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Appendix 2 Summary Memoranda SUMMARY REPORT OF NAS PAN WORKSHOP ON ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION October 1987 A workshop on "Ecological Research and Environmental Protection" was jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the United States and the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN). This was the first workshop held within the framework of the current NAS-PAN interacademy exchange program. Dr. Ellis B. Cowling, Associate Dean for Research at the School of Forest Resources, North Carolina State University, and Prof. Wladyslaw Grodzinski, Head of the Department of Ecosystem Studies, Jagiellonian University, and Director of the PAN Institute of Freshwater Biology, served as workshop co-chairmen. In addition to the workshop sessions, the participants visited a number of relevant governmental organizations and scientific institutes in central and southern Poland. These visits provided opportunities for the U.S. delegation to gain insight into the organization of research activities in the fields of ecology and environmental protection. Field trips included the Nowa Huta Steel Mill, Niepolomice Forest, Dobczyce Reservoir, and various industrial areas in Upper Silesia. During the workshop sessions, the participants presented 22 papers on various topics. The discussion of these papers was so lively and productive that the participants decided to prepare manuscripts for a joint publica- tion entitled "Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States." Participants discussed a variety of proposals for cooperative activities in areas of mutual interest, including workshops, seminars, exchanges of literature, and research projects. 404

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APPENDIX 2 405 Participants developed plans for a reciprocal meeting in the U.S. in the second or third quarter of 1988 to finalize draft texts for the joint publication and to further elaborate cooperative research proposals. The NAS delegation expressed its gratitude to Prof. Grodzinski, the PAN delegation, and staff for making their visit ~ Poland a great success. The support of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund for the workshop was also gratefully acknowledged. For NAS Ellis B. Cowling For PAN Wladyslaw Grodzinski Mogilany9 Poland October 23, 1987

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406 ECOLOGICAL RISKS MEMORANDUM ON THE RESULTS OF THE NAS-PAN WORKSHOPS ON ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ON FURTHER COOPERATION IN THE PROTECTION OF ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES November, 1988 No bilateral workshops were held within the framework of the Mem- orandum of Understanding on Scientific Exchanges between the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN). The first workshop, together with associated visits to organizations and re- search institutions concerned with environmental protection and ecological research, took place in Poland October 11-23, 1987, and the second in the United States November ~19, 1988. The main objective of the two workshops was to discuss research activities in the following fields: Concepts regarding the relationships among ecosystem health, pol- lutant exposure, economic development, and environmental management; Case studies of specific changes in ecosystem health and produc- tivity in relation to air and water pollution stresses; Recommendations for improvement of research and education re- lating to environmental protection policy; Development of cooperative activities directed to the protection of ecological resources. Manuscripts that were presented at the workshops by the Polish and American participants will be published by NAS as an edited volume One hundred copies will be provided to PAN and 100 copies will be distributed by NAS. Arrangements are being explored by which additional copies can be made available through NAS and PAN. The participants considered the workshops and associated visits very important to the development of contacts between Polish and American institutions interested in the specific topics that were discussed. NAS and PAN will encourage research institutions in the two countries to develop cooperative projects involving exchange visits and joint research activities. These projects will be implemented outside the exchange quota provided by the NAS-PAN agreement with the participating research institutions assuming responsibility for financing the projects. These collaborative projects will be designed to complement and not duplicate the many other cooperative activities between American and Polish scientists in related scientific fields. The projects will be consistent

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APPENDIX 2 407 with the objectives of bilateral agreements between the American and Polish Governments in the fields of environmental protection and ecological research. From the initial 19 projects proposed at the first workshop in Poland, five are being implemented under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). An additional seven projects are currently being developed. Among the areas identified by the participants as particularly promising for future cooperation are: Biogeochemical cycles in ecological systems; models of accumula- tion, flows, and budgets of pollutants and important nutrients in ecosystems; Ecological boundaries, functions, and management of landscapes; Methods for assessing ecological risks and their implications for environmental policy and decision making; Systems for monitoring geosphere/biosphere changes across differ- ent time and space scales. The Polish participants expressed their gratitude to the NAS Office of Soviet and Fort European Affairs for the efficient organization of the workshop, particularly the extensive program of associated visits. All participants expressed their appreciation to the Rockefeller Broth- ers Fund and the Ford Foundation for providing financial support for the workshops. The participants were deeply saddened by the death of Academician Wladyslaw Grodzinski during the time of the workshop in Washington. As co-chairman of these NAS-PAN workshops, Ladd provided vital leadership to assure their success. But Ladd's contribution was much more profound, giving inspiration to us all through his intellectual creativity, his spirit of camaraderie, and his remarkable courage to the end. We dedicate our continuing collaborative efforts to his memory. Prepared in Washington, D.C., on November 11, 1988, in English. Alicia I. Breymeyer Workshop Co-Chair Polish Academy of Sciences Ellis B. Cowling Workshop Co-Chair National Academy of Sciences