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River Water Quality Assessment and Management in Poland MAREK J. GROMIEC Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Warsaw BACKGROUND: WATER RESOURCES AND WATER DEMANDS Poland is 312,520 km2 in area, and its total water surface covers S,000 km2 or 1.6% of the total area of the country. Poland has about 9,300 lakes, covering an area of 3,200 km2. For example, the Masurian Lake District has 1,063 lakes, the largest of which have areas of about 11,000 hectares. Lakes and artificial reservoirs have a capacity of 33 km3, and a large number of ponds hold an additional 1 And. The two most important rivers in the country are the Oder River, which has a basin area of 110,000 km2, and the Vistula River, with a basin area of 194,000 km2. The water balance during a normal annual cycle in Poland is presented below. The average annual amount of rainfall is 597 mm, equivalent to 186.6 km3 of water per year over the whole country. Since tributaries from outside Poland yield an additional 5.2 km3 of water annually, the total input of water is 191.8 km3. Underground water resources have been estimated at 33 km3 per year for an area of 272,520 lane, since the remaining 13% of the total area is waterless. The annual dynamic underground water resources have been evaluated at 9.2 km3. However, rivers and streams discharge only about 58.6 km3 of water into the Baltic Sea during a mean low-flow year, and about 34 km3 in a mean dry-weather year. Obviously, only a portion of this volume is available. About 10 km3 is necessary as a minimum flow to maintain biological life and for sanitary reasons. Therefore, the available flow is only 24 km3 of water. Poland belongs to the group of European countries most deficient in water resources, ranking 22nd overall. Average annual water resources in Poland estimated on the basis of atmospheric inputs and the number of population amount to 1,800 km3 per inhabitant, compared with 2,800 km3 315

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316 30 25 ~ 20 cry co of x c~S 1 5 a' a) Cal 10 5 o ECOLOGICAL RISKS Available Water Supply ',i~ OCR for page 315
IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS LEGISLATION ANI) AI)MINISTRATIVE ASPECTS 317 Poland has a sixW-year history of legislation for water pollution control. The Water Quality Act was issued in 1922 and revised in 1962. Presently, the basis for legal action in the field of water protection against pollution is a new version of the Water Law Act issued by the Polish Parliament in 1974. In 1975, on the basis of the Water Law, the Council of Ministers announced regulations concerning classification of waters and determination of of effluent standards, as well as financial penalties for the effluent discharges that do not meet the requirements specified in the regulations. These regulations are set up for biological oxidation demand (BOD), chemical oxidation demand (COD), ether extracts, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), various metals. and pesticides. The following classes of surface water quality were established: Class I waters are those used for municipal and food processing supply purposes, and for salmon fish growth. Class I! waters are intended for use as recreational waters, including swimming, and for growth of fish other than salmonidae. Class III waters (the lowest class) are only used as industrial water supplies and for irrigation purposes. Water-quality standards are tailored to meet appropriate use of surface waters. For example, permissible concentrations of selected constituents for the different classes are shown in Able 1. In addition, the following provisions are laid down by the Water Law: . Industrial plants and other operations which discharge wastewaters to water or to land are obliged to construct, maintain, and utilize wastewater treatment facilities. Without simultaneous operation of wastewater treatment systems, no industrial plant or any other plant from which wastewater is discharged can be started up. . A permit is required to to maintain wastewater discharge. In order to promote administrative measures for overall conservation of the environment, a Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natu- ral Resources was established with environmental offices on a voivodship (district) level. WATER-QUALITY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM The water~uality surveillance system is composed of conventional and automatic monitoring stations. The conventional monitoring with manual sampling at the district level was established in 1957. At present, the country is covered by a network of about 3,000 conventional stations and

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318 ECOLOGICAL RISKS TABLE 1 Examples of permissible concentrations of selected pollutants in surface freshwater according to the Polish Water Law. WATER CLASS PARAMETER UNIT I II III - DO mg O/dm3 6 5 4 BOD5 mg O2/dm3 4 8 12 COD mgO2/dm3 40 60 100 Saprobic index oligo to betamezo to alfamezo betamezo alfamezo Chlorides mg Cl/dm3 250 300 400 Sulphates mg SO4/dm3 150 250 250 Hardness mval/dm3 7 11 14 Dissolved solids mg/dm3 500 1000 1200 Suspended solids mg/dm3 20 30 50 Temperature C 22 26 26 N-NH4 mg NNH4/dm3 1.0 3.0 6.0 N-NO3 mg NNO3/dm3 1.5 7.0 15 N-organic mg Norg/dm3 1.0 2.0 10 Total iron mgFe/dm3 1.0 1.5 2.0 Manganese mg Mn/dm3 0.1 0.3 0.8 Phosphates mg PO4/dm3 0.2 0.5 1.0 Cyanides mg CN/dm3 0.01 0.02 0.05 Phenols mg/dm3 0.005 0.02 0.05 Lead mg Pb/dm3 0.1 0.1 0.1 Mercury mg Hg/dm3 0.001 0.005 0.01 Copper mg Cu/dm3 0.01 0.1 0.2 Zinc mg Zn/dm3 0.01 0.1 0.2 Cadmium mg Cd/dm3 0.005 0.03 0.1 Chromium mg Cr/dm3 0.05 0.1 0.1 TOTAL HEAVY 3 METALS mg/dm 1.0 1.0 1.0

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IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 319 established cross-sections located along 30,000 km of streams. The sampling frequency depends on the purpose for which data are recorded, ranging from a minimum of bimonthly sampling up to daily sampling at some points. The sampling of water is performed simultaneously with the rate of flow measurements. For the continuous monitoring of the Oder and Vistula, the automatic water-quali~ monitoring stations (AWQMS) have been installed at impor- tant cross-sections, connected mostly with water intakes. The AWQMS are located either in laboratory buildings or on barges. The automatic network, one of the first in Europe, has been operating since 1968. It was organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO)), and initially was based on imported monitoring equipment. At present, do- mestic automatic monitors (Aquamers) are being used. These monitors are capable of measurement and teletransmission of such parameters as water temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorides, turbidity, water level, and meteorological data. Additional parameters will be added after suitable sensors are developed. However, it should be stressed that the scarcity of automatically mea- surable parameters limits the efficient application of AWQMS. The devel- opment of automatic measuring devices for other important parameters such as heavy metals, organo-chlorine compounds, oxidized nitrogen, solu- ble organic content, and others is greatly needed. At present, the automatic stations are also used for manual bioassay tests and fish tests. The future surveillance development program calls for the Basic Water-Quality Moni- toring Network (BWQMN) based on a limited number of stations (with ex- tensive measurements) as supplementary to the conventional water-qualibr surveillance system (Zielinski et al., 1988~. COMPUTERIZED DATA ANALYSIS The river monitoring network provides a large number of observed data. These data are analyzed by a statistical method based on the as- sumption that, at a given cross-section, some correlation exists between the pollutant concentration and the rate of flow (Manczak, 1973~. Three basic types of curves representing this correlation are applied (Figure 2~. The shape of the curve depends on many factors, such as the degree of water pollution, the type of pollutant, hydrological characteristics of the river, its self-purification capacity, the distance between monitoring stations, and others. Figure 3 provides an example of the correlations between BOD, permanganate value (PV), dissolved oxygen (DO), and phenols for the Oder River at one of the monitoring stations. These relationships have been derived from about 300 observations within a year, with temperatures ranging from 0.1C to 27C. Inorganic compounds, such as chlorides and

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320 a d 1 l I Type I Color heavily polluted rivers id, y = a + b lo\ Y = x + d + b b Pollution source Cal - - o m ECOLOGICAL RISKS Type II l Type lil C for clean rivers C ~ for intermediately y = ax + b ~ polluted rivers ~ W~ as_ _ . Q [BOD5 curves along the river course BOD5 at Q1 BOD5 at Q2 1 Distance, km 2 Q ID c. ~ O ID _ , 10- ar~ ~ ~ _ Q BOD5 curves in cross-sections o m ~- _ _, 1 _ Q 1 Q1 Flow, m3/sec Q2 Q2 FIGURE 2 Relationship between concentration of pollutants and rate of flow (Manczak and Florczyk, 1971~. sulfates, are usually described by correlations defined by curves I and II in Figure 2; the effect of temperature is not included (Figure 4~. From these relationships between stream flow and concentrations of water-quality constituents, so-called indicative concentrations (IC) for a design flow are established. The mean low streamflow (MLQ) has been selected as the design streamflow at each site, based on the assumption that higher streamflows will result in higher DO concentrations and better water quality. In other countries, a similar approach has been taken. For example, in the United States the design flow is the minimum average 7-day consecutive flow expected once every lO years. However, this is an extremely low streamflow which is exceeded more than 99% of the time. The IC values are plotted along the river for various water~uali~ constituents. Final interpretation is based on these hydrochemical pro- files (Figure 5), and the overall river classification is performed after all

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IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 70 60 E 50 E 40 o to 20 10 14 E 12 - E 10 cry 8 6 > o 4 v' .o to--C~~a t8~2 0,472 y .!L~6,2 r, r' 71. < 0.001 r,~C.~.a.5 r,~. 0.370 ej 0.001 I,~ 1 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Flow, m3/sec ~~ ~ \ ~ o.ee6 . \yll.,$.Cellar- r .-O.790 ~ < 0.0CI 1 1 1 ~ 1 1 1 _ 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 ~ . . \ ,.,.-o.ese \a!3'C 1'~.47.e / ~ O. 433 / D<0.001 50 ' 100 150 200 Flow, m3/sec 6 cv) tO-O-C' ~ ~ r~ 342 $oct, 4 j ' ' ~ ,) . I,, ,,, . ,,,~o.~: OCR for page 315
322 ECOLOGICAL RISKS .~nn I _ ~ 200 _ - ~n a) . _ 100 s 1 200 c~ ~ 1 000 co . _ o a) > 800 600 400 o .m ~ 200 ~ . `,r 1~ L . ,~~ .~\.~. / .~_ . / ~ '~ ~e,26~ y. 2 ,; 9 +37 /r,, ~ O.9i3 / c~ 0.00t `'~ - :.sr.~.~ 1 1 ! ~ ! 1 ~ _ 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Flow, m3/sec 1 l y.6 83~2CI _ .3 ' /~: y ~ o. sc~ ' ~,;,` / a OCR for page 315
IMPACTS ON' AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 323 cl053 1 r TOSS 1 I,,,,,,. t1055 ~ QO10 01X 1,00 1nD ~D lCO ~ ~ ~ 3= 3~ FIGURE 6 Overall river classification system in Poland (CSO' 1988.) the first class always corresponds to 75 points, with the respective values for second and third class always corresponding to 50 and 25 points. Addi- tionally, the water-quality standards established by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) were used; therefore, five-point curves were obtained and corresponding mathematical functions were proposed for 31 water-quality parameters. A harmonic mean index was selected with the form: WQI = ( n ~ ) :Ei=l ~ in which WQI = water-quality index, a number between 0 and 100; n = number of the set of data; xi = the standardized value of the ith water-quality parameter.

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324 ECOLOG CAL RISKS a] The River Vistula system structure P,U~?0,~' 7! ,' ~ Smolice ~ ~ ~ At, ~ Niepolom~ce , ~ P) 2~, 9 (Y 10 Jo) L E G E N O Water gouging station (named t 3. ,~ter quality measurement < - water intake I _~Elementary reach No 2 ~ Wastew~ter discharge ('') 2Mild 10,7 km long ~ River Yistula tributary | 107 | Node No Ill at Significantly polluted river Vistula tributary b ~ Comparision of simu(otion results row 8 , 20- 10 __Puslyni a station Niepolomice stat ion , .. Streeter Phelps type model ; :~ 4UAL-I model L']`') 2 C"') 3 (is) 4 (v) 5 ~v') 6 6~11) 7 (v',\ ,~ 6,l~q Lied,) Distance FIGURE 7 Companson between BOD simulation results obtained by application of simple Streeter-Phelps type model and QUAL-I to a section of the Vistula River (Adamcyk et al., 1978~. This index is being used for the Vistula River basin. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION AND MANAGEMENT MODELS Mathematical modeling of river systems in Poland has become an integral part of water resources planning and water-quality management. These models can be used to aid water-quality surveillance and to predict future water-quantity/quality conditions (Gromiec et al., 1983~. Various computerized models have been applied for water-quality simulations in the Oder and Vistula rivers. As an example, a Streeter-Phelps type model

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IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 325 ~ C ~ C r~ _ - : _ ~ ,= o c ~ O 0 0 E D C a ~ ~ O c ~ 3 ~ ~ J 3 ~ 3 ~, c C~ ~_7 ~ o 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 ~ 59 ~ 57 ~ 55 ~ 53 52 51 50 49 4S 41 46 45 44 Distance in km 120 _ 100 _ E ~ _ ~ ~ _ 40 _ 20 _ O _ 6000 C" - 4000 v7 ~ 3c~ - ooo 6m _ 500 _ E 400 _ 300 _ cu - 200 _ ~0 _ ~_ o 1SO _ 150 _ 1~ _ 90 _ 60 _ 30 _ C _ 250 glm3 3rd Uass slandord , 100 1lf ~ 111 SOg/m3 3rd lass standatd _ 12gim 3 3 rd 42 a~SS standard ~ 1 ~ 1 1~ ~ 1 ; - 40091m3 3rd C1QSS star~dard 930 I ! I I I i I 1i! 1 I n 0& ~. I ~A ~ ~ _ _ ! _ ~1 ~ m l _ . 380 1 l 1 1 2BO L1 43 _ 1 1 FIGURE 8 Hydrochemical profile of Klodnica River in 1980 (EPAC, 1979~.

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326 ECOLOGICAL RISKS and QUAL I model were used to evaluate concentrations of BOD in the Vistula River reaches (Figure 7~. The first model is designed to simulate the spatial and temporal variations in BOD under various conditions of flow and temperature. The second model is capable of routing BOD, DO, and temperature through a one-dimensional, completely mixed branching river system. These BOD-DO models are representative of non-conservation coupled models. It should be stressed that the predictions obtained from these models are only as reliable as the input data, proper measurement, and estimation of the various model parameters. In addition to prediction of water quality by simulation, mathematical models have been serving as the basis for determination of investment policies in the construction of treatment plants. For example, a water- quality management model has been applied to the Klodnica River. The main goal was to determine, for the given system of wastewater treatment plants, the level of efficiency necessary to achieve the required standard of water quality at the least cost. The quality of the Klodnica River catchment at the respective stages of the management program is shown in Figures 8-10. It should be stressed, however, that these management models are only tools in assisting management decision-making processes. Final decisions are usually not made only on the basis of their predictions. Additional data, including socio-political factors, are taken into account. Still, in spite of their limitations, these models are the only reasonable means presently available for the prediction of water quality. WATER-QUALITY MANAGEMENT SUMMARY Processes of intensive urbanization, growth of population, intensifica- tion of agriculture, and the growth of industry have resulted in deterioration of surface water resources, despite the introduction of legal, technical, and financial measures for water pollution control (see Chapter 22, this vol- ume). About 80% of wastewater comes from 600 cities and 2,800 industrial sites, with chemical, machinery, mining, power, food, and paper production industries as the main polluters. Currently, only about 60% of all wastew- ater is treated. Recognizing that water is a valuable resource, a Central Program on Water Resource Management was instituted in 1985 at the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The problem of water pollution control has become one of the most important environmental problems in Poland, since the majority of industry is situated in the south near the origins of the countries river systems. In addition, the main rivers the Vistula and Oder are heavily used for municipal and industrial water supply, agricultural irrigation, cooling purposes for power plants, and navigation; however, these rivers also

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IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS c" E? _. a,, ~ .~1 1 . r :~1l ~ , IL1, , , , !~ , I I j 6e 6a 67 ~ 65 64 63 62 61 Do ss se s7 se ss 5` 53 s2 51 sc 49 48 47 46 ~s 44 Dlstonce ir~ k~ L" O 4 , _ _ _ O 6=r 0~ 2000 - 1 sm E 4Oo ~ 3~30 c~ ~ 100 O 120 m ~ ~0 60 40 20 O _. .= C~ 2' ~-d ~ U~ ..~_.,.~ i.. 327 ~r ~ _r C, ~ C~ =, ~ =' i,~ ~ ~_ - C . ~ E C1 ~ .a '' :~ c~ ~ l~r~ 1111 11 l t2~/m3 3rd ' CIa~ St:!,dGrd Ei1ai~ - ~ , ,, 1 ;400qlm3 3rd | Class standard 710i ;~, ,~ ~_~ ~ t160 1 ~ 1 1 ~ l :~ I 12SO9![n3 3rd I Cln~; StC~!l1 FIGURE 9 Hydrochemical profile of Klodnica River in 1985 (EPAC, 1979). ~ L 1350 t 3&D , __ ~- __

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328 ECOLOo CAL RISKS receive discharges of wastewater with varying degrees of treatment and runoffs. These multiple uses impose competing demands on waters, and water resource management must protect many desirable uses. The principal water~uality problems in Poland are related to: effects of dams and other water management slouches resulting from phenomena associated with impounded water; effects of power plants, since the discharge of heat from cooling operations is considered to be a specific pollutant; effects of municipal and industrial wastewater, including saline dis- charges from coal mines; and influence of non-point sources, such as agriculture and urban stormwaters. . However, a regulatory program for nonpoint sources and groundwater has not been instituted to date. Research and implementation activities in water-quality management in Poland have been connected with international cooperation. Protection of the Baltic Sea was agreed upon in the 1974 Helsinki Convention, and Poland is taking steps to implement its provisions. A number of interna- tional development and demonstration projects sponsored by the United Nations also have been undertaken. One of these is the Comprehensive Environmental Programme (POL/CEP) conducted under the auspices of the the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Upper Sile- sia. This program is aimed at the solution to problems of air, water, and soil pollution in this heavily industrialized and highly polluted region of Poland. In addition, the M. Sklodowska-Curie Joint Fund II was estab- lished by the governments of Poland and the United States to support a wide range of scientific and technological cooperation in various fields, including environmental protection. CONCLUSION On the whole, Poland is a water-poor country, where various conflicts over water resource use and development are on the rise. Water resources are unevenly distributed among different parts of the country, water supplies now appear inadequate in quantity and quality, and demand grows in many regions. Existing policies in Poland do not adequately protect water quality, with the result of serious deterioration in water quality. The negative consequences of this fact are borne by all water users. A number of constraints make traditional policies less effective than in the past. Present policies are based on the concept of regional management. In addition, many traditional strategies for solving water-quality problems, such as

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IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS h 5 4 - 3 o 2 1 O o~ =) aa ~r 50~)0i .- j^~ cr - - 30GG - ~00 ~o 600 1 bU SC 10 1 329 CSf =:' . ,3 Wf~ ~_ ___~ 351 Q70 ,3 ~ 3 ,' .~ -' 39~: ~ ! I I ~ : I I I I l , l l I !! I I | I 11 t tI ~1 1 ~ 69 68 s7 66 es 64 63 62 61 50 ss 5a 57 56 S5 54 53 52 51 ~` 49 ~ 47 46 45 44 Cistonce in km -c & a .~ c a ~, _ ~ C L 8 ~c ~ ~ .~ 1, r ~ 3td ! I ! Cluss stendsrd _ r ~_, t~ 74 1 1~ 7 o 40Qgin,3 3rd i " '' Class stondard , tr930 ~ ~590 ~520 11 ~=~!: ,:~lD ~ r 1 l I ~ 4111 ~' ! ~ 1~ ~ ~ ~1 ~ . . i `aat 25Dqlm33~] 2 300 ~ ' i l [lass stc,nda l 1 1 , ~ _ ' - . ~ ~ 1 - ~ _ ~_ 1 ~uc ~L~ I ~ I ~1 ~.~ FIGURE 10 Hydrochemical profile of Klodnica River in 1990 (EPAC, 1979).

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330 ECOLOGICAL RISKS downstream pollution control, are extremely costly. The National Program for Protection of the Natural Environment to the Year 2010 calls for water pollution control investments of between 4,000 billion zlotys (variant A) to 2,590 billion zlotys (variant B) in 1986 constant prices. In view of this commitment, river basin oriented approaches, water conservation and pollution prevention approaches, and the restructuring of industry are clearly needed to assure use of the most cost-effective solutions to water resource problems in Poland. Water~uality improve- ment programs should be aimed at improvement of treatment methods, implementation of advanced treatment processes, recovery and water reuse in industry, and encouraging the production of biodegradable detergents and pesticides along with use of dry technologies. Systems analysis is an extremely useful tool for the analysis of river systems and for providing information on the effect of particular policies. REFERENCES Adamczyk, Z., et al. 1978. A simple mathematical model of quantitative and qualitative process occurring in the stream channel for water distribution control. Proceedings of the Baden Symposium on Modelling of Water Quality of the Hydrological Cycle, IAHS-AISH, Pub. 125. Central Statistical Office (CSO). 1988. Environmental Protection and Water Management. Warsaw (in Polish). Environmental Pollution Abatement Centre (EPAC3. 19 79. Environmental Protection. UNDP/WHO Project POL}RCE-001-F~nal Report. Kafowice: Slask Publishing Com- pany. Gromiec, MJ. 1983. Biochemical oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen: River models. In Application of Ecological Modelling in Environmental Management, Part A, S.E. Jorgensen, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Gromiec, MJ., P.D. Loucks, and G.l: Orlob. 1983. Stream quality modeling in Mathe- matical Modeling of Water Quality Streams, Lakes, and Reservoirs, G.T. Orlob, ed. Chichester-New York-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore: John Wiley and Sons. Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. 1987. Surface water~uality classification by use of Water-Quality Index. Paper presented at Meeting of General Method- ological Problems in Environmental Statistics. Statistical Commission and Economic Commission for Europe. June 2-5, Warsaw, Poland. Manczak, H. 1969. The course of self-purification process of canalized highly polluted rivers. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Water Pollution Research, S.H. Jenkins, ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Manczak, H. 1973. Statistical method for estimation of water-quality monitoring data and hydro-chemical profiles of rivers. United Nations Econ. Soc. Council, CES/SEM.6/ENV./ SEM. 1. Manczak, H., and H. Florczyk. 1971. Interpretation of results from the studies of pollution of surface flowing waters. Water Research 5:575-584. Oleszkiewicz, J.A., and ~ Oleszkiewicz. 1978. Water pollution control in Poland. Env. Protection Engineering 4(1~:2748. Zielinski, J., et al. 1988. State monitoring of surface flowing waters. Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw (in Polish).