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Diagnosis of Environmental Protection Problems in Poland ANDRZE] T. KASSENBERG Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences The natural environment defines the potential for each country's devel- opment; however, it also creates barriers and restrictions to that develop- ment. Studies of the state of the environment provide a basis for long-term development plans when they recognize this dual role. Such studies aim at gathering information on environmental conditions and the processes at work; evaluating the backlog in environmental protection activities; and presenting the consequences of a situation in ecological, social, and eco- nomic terms, ultimately addressing the whole issue in the form of a spatial synthesis. Such diagnostic studies require a comprehensive approach that takes into account the existing relationship between environmental factors and socioeconomic development. This can be approached from four viewpoints (Kassenberg and Rolewicz, 1985~: . Effectiveness, i.e., the conservation as well as the rational use of resources and environmental"goods"; · Consequences, i.e., social, economic, and ecological profits and losses related to the state of the environment; · Hazards, i.e., the results of a scale of development which are potentially harmful to social and economic activities; · Safeguards, i.e., the application of suitable measures to protect or reconstruct a degraded environment. In Poland, the first studies of this type were undertaken at the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s by the Institute of Geography of Jagiellonian University and by the Committee for Protection of Nature and Natural Resources of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Brykowicz and Waksmundzki, 1972; Leszczynski, 1974~. In the first study, the extent of 355

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356 ECOLOGICAL RISKS the concentration of harmful phenomena in one voivodship (administrative district) of Poland was determined on the basis of qualitative and quantita- tive analysis of distortions and damage in the environment. However, due to lack of information for the whole country, it was impossible to apply the methods broadly. Furthermore, it did not address the relationships among the source of pollution, the state of the environment, and proposed protection and recultivation efforts. Parallel with previous studies, pre-plan spatial diagnoses of the state of environmental protection in Poland were undertaken by the Planning Commission of the Council of Ministers. Four generations of studies were carried out: the 1970 and 1975 versions were highly simplified, while the 1980 and 1985 versions constituted full-scale assessments. In principle, the studies were designed to develop a spatial synthesis through the diagnosis of individual environmental problems. Though some differences resulted from their specific character, each of these studies followed the sequence: analysis of the state of the environment; type and features of sources of environmental threat; effectiveness of protection and recultivation efforts; volume and type of pollution emissions; consequences of pollution for the economy, society, and nature. The following four fundamental environmental issues were studied in par- ticular detail and will be discussed in subsequent sections: · air quality; · water quality; · condition of land; and · conservation of nature. AIR QUALITY Maintaining the purity of air is a crucial problem in Poland, as air quality has been deteriorating year by year. In 1975, the area of measured air quality exceeding Polish pollution standards was 8,400 km2; by 1980, this area had grown by 27% and continues to grow, albeit at a slower rate due to decreased industrial production. It is estimated that almost 20% of Poland's population lives in these areas. Inhabitants of the Katowice district in southern Poland are the most exposed to these hazards in terms of both the concentration and range of excessive pollutants. The number of people threatened to varying degrees by the impact of air pollution on human health is approaching 3 million. Gaseous air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide, is the most serious problem. In about two-thirds of the countIy's area, the yearly average

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ENVIRONMENT AGE ME CASE STUDIES 357 of SO2 concentration exceeds 20 ~g/m3 a level which may cause first- degree damage to coniferous forests. This high concentration of SO2 is paralleled by deposition of 8 tons of sulfur compounds yearly on each square kilometer of land in Poland. In 10% of the area, the level exceeds 50 t/km2 (Kassenberg and Rolewicz, 1985~. Apart from SO2, the most dangerous air pollutants are: particulates, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide (commonly occur- ring, high concentrations); · lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury (quite common, highly toxic, and durable in the environment); and carcinogenic hydrocarbons (commonly occurring, particularly dan- gerous to health). Extremely high concentrations of air pollution containing such compounds as carbon disulfide, fluorine, and heavy metal dusts occur in localized sites which are often near chemical and non-ferrous metallurgy plants. Estimates of total emissions of major air pollutants in Poland in the period 1985-1987 are shown in Table 1. According to the table, emissions of pollution from harmful sources included in 1987 official statistics amount to 1.8 million metric tons of particulates and 5.4 million metric tons of gases. Of the particulate emissions, 22% occurred in the Katowice district, 7% in Jelenia Gora, 6% in Krakow, and 5% each in Konin and Warsaw. Of the gaseous emissions, 28% occurred in Katowice, 11% in Krakow, 6% in Piortrkow ~ybunalski, 5% each in Legnica and Jelenia Gora, and 4% in Tarnobrzeg. Increasing pollution is of concern particularly in districts regarded as "clean" and having great touristic and recreational value, such as the districts of Bialystok, Koszalin, Krosno, Lomza, Ostroleka, and Zamosc. Most sources of air pollution in Poland are concentrated in a few dozen cities and localities. The largest is a cluster of eight towns in the Upper Silesian industrial district (i.e., Dabrowa, Gornicza, Jaworzno, Laziska Gorne, ~zebinia, Chorzow, Bedzin, and Bytom). Other polluted areas include Krakow, Bogatynia, Konin, Warsaw, Rybnik, Polaniec, Ostroleka, Plock, Kedzierzyn-Kozle, Skawina, and Oswiecim. Statistics for 1987 show that of 1,342 industrial plants emitting particulates, 89% have facilities for pollution reduction, but only 211 of these (i.e., 16~o) reduce pollution satisfactorily (i.e., minimum of 90% reduction). With regard to gaseous pollution, of 1,362 industrial plants, 91% have no purifying facilities and only 17 plants (i.e., 1.2%) have produced satisfactory results (i.e., minimum 50% reduction) (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. The state of air quality in Poland is also influenced by pollution coming from other countries, so-called transboundary air pollution. Although there is an approximate balance between the import and export of pollution to and

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358 ECOLOGICAL RISKS TABLE 1 Emissions of air pollutants in Poland, 1985-1987 (in thousands of metric tons per year). EMISSION SOURCES PARTICULATES SO_ NOX GASES CO Hydrocarbons TOTAL 2,980 4,200 1,530 3,770 510 Power stations 865 2,050 410 70 Industrial treat stations 100 730 215 Industrial technologies 1,380 390 District heating and commercial/ 400 1,680 205 residential 630 930 145 1,270 200 Motor vehicles 5 100 360 750 100 SOURCE: Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Warsaw, 1988. TABLE 2 Water quality in Poland, 1964-1986 (as percentages). Classes of 1964 - 1971 - 1978- Required water purity 1967 1973 1983 1986 Purim* Class I 31.6 23.4 6.8 4.2 53.0 ClassII 25.6 32.2 27.9 26.7 40.0 Class III 14.0 18.0 29.0 27.3 7.0 Below any standards 28.8 26.4 36.3 41.3 * According to classification made in view of present or planned utilization of water (M. Roman) SOURCE: Main Statistical Office, Warsaw, 1988,1989. from Poland as a whole, the environmental situation in border regions of the German Democratic Republic and Czechoslovakia is very unfavorable for Poland (see Chapter 23, this volume). Pollution coming from the west has a great impact on the degradation of forests in the Sudety area. Prevailing southwesterly winds bring pollution from the Karvina-Ostrava region of Czechoslovakia to the Rybnik coal district and the Upper Silesian industrial district.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES WATER QUALITY 359 Water purity in Poland is a problem that parallels air pollution. When comparing the present situation with that of 20 years ago, one can notice a continuous deteriorating trend. For example, the amount of river water of highest quality has decreased dramatically from 32% to 5%. Over the same period, the amount of river water which is not useful for any purpose grew from 29% to 42% (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. This is illustrated in Table 2; for detailed descriptions of classes of water purity, see Chapter 19 (this volume). Many rivers consist of water that cannot be used along their entire lengths, e.g., Bzura, Krzna, and Ner. Apart from these, the most polluted large rivers are the Brda, Bobr, Bug, Drweca, Ina, Kamienna, Kwisa, Liwiec, Mala Panew, Notec, Nysa Luzycka, Oder, Prosna, Slawa Prawa, Vistula, Warta, Widawa, Wieryca, and Wkra. In the upper parts of the Vistula and Oder drainage areas, excessive salinization of water as the result of mining operations is a serious problem, amounting to 6-7,000 metric tons per day. Salt concentrations exceeding by several times permitted values can be found in the Olza, Ruda, Bierawka, Klodnica, Ilownica, Przemsza, and other rivers, but particularly in long stretches of the Vistula and Oder. A similar problem exists with respect to lake purity. Out of 500 large lakes, about 300 have been endangered as a result of pollution, mainly municipal and agricultural wastes (Chapter 17, this volume). The~ largest number of degraded lakes occur in the districts of Koszalin, Olsztyn, Slupsk, SuwaLki, and Szczecin. Unfortunately, included among them are some of the Great Masurian Lakes, e.g., Mikolajskie, Niegocin, and ~l~r. The fundamental reason that surface-water quality has deteriorated so greatly in Poland is that these waters are ve~y convenient waste receivers. The growing volume of liquid wastes being discharged into rivers has not been addressed by the construction of additional sewage treatment plants. In addition, the operation and functioning of e~sting plants is for the most part inefficient and could benefit from systemic improvements. In 1987, the annual volume of industrial and municipal liquid wastes requiring purification was 4.5 billion m3, including 2.6 billion m3 of industrial wastes. Almost 62% were treated in some way, but only 50% with highly effective chemical and biological methods. Of the 4,732 industrial plants with high impact on water resource management in Poland, more than 2,900 plants discharge their liquid wastes directly into surface water. Of these, almost 16% have no treatment facilities and another 9% have treatment plants with insufficient capacity. More than 1,800 remaining plants discharge their liquid wastes directly into municipal sewers.

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360 ECOLOGICAL RISKS Of the 818 cities in Poland, only 436 have sewage treatment plants, and of these, only 60% are capable of providing adequate mechanical- biological treatment of the wastewaters delivered to the plants. Many of these existing plants have insufficient capacities. In addition, there are many district capitals which do not have municipal sewage treatment plants, e.g., Warsaw, Bialystok, Elblag, Kalisz, Lodz, Radom, and Rzeszow. In the Lodz district, no single town has a municipal sewage treatment plant (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. The pollution of the Baltic Sea, which has recently shown a growing trend, has international as well as regional and national significance. Into of Poland's largest rivers the Vistula and Oder—carry enormous quantities of organic and toxic pollution into the Baltic. This causes marked changes in the chemical composition of the sea water, particularly reduced oxygen content in the bottom water. Hydrogen sulfide occurs periodically and causes the disappearance of life in the most polluted areas, i.e., the Bays of Gdansk and Puck, the Vistula Lagoon, the Pomeranian Bay, and the Szczecin Lagoon. Some of the pollution comes from towns and industrial plants located in coastal areas that discharge their liquid wastes directly into the sea. The purity of sea water is also much affected by the ships calling at Polish ports. Bacteriological pollution of the coastal zone has caused the closing of practically all beaches on the Gdansk and Puck Bays as well as on the Vistula and Szczecin Lagoons. Also, some beaches have been closed in the central seaside areas of Kolobrzeg, Dzwiryno, Ustka, and Leba. CONDITION OF LAND Degradation of land in Poland resulting from intensive mining oper- ations is another serious problem. Such degraded areas occur mainly in the mining regions of Upper Silesia, Legnica and Glogow, Tarnobrzeg, Konin, ~roszow, Kielce, Chelm, and Belchatow. It should be stressed that current recultivation operations proceed too slowly. In 1987, only 4,273 hectares were recultivated, whereas the area where mining operations were completed covered 100,000 hectares (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. Erosion and the subsequent acquisition of steppe characteristics cause the deterioration of productive qualities of soil. The area threatened or already damaged by erosion in Poland is estimated to be 2 million hectares. The intensity of the process is illustrated by fact that land with about 10% slope loses a layer of 5 mm of soil per year. Erosion is most hazardous to the districts of Zamosc, Lublin, Bydgoszcz, Krakow, Chelm, lbrun, Wroclaw, and Zielona Gora. Areas at risk of becoming steppes cover about 5 million hectares, including 0.6 million hectares of critically threatened land located mainly in central Poland.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 361 Another problem connected with land surface protection is incorrect management of industrial and municipal wastes. At the end of 1988, industrial plants producing over 1,000 tons of environmentally harmful waste accumulated over 1.5 billion tons of waste (2.5 times more than in 1975) in an area of over 10,600 hectares. Almost 90% of the wastes were collected in the ten districts of Katowice, Legnica, Walbrzych, Krakow, Kielce, Tarnobrzeg, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz, and Konin. The current situation regarding the re-use of industrial wastes in connection with their production is not satisfactory. Of the 186 million tons of industrial waste produced in 1988, only 106 million tons were utilized for economic purposes, i.e., approximately 57%. The sources of collection and production of industrial wastes are concentrated in about a dozen towns, particularly five towns in the Upper Silesian industrial district (Gliwice, Piekary Slaskie, Knurow, Ruda Slaska, Zabrze), as well as in PoLkowice, Jastrzebie-Zdroj, Walbrzych, Lubin, Krakow, Wodzislaw Slaski, and Rybnik (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. Municipal wastes are also hazardous to the environment. In 1987, the total accumulated municipal wastes for Poland was almost 46 million m3. The largest concentrations of municipal wastes are in big cities, especially in Katowice, Lodz, and Warsaw. Municipal wastes are generally not utilized. The unsanitary condition and location of most dumping grounds are very hazardous to the environment. Composting and burning of wastes are practically unheard of in Poland. Under such circumstances, a growing quantity of waste is stored in forests, water reservoirs, and streams, making recreation impossible. Also, municipal dumping grounds pose a problem as they are operated without any regulation of their location, use, or capacity. They are usually small in size (up to 0.5 hectares), are unenclosed, and lack preventive measures against spread of pollution. CONSERVATION OF NATURE Forests perform a special role in the environment in addition to serving tourism and recreation purposes. The forested area in Poland is 8.7 million hectares, almost 28% of the total surface. Forests are not evenly distributed over Poland's area; the index of afforestation ranges from 11.9% in the Plock district to 48.3% in the Zielona Gora district. Limited variety in the types of timber stands is a problem. There are vast areas of coniferous monocultures, which are less immune to many biotic, abiotic, and man- made stress factors. Monoculture and even-aged coniferous timber stands often lead to degradation of habitat quality for wildlife and recreational uses. A majority of Polish forests are young; the average age of state-owned forests is 49 years. The shortage of timber stands aged 80 and above is

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362 ECOLOGICAL RISKS estimated at 0.7 million hectares, which means that the required increase in such timber stands is 70%. The sanitary and health situation of forests is the fundamental problem in forest management. About two-thirds of the forested area is in zones of permanent or periodic hazard by harmful insects, parasitic fungi, emissions of air pollutants, or unfavorable weather conditions. At present, the area of standing timber damaged as a result of air pollution is estimated to be almost 800,000 hectares, i.e., over 9% of Polish forests. The threat of damage to forests affects as much as 75% of the country's area. The process of deforestation has begun in Poland, primarily in the Katowice district where almost 100% of the forests have been damaged and where there are frequent cases of deforested land. Similar areas exist in the Izery and Karkonosze Mountains. Apart from Katowice, areas where a substantial share of forests are damaged are the districts of Lodz (42%), Krakow (41%), Jelenia Gora (40%), Tarnobrzeg and Legnica (28% each), Bielsko, Czestochowa, and Minnow (26% each), and Wroclaw (23%~. This great threat from air pollution is due to the structure of industry, outdated technologies, lack of gas-purifying facilities, high concentration of emission sources, location of plants close to forests, and the predominance of species sensitive to toxic gases and particulates (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. In addition, the following factors have an impact on the sanitary condition of forests: · overpopulation of game in relation to ecological capacity, resulting in damages to an area of 140,000 hectares annually; · forest fires, as 30% of Poland's forested area is in the highest class of fire hazard; and · weather conditions, particularly winds and heavy snowfalls as well as freezing temperatures (Kassenberg and Rolewicz, 1985~. Apart from forest protection, which is a crucial issue of environmental protection in Poland, attention should also be focused on the larger issue of nature and landscape protection. Legally protected areas in Poland are divided into four distinct categories, which are listed below in order of the stringency of the regulations which govern them: · national parks; nature reserves; landscape parks; and areas of protected landscape. These protected areas have been continually expanding and at the end of 1988 amounted to almost 4.5 million hectares, i.e., over 14% of the country's total area. The largest share of these areas occurs in the following districts: Przemysl (50%), Bialystok and Gorzow (39%), Konin

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 363 (36%), Skierniewice (33%), Chelm (32%), Krosno (29%), and Zielona Gora (28%). The ultimate goal for such protected areas is to cover 30-40% of the area in Poland (Main Statistical Office, 1988). Among natural resources subject to conservation protection, national parks are the most important. There are 14 national parks in Poland covering a total area of 127,000 hectares, including over 70% of Polish forests. National parks in Poland are characterized by a large variety of bioconeoses, types of plants and animals, as well as forms of landscape. These parks cover about 0.4% of the country's total area, which is a relatively low proportion in comparison with other countries. For instance, in Czechoslovakia national parks cover 1.25% of the country's area; in Sweden, Z41%; in Great Bntain, 5.38%; and in Japan, 6.4%. Another important form of conservation protection are namre reserves, which are areas where nature as a whole or an individual element (e.g., groups of plants or animals or fragments of landscape) are under protection. At present, there are almost 1,000 nature reserves in Poland covering over 114,000 hectares, i.e., about 0.3% of the counters surface. Most of these nature reserves provide forest and floristic protection; there are only a few nature reserves for the non-living environment (e.g., land forms and geological phenomena). Protection of water complexes is also insufficient. The average area for nature reserves in Poland (i.e., about 115 hectares) is among the smallest in Europe in Czechoslovakia, it is 140 hectares; in Holland, 145 hectares; and in the FRG, 290 hectares. This relative lack of nature resenes has a negative effect on environmental quality, as does the lack of adequate areas of national parks mentioned above. There are also two distinct categories of landscape protection. First, landscape parks are protected areas because of their extraordinary envi- ronmental, aesthetic, or touristic value. There are 43 landscape parks in Poland, covering over 1,000,000 hectares, i.e., 3% of the country's area. The goal is to increase this proportion to 4% in the future. The second category includes areas of protected landscape, which provide potential areas for tourism and recreation. The goal is for such areas to cover at least 20-30% of the country in the future and be developed into an intercon- nected system based on natural conditions. By the end of 1987, areas of protected landscape approved by resolutions of district councils covered over 3 million hectares, i.e., 10% of the country's area (Main Statistical Of- fice, 1988~. Recognition of elements of nature as valuable and unique also plays a significant role in nature protection and enrichment of landscape values. Almost 17,000 objects have been designated as natural monuments in Poland. However, each form of protection mentioned above is greatly threat- ened by development of industry, expansion of cities, mining, intensification of agriculture and forestry, expanded motor traffic, and tourism. The extent

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364 ECOLOGICAL RISKS of hazards to individual national parks differs, but there is no national park free of the negative effects of human activity (Chapter 14, this volume). Among the most threatened parks is the Ojcow National Park near Krakow. Many nature reserves and landscape parks are also located in hazardous zones. Changes occurring in the environment are followed by destruction of flora and fauna. The transformation of vegetation in Poland can be summarized as follows. Only 8% of the country's area has retained its natural character. Another 19%-is made up of areas in the transition stage between the natural environment and an environment changed by human impact. The remaining 73% are areas dominated by economic activities with a visibly changed environment, including 10% of degraded areas (Falinski, 1975~. Many species from Poland's original fauna are dying out or are extinct. Aurochs, tarpans, and saiga antelopes are now extinct; rare and endangered species include bear, elf, wildcat, beaver, mink, marten, vulture, and eagle. Great changes have occurred in quantitative relations and distribution of animals. Excluding introduced and migrating types, there are currently 430 vertebrate species in Poland, of which only 10% are not endangered (Glowacinski et al., 1980~. THE STATE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Poland is not a large country. In fact, it is relatively small in terms of area, although it has a very differentiated natural environment. Every 1,000 km2 iS characterized by different natural conditions. In the north is the Baltic Sea; southward is a stretch of lake districts, followed by a zone of lowlands and then a zone of uplands; and in the extreme south are lower and higher mountains. The 1970s and 1980s have been characterized by increased hazards to the environment. As ecological factors have had no bearing on the strategy of the countryjs development, and efforts for environment protection have had little effect, the condition of the environment has greatly deteriorated. An ecological crisis which annually increases in severity and affects the entire economy as well as every citizen is manifested primarily though: · wasteful exploitation of mineral, water, and forest resources; · rapidly deteriorating conditions in air, water, and soil pollution; · overall degradation of natural potential which threatens further development of agricultural production and forest production, as well as efficient management of water resources; · deterioration of landscape; · increasing contamination of foodstuff;;

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES TABLE 3 Environmental losses in Poland (in millions of zlotys per year). Agnculture Forestry Water resources Corrosion Minerals (due to inefficient extraction) Raw materials (in liquid wastes and air pollutants) Health TOTAL 150,000 50,000 65,000 215,000 130,000 50,000 115,000 775,000 SOURCE: Main Statistical Office, Warsaw, 1988. rapidly increasing hazards to human health; and · general deterioration of living conditions and quality of life. 365 The present condition of the environment contributes to measurable and immeasurable losses. At present, minimum losses due to pollution of the environment are estimated at about 800 billion zlotys, i.e., over 10% of the annual national economic product (Table 3~; however, some experts estimate the losses to be twice as much (Main Statistical Office, 1988~. In accordance with methodological assumptions of this diagnosis, a spatial synthesis of the state of environmental protection has been created. Four categories have been distinguished where conditions are highly unsat- isfactory for a variety of reasons (Kassenberg and Rolewicz' 1985~. These are: · areas of ecological hazard; cities and towns with major sources of pollution which are not located in areas of ecological hazard; ance; · nature and landscape conservation areas with unstable natural bal- · spas endangered with losing their healing values due to unstable natural balance. The first category includes 27 areas where the natural balance has been completely broken, manifested by loss of immunity, elimination systems, as well as intensified hazards to human health. These areas cover about 35,000 k=2 and are inhabited by over one-third of Poland's population. The basic criteria used to distinguish an area of ecological hazard are: · violation of permitted standards or strong degradation (pollution) in at least two environmental aspects; and

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366 ECOLOGICAL RISKS TABLE 4 Characteristics of Areas of Ecological Hazard in Poland. AREAS OF UNIT OF ECOLOGICAL CHARACrERISIIC MEASURE HAZARD POLAND Area size km2 35,220 312,683 share of the country % 11.3 Population (1987) number thousand 13,329 37,664 share of country % 2 354 ~~ population density pop/km 381 120 Source of hazard (1982) a) towns with over 100,000 inhabitants number 28 38 population: total thousand share of country % b) towns with 50-100,000 inhabitants number population: total thousand share of country % 7,674 10,813 71.0 24 42 1,679 2,860 58.7 c) towns with 20-50,000 inhabitants number 29 114 population: total thousand 939 3,537 share of country % 26.5 - - d) towns with under 20,000 inhabitants number 80 611 population: total thousand 710 4,446 share of country % 16.0 ~- e) industrial plants in particularly hazardous branches of industry* number - 1,143 2,607 employment: total thousand 896 1,110 share of country % 80.7 f) industrial plants in particularly hazardous branches of industry** number 4,228 16,072 employment: total thousand 345 1,000 share of country % 34.5 -I (continued...)

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES TABLE 4. Continued - ARELAS OF UNIT OF ECOLOGICAL CHARAc1~;RISIIC MEASURE HAZARD POLAND g) industrial plants in branches of industry with low risk*** number 7,658 19,988 employment: total share of country thousand 1,061 2,364 % 44.9 Municipal and industrial liquid wastes requiring purification (1987) share of country % 3 2 62.4 degree of concentration thousm /km 80.1 14.4 total treated waste % 64.1 61.7 share of waste treated biologically/chemically % 25.6 27.5 Emission of particulate pollution (1987) share of country % 2 76.8 degree of concentration tons/km 39.5 5.8 degree of reduction % 94.7 94.3 Emission of gas pollution (1987) share of country % 2 81.2 degree of concentration tons/km 125.2 17.3 degree of reduction % 13.6 12.4 Degraded soil (1987) share of country % 34.7 Endangered forests (1987) share of country (area) % 64.4 share of country (mass) % 61.7 Industrial wastes (1987) share of total accumulated waste in country % 92.6 degree of generation of 2 accumulated wastes tons/km 38.5 4.7 share of wastes produced % 2 89.5 degree of concentration tons/km 4,598.1 575.6 degree of economic utilization % 54.0 54.4 * fuel, power engineering, metallurgy, chemical ** wood/paper, mineral, food processing *** light, electroengineering, etc. SOURCES: Main Statistical Office, Warsaw, 1986; Kassenberg, 1986. 367

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370 ECOLOGICAL RISKS · multiple violation of permitted standards or very strong degradation (pollution) in one environmental aspect, or violation of permitted standards by a very toxic substance. and Specific characteristics of areas of ecological hazard are presented in Tables 4 and 5 (preceding pages). The data presented show that the selected areas are not homogeneous with respect to the quantity and type of pollution. Taking this into account, they were divided into the following subgroups: areas of ecological disaster (13,783 02, population 6.2 million); areas of extensive pollution (19,400 key, population 6.2 million); areas with serious air pollution (2,037 km2, population 0.5 million). The second category (cities and towns) includes localities apart from the above-mentioned areas which also contain hazardous sources of pollu- tion. They are characterized by pollution of the environment and degrada- tion surpassing the overall character of the region. Sixty such localities are inhabited by about 5 million people. The third category (conservation areas) refers to national and land- scape parks. In these areas, there is decreased natural resistance to envi- ronmental stresses and weakened self-regulating processes due to pollution of water and air, even from distant sources of emission, as well as exces- sive tourist traffic, urbanization pressure, industrialization, and incorrect irrigation procedures. These problems have resulted in the extinction of many less resistant or uncommon types of vegetation and animals. In all of Poland, there are 15 such areas, of which the most endangered na- tional parks are Ojcow, Babia Gora, Karkonosze, Swietokryski, Kampinos, Wielkopolski, and Pieniny. The fourth category (endangered spas) includes 23 spas threatened with the loss of their natural healing values due to incorrect management of water resources and liquid wastes, excessive air pollution, and heavy traffic patterns which alter the local climate. CONCLUSION Based on the diagnosis of the condition of the environment presented here, as well as on efforts undertaken for its protection, four zones can be distinguished in Poland which require different environmental policies (Figure 1, at end of chapter). These are: · Zone I: characterized by geographic integration of areas of eco- logical hazard. These areas require activities to restore natural living conditions, including conduct of appropriate economic activities.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 371 · Zone II: where there exists a potential danger that two coastal areas of ecological hazard may be connected in a continuous land/sea stretch of degraded environment These areas require a reduction of population and use pressure to a level determined by the natural capacity of the area. · Zone III: where there are regional environmental problems con- nected mostly with dispersed areas of ecological hazard. These areas require that natural barriers be overcome through regional development. · Zone IV: a relatively clean environment, without areas of ecological hazard beyond local environmental problems. These areas require efforts to prevent me spread of new pollution, as well as the implementation of appropriate economic development principles in order to maintain the quality of the region. REFERENCES B~ykowicz, K., and K Waksmundzki. 1972. Complete map of degradation and pollution in geographical environment. In Man and knowledge. Weidza Powszechna. Warsaw. Falinski, J. 1975. Anthropogenic transformation of vegetation in Poland. Phytocenosis 4,2. Glowancinski, Z., et al. 1980. State of vertebrates and selected invertebrates in Poland: List of species, their disposal, danger, and protection. Panstowowe Wydawnictwa Naukowe, Warsaw-Krakow. Kassenberg, A. 1986. Areas of ecological hazard: New planning category. Cosmos 1. Kassenberg, A., and C. Rolewicz. 1985. Spatial diagnosis of environmental protection in Poland. Studies of Committee of Spatial Development, Polish Academy of Sciences, volume LXXXIX Panstwowe Wydawnictwa Naukowe, Warsaw. Kozlowski, S. 1985. Ecodevelopment: Concept of development. Man and World Outlook, May 5, p. 232 Leszczynski, S. 1974. Problems of protection of human environment. Geographical Papers 108. Main Statistical Office, Warsaw. 1986. Environmental protection and water economy. Main Statistical Office, Warsaw. 1987. Environmental protection and water economy. Main Statistical Office, Warsaw. 1988. Environmental protection and water economy. Main Statistical Office, Warsaw. 1989. Information about the state, risk, and protection of the environment in 1988. Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 1988. National Program of Environmental Protection Through 2010 (draft). Wa maw.

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372 ECOLOGICAL RISKS _-_, I-_ ~ An-— ~ en ~ ~ - ~ r A- <-~D ~ W ~ nor ~~ Vat ~~00,~ X XV ~~0 jamb ~ ; ~ Ol.~lyn Bit ,fL-l ~\ , :,4t Jo,, ~ ~ 5 b C FIGURE 1 Zones of environmental quality in Poland (Kassenberg, 1986~. ,/ Areas of Ecological Hazard: I = Belchatow; II = Bydgoszcz-Torun; III = Chelm; IV = Czestochowa; V = Gdansk; VI = Upper Silesia; VII = Inowroclaw; VIII = Jelenia Gora; IX = Kielce; X = Konin; XI = Krakow; XII = Legnica Glogow; XIII = Lodz; XIV = Myszkow-Zawiercie; XV = 0pole; XVI = Flock; XVII = Poznan; XVIII =Pulawy; XIX = Rybuik; XX = Szczecin; XXI = Tarnobrzeg; XXII = Tarnow; XXIII = Tomaszow; XXIV = Turoszow; XXV = Walb~zych; XXVI = Wloclawek; XXVII = Wroclaw. 1 Areas of ecological disaster 2a Metropolitan areas with extensive pollution 2b Industrial districts with extensive pollution 2c Mining and energy producing districts with extensive pollution 3 Areas of predominant air pollution 4 (a) total area in km2 (b) population in thousands (c) density persons

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 373 Nature and landscape conservation areas with unstable natural balance: A = Nadmorski Landscape Park; B = Mazurian Landscape Park; C = Wigry National Park; D = Biebrza Wetland (proposed national park); E = W~elkopolksi National Park, F = Gostynin-Wloclawek Landscape Park; G = Kampinos National Park; H = Kazimie~z Landscape Park; I = Karkonosze National Park; J = Jura Landscape Park; K = 0jcow National Park; L = Swietokryski National Park; V = Babia-Gora National Park; M = Tatry National Park; N = Pieniny National Park. 6 Spas in danger of losing their healing values due to unstable natural balance: 1 = Kolobrzeg; 2 = Swinoujscie; 3 = Ciechocinek; 4 = Inowroclaw; 5 = Konstancin- Jeziorna; 6 = Naleczow; 7 = Czerniawa Zdroj; 8 = Swieradow Zdroj; 9 = Cieplice; 10 = Szklarska Poreba; 11 = Sosnowka; 12 = Kowary; 13 = Szczawno Zdroj; 14 = Karpacz; 15 = Jedlina Zdroj; 16 = Kudowa Zdroj; 17 = Duszniki Zdroj; 18 = Polanica Zdroj; 19 = Ladek Zdroj; 20 = Dlugopole Zdroj; 21 = Swoszowice; 22 = W~eliczka; 23 = Rabka. 7 Cities and tow~ w~th major sources of pollution not located in areas of ecological hazard 8 Boundaries of zones of enviromnental quality