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Appendix 3 Cooperative Projects Suggested at 1987 Workshop 1. Managing Aquatic Ecotones for the In Situ Treatment of Nutrients and Toxic Substances A river-lake ecotone will be managed to develop patterns of macro- phyte populations that will process nutrients and toxic substances by active biological uptake and passive sedimentation. 2. American-Polish Development and Training Program for Water Qual" ity Modeling and Environmental Risk Assessment Water quality models for transport, fate, and exposure processes will be coupled with risk assessment models. These will be utilized both as a training methodology and in a direct validation experiment under field conditions in Poland. 3. Prototype Application of the American Environmental Protection Ex- perience to Polish Regional and Local Decision Making The project will include an evaluation of the U.S. environmental impact statement and risk assessment methodology within the context of the Polish social and economic system. A modified version will be tested at the community level in Poland. 4. Mechanisms of Foliar Leaching Due to Air Pollution Post-doctoral support for a researcher from the PAN Institute of Environmental Engineering will be provided to collaborate with the EPA laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon, to pursue research on cuticular 408

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APPENDIX 3 409 leaching associated with air pollution. Funding through the EPA post- doctoral program will be pursued. Ambient Ozone Monitoring in Soothed Poland The absence of ozone date for the forested regions of southern Poland presents a major uncertainty in understanding forest response to air pollution. Surplus ozone monitors from U.S. scientists will be lent to PAN scientists to obtain these essential data. 6. Deposition in Forest Canopies Scientists at the PAN Institute of Ecology (Dz~elranow Lesoy) have examined wet, dry, and aerosol deposition to forested watersheds under heavy impact from air pollution. A postdoctoral opportunity for a young scientist from the Institute of Ecology to a major watershed research site in the eastern United States is proposed. EPRI-Integrated Forest Study Sites are the preferred locations, particularly Coweeta or Whiteface. 7. Mycorrhizal Response to Air Pollution in Polish Forests The research efforts in the Niepolomice Forest are expanding to in- clude an assessment of mycorrhizal health and function, although mycorrhizal expertise is not readily available within the local scien- tific community. We propose to send a U.S. scientist who works with mycorrhizal and air pollution to Poland for ~18 month research and training opportunity. 8. Impacts of Regional and Local Air Pollution on Agricultural and Horticultural Crops in Southern Poland Impacts of SO2, metals, and other Articulates on agricultural crops in southern Poland are probable, although no data are available for re- sponse under clean air conditions. Open-top chambers will be obtained from U.S. scientists and sent on loan to Poland to evaluate agricultural response under filtered air and non-filtered conditions. Data obtained can be used to assess changes in crop quality and quantity, with and without air pollutant stress, for crops grown in pollution inputs grease than currently found in the United States.

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410 ECOLOGICAL RISKS 9. Joint U.S.-Polish Studies on Charactenzing the Effects of Air Pollu- tants on Forest Ecosystems The purpose of this project is to establish continuing, multi-level re- search on forest ecosystem indicators of air pollution stress, beginning with a technical workshop on indicators of response. A pilot field pro- gram for identifying and evaluating appropriate indicators of ecosystem response, and the establishment of a long-term monitoring and mod- eling program focused on selected indicators of response of forest ecosystems in the United States and Poland representing a gradient of air pollution stress are also proposed. This program will contribute significantly to a comparative understanding of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem responses to stress, and will be directly relevant to the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP). 10. Comparative Analysis of Biogeochemical Cycling in Gradients of Forests Using watersheds approach, we would like to estimate and compare the input/output balance of heavy metals, sulfur components, etc. in various ecosystems. Special attention will be paid to accumulation and bioelimination of pollutants on the ecosystem level. 11. Biogeochemist~g of Metals in Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems High levels of metals have been added to both aquatic and terrestrial systems as a result of heavy industrial air and wastewater effluent dis- charges. The cycling, mobilization, organic complexation, and bioavail- ability of these metals at the high ambient levels found in Upper Silesia provide an excellent research opportunity. 12. Air Quality Impacts on Forest Production Ecology The high impact areas of southern Poland offer an excellent labora- tOIy to study the ongoing effects of air quality impairment on forest production ecology. Evol-v~ng methods for this assessment should be refined and applied to specific impact areas in southern Polish forests. 13. Adaptations of Terrestrial Ecosystems to Air Pollution This project will focus on the successional changes that occur in stressed ecosystems, e.g., the shift from a coniferous forest to a deciduous one in southern Poland. An important component of this study will be the study of ecosystem function (e.g., biogeochemical cycling) that changes

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APPENDIX 3 411 with succession. This project will also investigate the importance of mitigation techniques such as fertilization. 14. Evaluation of Regional Air Pollution Models Cooperation in three areas is proposed: (1) the quantification of uncertainty in the structure and parameters of models; (2) the design of field studies to collect data to evaluate the performance of models; and (3) to compare the performance of regional models given the same emissions, meteorology, and terrain. 15. Use of Bioindicators to Quantify Dry Deposition of Sulfur in Forested Areas This project will be a joint evaluation of Polish results on monitoring sulfur content of pine needles to determine a quantitative relationship to deposition type (total, wet, day) both seasonally and annually. We will explore possible U.S. collection of similar data to compare with Polish results and to observe values of deposition using direct wet and indirect dry measurement methods. 16. Methodologies for Assessing Human Exposure to Toxic Metals Cooperative efforts will be directed to improving approaches to es- timating human exposure to toxic metals such as lead and cadmium in urban areas, drawing on expertise in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Katowice, Poland. Particular attention will be given to environmental monitoring, biological monitoring, and associated quality assurance procedures. IDEAS FOR FUTURE DISCUSSION 17. Educational Needs in Environmental Protection Wise decisions leading to improved protection of the environment require knowledgeable technical personnel, prudent leaders in industry and government, and well-informed citizens. Increased investments in environmental education are expected to lead to improved protection of the environment in both Poland and the United States. 18. Ecological Dimensions of Spatial Planning in Metropolitan Areas Cooperative efforts should build on Polish successes in developing an ecological infrastructure within the country and U.S. efforts to improve planning in areas surrounding urban development.

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412 ECOLOGICAL RISKS 19. Control Technology to Reduce Emissions of Pollutants in Stack Gases This project will exchange data on performance of emerging technolo- gies and will involve cooperation in the identification and performance of joint projects to develop technologies for the control of specific pollutants. 20. Exploration of the Applicability of American Remote Sensing Tech- nologies to Solution of Polish Environmental Protection Problems This project will determine the utility of using U.S. data for purposes of meeting specific analytical needs of the Polish environmental situation. 21. Development and Testing of Biological Markers This project will involve development of bioindicators as early indica- tors of ecological change at the population level.