Appendixes



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Seafood Safety Appendixes

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Seafood Safety This page in the original is blank.

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Seafood Safety APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS Action levels Levels set to provide regulatory guidance to FDA field personnel to determine whether or not a product should be deemed adulterated and an appropriate enforcement action imposed. ADI Acceptable daily intake. AFDO Association of Food and Drug Officials, York, Pa. AFDOSS Association of Food and Drug Officials of Southern States, Knoxville, Tenn. ALAD Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. APA Administrative Procedures Act, administered by Food and Drug Administration. APC Aerobic plate count (for microorganisms). APHA American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. AQL Acceptable quality level (quality that has a 95% chance of acceptance). ASP Amnesic shellfish poisoning. BHC Benzene hexachloride (a mixture of the α, β, γ-isomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, depending on the manufacturer). BH Boston Harbor in Boston, Mass. CAP Controlled atmosphere packaging. CCPs Critical control points. CDC Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga. CFR Code of Federal Regulations. CFU Colony forming unit. Chemically contaminated Presence of significant levels of undesirable (usually toxic) chemicals derived from natural environment or of anthropogenic origin. CHPB Canadian Health Protection Board, Ottawa. CNI Community Nutrition Institute, Washington, D.C. CNS Central nervous system. Control systems Mechanisms to reduce or eliminate risk from hazards by government, industry, or individual action. CPG Compliance policy guidelines relating to seafood safety. CSF Cerebrospinal fluid. CSTE Conference of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Albany, N.Y. CT Cholera toxin. CWA Clean Water Act, administered by Environmental Protection Agency. DB Delaware Bay in Delaware. DCC Division of Contaminants Chemistry of Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, D.C. DCPA Dacthal pesticide.

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Seafood Safety DDE Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (a metabolite of DDT). DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane]. Deficiencies Aspects of control systems that reduce their effectiveness. Depuration A procedure to remove pathogens from molluscan shellfish. DFO Department of Fish and Oceans of Canada, Ottawa. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. DOC U.S. Department of Commerce. DOD U.S. Department of Defense. DSHS Department of Social and Health Services in Washington state. DSP Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. D-value The number of minutes at the indicated temperature necessary to reduce a microbial population by 90%. ED50 Median effective dose; the dosage required to produce a response in 50% of a population. EDB Ethylene dibromide. EEC European Economic Community, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. ELISA Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ESADDI Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake levels set by National Academy of Sciences. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. FDA U.S. food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service. FEL Frank effect level for blood. FEP Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin. FFDCA Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, administered by Food and Drug Administration. FMI Food Marketing Institute, Washington, D.C. FNB Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. F-value Equivalent in minutes, at given temperature, of heat considered necessary to destroy spores or vegetative cells of a particular microorganism. FWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. GAO U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. GMP Good manufacturing practices. GNP Gross national product. HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. HAV Hepatitis type A virus. Hazard An organism, substance, or condition having the potential to cause disease. Hazard severity High: may cause disability, extended sequelae, and in some cases, death. Moderate: may require medical intervention to avoid debilitating or life-threatening effects; rarely self-resolving. Mild: symptoms transitory, rarely lasting more than a few days, no sequelae; not life threatening, usually self-resolving. Hazardous seafood Fish or shellfish, the consumption of which can lead to disease. HCB The fully aromatic form of benzene with six chlorine molecules. HDH Hawaii Department of Health, Honolulu.

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Seafood Safety HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography. H/R Hudson/Raritan Estuary in New York. IAMFES International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, Ames, Iowa. ICMSF International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. IOM Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. IQL Indifference quality level (quality that has a 50% chance of acceptance). ISSC Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference; the organization that implements the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. Lindane γ-isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, also known as BHC. LOAEL Low-observed-adverse-effect level. LQL Limiting quality level (quality that has a 10% chance of acceptance). MAP Modified atmosphere packaging (a process in which air is replaced by other gases, usually CO2). MATC Median acceptable toxicant concentration for blood. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Published by Centers for Disease Control. MOU Memorandum of understanding. MPN Most probable number, a means for estimating bacterial densities. MPRSA Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, administered by Environmental Protection Agency. NACMCF National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food. NANB Non-A, non-B enteral hepatitis and unspecified hepatitis. NAS National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. NBCIA National Blue Crab Industry Association, Division of National Fisheries Institute, Arlington, Va. NCBP National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. NETSU Northeast Technical Support Unit of Food and Drug Administration, Davisville, R.I. NFI National Fisheries Institute, Inc., Arlington, Va. NFPA National Food Processors Association, Seattle, Wash. NFSPC National Fish and Seafood Promotional Council of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, or ANHMRC. NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level. NOEL No-observed-effect level. NPD National Purchase Dairy Panel, Inc., Schaumburg, Ill. NPMP National Pesticide Monitoring Program of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NRC National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Seafood Safety NSP Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. NSSP National Shellfish Sanitation Program carried out by states under supervision of Food and Drug Administration. NS&T National Status and Trends Program of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NYSB New York Bight in New Jersey. OAD Ocean Assessment Division of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Organoleptic Affecting or relating to qualities such as appearance, color, odor, and texture. PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls. PFP Puffer fish poisoning. PHS U.S. Public Health Service. PHSA Public Health Service Act, administered by Food and Drug Administration. Probit Number of standard deviations from the median of a lognormal distribution of tolerances plus five. PSP Paralytic shellfish poisoning. PTDI Provisional tolerance daily intake limits set by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. PTWI Provisional tolerance weekly intake limits set by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. PUFI Packed under federal inspection. Quality Refers to palatability and organoleptic characteristics such as tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, based on the maturity, marbling, color, firmness, and texture of the product. RBP Retinol binding protein. RfD Reference dose. RIA Radioimmunoassay. Risk Probability that a person will become ill from a hazard. Safety Probability that harm will not occur under specified conditions (the reciprocal of risk). SD Standard deviation. SFA Southeastern Fisheries Association, Tallahassee, Fla. SRV Small round virus. TBT Tri-n-butyltin. TCBS Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose selective agar medium. TCDD 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. TCI The Catfish Institute, Belzoni, Miss. TD25 Lifetime dose estimated to produce cancer in 25% of exposed people. TDE Or DDD [(diphenylethanedichlorophenyl(ethane), a metabolite of DDT]. Teratogen Agent causing congenital defect(s). TMAO Trimethylamine oxide. Tolerance Limit above which the product is deemed to be injurious.

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Seafood Safety TRF Tuna Research Foundation, Washington, D.C. UCL Upper confidence limit. USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture. USF&WS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. WHO World Health Organization of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. Wholesomeness The general term used to imply that the product is processed in a sanitary and healthful manner and is safe to eat. Z-score Number of standard deviations above or below the midpoint of a standard normal or lognormal distribution; inferred from the work of a specific individual value in a data set. Z-value The temperature difference associated with a tenfold difference in the killing rate of microorganisms.

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