Botanical Garden (BG) of the Polish Academy of Sciences according to zones of pollution. ~ . . SULFUR SULFUR SULFUR DEPOSITION AREA OF DEPOSITION CONTENT ~cgJlan2fyear) ZONE ('c 1,000 tonsfyear) OF PINE according to (thousands according to ZONE NEEDLES EMEP BG of km2) EMEP BG I < 900 1,500 2,000 18 27 36 II 901-1,200 3,000 4,000 149 447 596 m 1,201-1,500 6000 10,000 101 606 1,010 IV > 1500 12,000 20,000 46 552 920 TOTAL ---- ---- ---- 314 1,632 2,562 . . EM EP 120 100 0 a) ._ _ t~0 ~ 80 a) 60 id, 40 it' ' 20 BGPAS ~~20- 200 kg S per year \\\\\\\~-100 kg S per year Katowice Warsaw area area Suwalki area FIGURE 4 Schematic illustration of dry (S02) and wet (H2SO4) deposition of sulfur in different parts of Poland. Estimate was calculated based on EMEP reports and data collected by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Poland, as well on as authors' studies and calculations.

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HU~1N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT / ~ :~~ ..i n ,.:.: ,.L I 1<0.30ppmCd ~ 1 0.31-060ppm Cd V//1 O. 61- O. 90 ppm Cd 111111111 0. 91-1.20 ppm Cd lIIIIIln 1. 21- 2.40 ppm Cd _' 2.40 ppm Cd At.. ., , ~ ,^ . .W I_ ,~ at\ it' ~,;.e :' i. `. . _._ i 223 - FIGURE Sa Cadmium oontent in second-year pine needles (~? sylvesms) in Poland in ppm in dry matter. considered an excessively toxic amount. Since cadmium is a poison which accumulates in the kidneys and livers of mammals, there are restrictive controls on the use of cadmium and on cadmium levels in food. Cadmium primarily enters the terrestrial environment through use of phosphate fertilizers in agricultural areas and from emissions of the mining and metal industries, especially as a by-product of zinc refinement. Cadmium content in pine needles in Poland is shown in Figure Sa. There are very few samples where cadmium content exceeds 2 ppm, and most samples have cadmium contents below O.S ppm. The only area where the cadmium level in pine needles is higher is the traditional metal mining and refining area of Poland, where such activities have occurred for several hundred years. Excess cadmium content in pine needles follows the area of zinc contamination, where zinc content is about 100-200 ppm. Figure Sb represents cadmium content in pine needles in the Warsaw

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224 ECOLOGICAL RISKS ..~., , ,r..~) At. ; I '.% ,.,.1 \~' (. %' \~e ._e ~ 1 1~0.30ppm Cd `-.j ~ be. bier <7 ~ 0.31- 0. 60 ppm Cd ~ ~ ' 'as I~//A 0.61-0.90 ppm Cd ~- 1111111111 > 0.90 pp m Cd A .;\ Hi :: :1, ~ \~ ~ , ? )- ^. . _. _ FIGURE Sb Cadmium content in second-year pine needles in the Wa maw district in ppm in dry matter. district. Here there is a very small area where cadmium content exceeds 0.5 ppm. However, in spite of the industrial center in Warsaw, there is practically no contamination by cadmium in this area. Lead Lead is a common pollutant and is usually found locally near mines and metal industries, as well as along roads and highways from the com- bustion of leaded fuel. Unlike cadmium, lead is not mobile in soils or in plants; therefore, it is not generally toxic to plants, except under certain conditions. Even in cases of very large concentrations of lead in localized plant environments, or even associated in or on plants, there are few re- ports of lead-induced toxic effects on plants grown in natural ecosystems that have been severely impacted with lead (Koeppe, 1981~. Studies performed in 1974 by Bazzaz et al. (cited in Koeppe, 1981) reported that leaf lead concentrations of 193 micrograms per gram of dry

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HUA{4N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENYIRONMENT 225 weight reduced photosynthesis in sunflowers by 50%. Rolfe and Bazzaz (1975) found no effect of lead on photosynthesis or transpiration of loblolly pine (Pinus medal or autumn olive (EIaeagnus umbellata) at tissue concen- trations below 60 and 72 micrograms per gram of dry weight. At these concentrations (60 and 72 Agog), photosynthesis was reduced in Pinus taeda by 11% and in Elaeag~us umbellata by 17%. In other studies carried out by Bazzaz et al., there was a strong correlation between lead-effected decreases in photosynthesis and decreases in rates of transpiration. The decrease in rates of whole-plant photosynthesis may be due to induced closure of stom- ata rather than to a direct effect on the process of photosynthesis residing directly within the chloroplasts (Koeppe, 1981~. While lead may not be very toxic to the plant itself, its concentrations may be very deleterious to human health. Under certain soil conditions with low pH, low organic matter levels, and low phosphorus levels, large quantities of lead can be taken up by roots of higher plants. However, lead absorbed by roots generally has no toxic effect on plants, except at extremely high root media concentrations that have little relevance to natural conditions. Movement of lead in Dowering plants has been demonstrated through roots, but not from lead particles deposited on leaf surfaces. Lead deposits on leaves have little effect on gas exchange, but are of considerable importance to grazing herbivores. Quite possibly the most important effect of lead associated with plant leaves is in food chains where plants act as passive lead carriers (Koeppe, 1981~. The normal lead content of plants ranges from 2 to 10 ppm; concentra- tions of 30 to 300 ppm is considered toxic (Kabata-Pendias and Piotrowska, 1984~. In Poland, lead content in pine needles is very low, with a back- ground level below 10 ppm. Levels exceed 10 ppm in only a few locations, and only in one very small area do levels exceed 30 ppm. Figure 6a shows lead concentration in pine needles in Poland. A similar situation exists in the Warsaw district (Figure 6b). Zinc Zinc is an essential- micronutrient needed by all organisms as a con- stituent of many metaloenymes and of several proteins. Zinc appears to play a role in the synthesis of auxin. Plants with an inadequate supply of zinc display symptoms that derive mainly from a lack of cell elongation (Raven and Johnson, 1986~. In addition, zinc is regarded as an essential element in human nutrition, and deficiency effects include growth failure and impairment in wound healing (Underwood, 1971~. It would seem, therefore, that zinc deficiency is likely to be more significant than its ex- cess (Bevan et al., 1975~. For example, zinc at higher concentrations is moderately toxic to plants, but only slightly toxic to mammals.

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226 ECOLOGICAL RISItS / ~ A, i ~ '\ . . 3 . i ~ . .... . ~ '-. ~ C) ' I.'\ ) ~ t' i. '10~m Pb ''^- ~ ~ r F:- ;:311-20ppmPb ',.i-` ,~_._._.~ '` E/~] 21-30 ppm Pb ~ ~ '- `. ~ `.= ml11111~30 ppm Pb FIGURE 6a Lead content in second-year pine needles hi? ~ylvestris) in Poland in ppm in dry matter. However, different authors are not consistent in establishing toxicity concentrations for plants. For example, Kabata-Pendias and Pendias (1979) consider zinc content in plants to be toxic between lOO and 400 ppm, with normal levels ranging from 20 to lOO ppm in uncontaminated areas. In this study, the background concentration of zinc found in pine needles was below 70 ppm. A slightly higher concentration (from 70 to lOO ppm) was found in the southern, industrialized part of Poland, and around Szczecin, Gdansk, and other areas in the northern lake area (Figure 7a). High concentrations of zinc in pine needles (above lOO ppm) were found only in the area of Katowice and Krakow, which is an area traditionally characterized by the metal industry. Zinc appears to be a pollutant from local sources and is rarely associated with lonp-ran~e tran~nort The. mans J ~ ''a I- .~r~ ~ 44~~ 4~ ~ . . ~ of zinc content In pine needles of Poland (Figure 7a) and the district of Warsaw (Figure 7b) support this assumption. In coniferous trees, zinc content ranges from 13 to 80 ppm (Ahrens, 1964). Materna (1978) achieved similar results with spruce. Angiosperm

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HUAf4N EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT i--- ~~ -'at ! \---' ~ ('. .~_. ~ ' ~ ..... ,-_. I lo 10ppm Pb 1` :~: J 11- 20 ppm Pb 17~21-30ppmPb Sillily 30 ppm Pb 227 ; ' ; .; ... \\ : ~'''-'"'''2 ~ . _ - ! ~ . . , I ; . t ) FIGURE 6b Lead content in second-year pine needles in the Warsaw distnc in ppm in dry matter. trees may have higher concentrations of zinc, i.e., from 31 to 467 ppm (Baule and Pricker, 1967). However, it seems that higher concentrations could be found in contaminated areas. Samples with higher zinc content (above 130 ppm) are very few, less than 30 in Poland as a whole and less than five in the Warsaw district. CONCLUSION Chemical analysis of pine needles and pollutant content transported by air allow the production of maps which document air pollution impact on vegetation. These maps can be produced on differentlevels: for a large region, e.g., Poland (312,000 km2), where one pine needle sample was collected per 1,200 km2; for a voivodship (district), e.g., Warsaw (approm- mately 3,800 km2), where one sample was collected per 70 ^2; and for a specific site, e.g., the area around the steel mill in Warsaw (approximately 500 km2), where one sample was collected per 5 km2.

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228 ECOLOGICAL RISKS If> ~ ~ ~ -^ _~ ~~ (,- li-'.~.:~? ". '~ I''''\;. `. o ~ Q !  f.~,~,: ~ ''. r 1< 70ppm Zn A':: 1 ~ -I .1 71 -100ppm Zn K///1101-130 ppm Zn flllllll 1> 130 ppm Z n Aft. .' _.) .;.' FIGURE 7a Zinc content in second-year pine needles hi? ~ylvest~is) in Poland in ppm in dry matter. Maps of sulfur deposition (dry and wet), as well as of lead, cadmium, zinc, and other elements and their accumulation in pine needles illustrate quantitatively the load of these pollutants in different parts of Poland. Sulfur deposition in Poland is very high, with more than 50% of the country above toxic levels for conifers. Cadmium content in pine needles is rather low (below 2 ppm). The only area in Poland where the cadmium level in pine needles is higher is the traditional area for metals mining and refining. Lead content is low (below 10 ppm); only a few localities exceed 10 ppm, and only one very small area exceeds 30 ppm. Zinc content is rather low; only in the area of an old zinc industry does the content of zinc in pine needles exceed 100 ppm. The results presented in this chapter provide a basis for further re- search in the area of air pollution impacts on vegetation. There is also a need for further development of the foliar chemical analysis method. First, it would be very important to compare the pollutant content in pine needles with the direct measurement of these pollutants in the air. Second, it would

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HIDDEN EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENF7RONMENT 229 ! t. `-3 ,1 .,- ~_` .. ~ ~ . -;: ~ . . [ 1< 70ppm Zn '2` '2` 6'~'' 171-100ppmZn ' [~/~] 101 -130 pp m Zn a_ ;,, jililill~ 130 ppm Zn ,. . .. ; . .._, .~. 1 if. ) _.` . FIGURE 7b Zinc content in second-year pine needles in the `maw district in ppm in dry matter. be useful to compare pine needle maps used in Poland with maps based on chemical analysis of mosses used in Scandinavian countries tie., Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland). Development of this method would detect direct relationships between pine needle pollutant content and the content of these element in agricultural crops and other tree species. All of these approaches have been initiated at the PAN Botanical Garden. REFERENCES Ahrens, E. 1964. Untersuchungen uber den Gehalt van Blattern und Nadaln verschiedener Baumarten an Kupfer, Zinc, Bor, MolyWan und Mangan. AFJZ 135:1,8-16. Baule, H., and C. Fricker, 1973. Nawozenie drzew lesnych. PWRiL, Wa~awa, p. 315. Bevan, R.T., et al. 1975. Report of a collaborative study on certain elements in air, soil, plants, animals, and humans in the SwansealNeath/Port lblbot area, together with a report on a Moss Bag study of atmospheric pollution across South Wales, pp. 1-264.

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230 ECOLOGICAL RISKS Borowiec, S., and Z. Zablocki. 1983. Zawartosc fluoru i siarki w mchach i szpilkach sosny pospolitej jako wskaznik skazenia srodowiska lesnego przez Zaklady Chemiczne "Police". Pp. 351-354 in Materialy II Krajowego Sympozjum "Reakcje biologiczne dnew na zanieczyszczenia przemyslowe," R. Siwecki, ed. Kornik 16-19 maja 1984. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama hIickiewicza, Poznan. Bytnerowicz, A., W. Dmuchowski, and B. Molski. 1980. The air pollution accumulation capabilities of some tree species in the vicinity of the chemical plant in Torun. Rocznik Dendrologiczny 33:15-28. Bytnerowicz, ~, W. Dmuchowski, and B. Molski. 1981/1982. The effect of needle hamest time, age of needles, and age of Scots pine (Pinus silvesms L.) trees on the accumulation of total sulfur. Rocznik Dendrologiczny 34:5168. Bytnerowicz, A., W. Dmuchowski, and B. Molski. 1983/1984. Fluorine content of Scots pine needles in the presence of long-term low fluorine air pollution. Influence of forest site, time of sample collection, trees age, and needle age. Rocznik Dendrologiczny 35:9-14. Chmielewski, W., W. Dmuchowski, and B. Molski. 1985. Trees in the city as sinks for air pollution: Field study with the use of portable lysimeters conducted in Warsaw. Pp. 103-109 in the Proceedings of the Symposium on Creation and Protection of Verdure in the Urbanized Landscape, J. Supuka, ed. Nitra, July 24, 1984. Veda, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Dmuchowski, W., A. Bytnerowicz, and B. Molski. 1981/1982. The influence of the boreal site on the accumulation of total sulfur in pine needles. Rocznik Dendrologiczny 34:69-77. Dmuchowski, W., B. Molski. 1985. The influence of the forest site and needle age on the processes of sulfur, fluorine, and some chosen metals accumulation in Scots pine needles on highly polluted and control areas. Proceedings of the IUFRO Air Pollution Symposium, XIII International Meeting of Specialists in Air Pollution Damages in Forests, Most (CSRS), August 27-September 1, 1984. Grodzinska, K. 1977. Changes in the forest environment in southern Poland as a result of steel mill emissions. Vegetation Science and Environmental Protection. Tokyo: Maruzen Co. Ltd. Grodzinska, K 1980. Mchy i kora drzew jako-czule wskazniki skazenia srodowiska gazami i pylami przemyslowymi. Referat przedstawiony na sesji naukowej Ocena przydatnosci i perspektywy ujednolicenia testow i reakcji stosowanych w szacowaniu skazenia srodowiska, PAN, Wroclaw, November 14-15, 1980. Grodzinska, K, and B. Godzik. 1985. Skazenie metalami ciezkimi gleb i warzyw w ogrodach dzialkowych krakowskiej aglomeracji miejskiej. Pp. 41-44 in Materialy z III Krajowej Konferencji "Wplyw zanieczyszczen pierwiastkami sladowymi na przyrodnicze warunki rolnictwa," Pulawy May 28-30, 1985, cz II. Guderian, R. 1970. Quantitative relations between the sulfur content of plants and the sulfur dioxide content of the air. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz 77:200-220 (abstract). Huttunen, S., K. Laine, and H. Tormalehto. 1979. The stress effects of air pollution on conifers. Symposium on the Effects of Air-Borne Po!lution on Vegetation. KomisJa Ekonomiczna dla Europy, ONZ, Warszawa, pp. 216-218. Huttunen, S., L. Karenlampi, K. Laine, S. Soikkeli, T. Pakonen, and M. Karhu. 1980. Dispersion and effects of air pollutants in forest environments. Symposium on the Effects of Air Pollution on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Oulu, Finland. Kabata-Pendias, A., and H. Pendias. 1979. Pierwiastki sladowe w srorowisku naturalnym. Wydwanictwa Geologiczne, Warszawa. Kabata-Pendias, A., and M. Piotrowska. 1984. Zanieczyszczenie gleb i roslin uprawnych pierwiastkami sladowymi, CBR - opracowanie problemowe, Warszawa, p. 28. Karakanis, M. 1976. Obieg siarki w ekosystemie lesnym Tilio-Carpinetum (gradu niskiego) w polnocnej czesci Puszc~y Niepolomickiej kolo Ispiny. Fragmenta Floristica et Geob- otanica 22:351-363.

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