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Appendix 4 Cooperative Projects Suggested at 1988 Workshop 1. Monitoring of Forest Response to Environmental Health A workshop was held in Poland in October, 198S, to identify key issues and parameters for forest monitoring (see Appendix 3, item 9~. 2. Use of Bioindicators to Quantify Dig Deposition of Sulfur in Forested Areas (See Appendix 3, item 15) 3. Applicability of Remote Sensing Technologies to Solution of Polish Environmental Problems (See Appendix 3, item 20) 4. Development and Use of Water Quality Models with Emphases on Microcomputer Applications and Innovations 5. Information Systems and Computer Models for Water Management in Large River Basins 6. River Basin Environmental Management The maintenance of water quality in lakes and rivers requires man- agement of the watersheds. The TVA model will constitute an initial hypothesis for evaluation. A river-lake ecotone will be managed to develop in sim controls of toxic substances and nutrients. The experi- mental watersheds will be located in the "Lake District" in northeastern Poland where extensive baseline data already exist. 413

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414 APPENDIX 4 7. U.S.-Polish Development and Training Program for Water Quality Modeling and Risk Assessment Water quality management in Poland requires new, innovative tech- nologies that do not require massive commitments of money and energy. Water quality models for transport, fate, and exposure pro- cesses will be coupled with risk assessment methodologies. These will be utilized both as a training methodology and as a direct validation experiment under field conditions in Poland. 8. Function and Management of Ecological Boundaries Within Land- scapes Ecotones between various ecosystems as well as shelterbelts, narrow stretches of meadows, and other biological filters have great influence on many processes basic for ecosystem functioning such as matter and energy fluxes, distribution of biota, etc. Ecological boundaries have substantial influence on so-called "self-purification environmental processes" and play an important role in the protection of ecosystems against pollutants. The object of this proposal is to compare and summarize the results obtained in the United States and Poland and draw general conclusions for environmental conservancy and sustainable development of con- cerned countries. There will be a mutual exchange of investigators for cooperative work. The project will include organization of a workshop to summarize results. 9. Evaluation of Ecological Processes by Remote Sensing Methods: Litter Fall as an Index of Organic Matter Input to Ecosystems The program will involve continuous registration of litter fall on the ground and on satellite/aircraft photography. Broadleaved forests throughout Poland are proposed as the main ecosystem type to be studied. Collection and elaboration of ground data will be done at Polish site, and remote sensing and modeling will be done at U.S. site. 10. Development and Testing of Biological Markers DNA adducts, isoenymes, and biochemical changes at the subcellular level have considerable potential for use in ecological, epidemiological studies in contaminated ecosystems. Ultimately, these kinds of studies may also be useful for prediction of threats to human health.

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11. ~e~ie for Assess H~nn ~osu~ ~ ~c M~ls (See Speedy 3, item 1~ 413 I2. P-~e ~pl~don of the AS. E-~nm-~1 Prot~ti~ Emergence to Mash ~~10nn1 end ~ce1 Decision Mason: (See Spends 3, item 3)

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