Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
ECOLOGICAL RISKS Perspectives from Poland and the United States Edited by Wladyslaw Grodzinski Ellis B. Cowling Alicia I. Breymeyer with Anna S. Phillips Stanley I. Auerbach Ann M. Bartuska Mark ~ Harwell Polish Academy of Sciences National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1990
OCR for page R2
NationalAcademy Press . 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel 0. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 90-61630 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04293-3 Copies of this report are available from: Office of Soviet and East European Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Additional copies are for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 S158 Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R3
&~ ~ Hi/: In memory of our good friend and colleague Academician Wladyslaw Grodzinski 1934 - 1988 We will always remember your creativity, your intellectual energy, your contagious enthusiasm, your spirit of camaraderie, and your remarkable courage.
OCR for page R4
OCR for page R5
Editors' Note During recent months, a major political revolution has taken place in Poland and in many other countries of Central Europe. In March of 1989, a great national debate took place among all political forces in Poland. These "Round Able IbLks" were the first open discussions between Solidarity and the political parties then in power. An important part of the Round Able Tanks focused on issues of ecology and the environment. A long list of final statements and demands were formulated and then signed jointly by leaders of both Solidarity and the government. Many of these demands had precise deadlines for fulfillment. In essence, demands for both political and ecological reform were formulated by the political opposition but were addressed to the government, which was to take responsibility for their realization. Then, as in so many other aspects of history, the actual events of our lives changed the scenario created by our imagination. In June of 1989, the election for Polish Parliament was won by Solidarity. And in September of that same year, a new and freely elected government was formed a government dominated by yesterday's opposition. These remarkable political events were accompanied by equally dra- matic increases in inflation and drastic economic reforms. While the state- ments and demands for reform resulting from the Round Able Milks still stand as goals for the nation, the responsibility for their fulfillment is chang- ing. In the environmental field, several political forces are now competing and the so-called "green" parties are growing stronger and stronger. Polish society is now freely articulating its own goals and aspirations. And the new government is struggling to meet the immediate needs of the people and, at the same time, help the country make the necessary adjustments to a free-market economy.
OCR for page R6
Will ecological perspectives retain an important place in our thinking as Poland continues its struggle for economic viability and self- determination? Certainly, an exchange of experience and lessons deriving from comparative studies are of special value in this situation. Thus, we believe that this book on Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States is even more timely at the beginning of this new decade than it was at the end of the last decade not only for Poland and the United States, but also for many other nations in this rapidly changing world. ALICJA I. BREYMEYER Warsaw, Poland ELLIS B. COWLING Raleigh, North Carolina March 1990 V1
OCR for page R7
Preface This book is a product of cooperation between the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) and the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (NAS). In 1986, PAN and NAS agreed to organize a joint workshop on "Ecological Research and Environmental Protection." The meeting was held in October 1987 in the small village of Mogilany near Krakow, Poland. The enthusiasm generated by this first meeting led to a reciprocal workshop which was held in Washington, D.C. in November 1988. With few exceptions, the same Polish and American scientists from a wide range of scientific disciplines participated in both workshops. The names and addresses of the participants appear in Appendix 1; the summary memoranda prepared at each of the two workshops appear in Appendix 2. At each workshop, the participants presented and debated concepts and impact studies which illustrate current challenges in ecological research and environmental protection. These ideas have value not only in Poland and the United States, but in many other countries around the world. Appendices 3 and 4 provide lists of collaborative research projects which were suggested during the two workshops, some of which have already come to fruition. dustries; This book was written to stimulate interest in the assessment and management of ecological risks by five major groups of individuals: · leaders in local, national, and multi-national corporations and in- · leaders in local, regional, and central governments and international associations; · educators in colleges, universities, and secondary schools; · . V11
OCR for page R8
· graduate students and oth err researchers in many different aspects of biological, physical, engineering, and social sciences, natural resources and environmental studies; · volunteers in such social movements as political parties, churches, labor unions, trade associations, and environmental and ecological clubs. The ideas presented in the various chapters of this book are those of the authors. The book does not represent the official views of any organization or agency. The participants in the two workshops are especially grateful to Glenn Schweitzer of NAS and Halina Obuchowicz and Zdzislaw Kaczmarek of PAN for suggesting the idea and then facilitating implementation of both workshops on ecological research and environmental problems. Financial support from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Ford Foundation for the workshops and from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for this publication is also greatly appreciated. The workshop participants were deeply saddened by the death in Poland of Academician Wladyslaw Grodzinski during the workshop in Washington. As co-chairman of these PAN-NAS workshops, Ladd provided vital leadership to assure their success. But his total contribution was much more profound he inspired us all through his intellectual creativity, his spirit of camaraderie, and his remarkable courage to the end. We dedicate our continuing collaborative efforts to his memory. ALICIA I. BREYMEYER ELLIS B. COWLING viii
OCR for page R9
Contents Editors' Note Preface OVERVIE3VV v V11 ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ECOLOGICAL RISKS 3 ElEs B. Cowling' Wladyslaw Grod~nski, and Alicja I. Breym~yer EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Stanley L Auerbach, Alan ~ Maki, and Elds B. Cowling ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS EVALUATING ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Milton Russell THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRATEGIES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Michal J. Marek and Andrzej 1: Lessen berg ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AS AN ELEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION IN POLAND Stanley J. Kabala IX 14 31 41 60
OCR for page R10
THE ROLE OF ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING Alan ~ Maki and Michael ~ Slimak HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT CHARACTERIZING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO STRESS Mark ~ Harwe11, Christine C. Harwell, David ~ Weinstein, and John R Kil) MEASURING FUNCTION AD DISJUNCTION IN ECOSYSTEMS Alicja I. ~eymeyer AIR POLLUTION IMPACT'S ON FORESTS IN NORTH AMERICA Ann M. Bartuska AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST HEALTH IN CENTRAL EUROPE: POLAND, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, AND THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC StefanGodzik and JadwigaSienkiewicz IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON AGRICULTURE IN NORTH AMERICA Walter ~ Heck IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE IN POLAND Stefan Godzik DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN POLAND USING PINE NEEDLE ANALYSIS Bog~slaw Molsh and Wojciech Dmuchowski LONG-TERM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING IN THE NATIONAL PARKS OF POLAND Krysyna Grodzinska x 77 91 116 141 155 171 196 215 232
OCR for page R11
AGRICULTURAL IMPACTS ECOLOGICAL GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN POLAND Lech Ryszkowski ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICUL- TURAL DEVELOPMENT: SOME EXAMPLES IN THE UNITED STATES Warren E. Johnston IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 249 265 ASSESSMENT OF TROPHIC IMPACT ON THE LAKE ENVIRON- MENT IN POLAND: A PROPOSAL AND CASE STUDY 283 Anna Hillbrzcht-Ilkowska AQUATIC RESEARCH AND WATER QUALITY TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES William E. Cooper RIVER WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN POLAND Marek J. Gromiec ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN EASTERN EUROPE Przemyslaw Trojan ACID DEPOSITION: A CASE STUDY OF SCIENTIFIC UN- CERTAINTY AND INTERNATIONAL DECISION MAKING Courmpy Riordan DIAGNOSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN POLAND Andrzej 1: Kassenberg ENERGY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES IN POLAND Jan Juda and Karol 13udzin ski X1 297 315 333 342 355 374
OCR for page R12
RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A SCIENCE-BASED PROGRAM OF ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Stanley I. Auerbach and Alan ~ Main APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: List of Participants APPENDIX 2: Summary Memoranda APPENDIX 3: Cooperative Projects Suggested at 1987 Workshop APPENDIX 4: Cooperative Projects Suggested at 1988 Workshop X11 389 399 404 408 413