Index

A

Academic research, 126

Acceptable daily intake (ADI), 222, 226, 229-238

Acute toxicity, 13, 174, 176-180, 252

Additives, 74

Administrative Procedures Act, 288

Advisories, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 324-325, 330, 335-336

Aeromonas, 36, 45, 73, 74, 75

Age factors, 12, 25, 30, 50, 57, 65

chemical residues, general, 184, 185, 249

elderly persons, 12, 30, 184, 185, 249, 331

perinatal period, 57, 119, 161, 195, 205

trace metal poisoning, 159-163

Agricultural Marketing Act, 300

Alabama, 343-345

Alaska, 6, 59, 63, 75, 76, 96, 316

Allergies, 6, 35, 125, 310, 317, 319

American Public Health Association, 71

Amnesic shellfish poisoning, 101-102, 105

Analogue seafoods, 74, 310, 319

Anisakis simplex, 30, 67, 68, 77

Antibiotics, 27, 75, 98, 122, 123, 312

Antihistamines, 10, 95, 96

Antimony, 231, 232

Antitrust law, 323

Aquaculture, 22, 24-25, 27, 36, 75, 313-314, 329, 330

chemical residues, 13, 121-124, 312, 329

FDA, 25, 122, 312

foreign countries, 13, 18, 22, 23, 25, 123, 124

state-level activities, 311-312, 320

Aromatic hydrocarbons, 120, 136-137, 241, 293

Arsenic, 114-115, 128, 130, 139-140, 158-160, 231, 233, 243, 247

Asian Americans, 74, 249

Association of Food and Drug Officials, 319, 320

Association of Food and Drug Officials of the Southern States, 320-321

Asthma, 310

Astroviruses, 51

Atlantic Ocean, 96, 127

Atrazine, 121, 150

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 226, 229

B

Bacteria, 6, 32, 36-46, 65-67

antibiotic resistance, 75

canning and, 59, 63, 278

CDC efforts, 31, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 53, 55, 57-58, 59, 60, 61

estuaries, 38, 41, 42, 45, 67, 72

ethnic foods, 59, 316

FDA efforts, 7, 30, 31, 38, 53, 58, 63, 71, 329, 332

fecal, 6, 33, 36, 67, 69, 71

food processing, 31, 44, 45, 53-62, 63-64, 72-73

molluscs, 38, 39-41, 42, 44, 46, 55, 72, 76, 309, 330-331

risk assessment, 3-9, 30, 31, 37, 39, 41, 42-43, 44-45, 54-55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 66

scombroid toxin, 95

temperature effects, 73, 330

see also Vibrio bacteria;

specific bacterial organisms

Benzene compounds, 120-121, 138-139, 148-149, 247

Bioassays, 9, 78, 92, 98, 180, 181, 194

Bioconcentration levels

organics, 119, 134-139, 144-150, 299

trace metals, 113, 129-134, 139-143

Blood analysis, 159-163 (passim), 201-219 (passim)

Blood diseases, 182

hemochromatosis, 41, 42, 68, 77, 78

organic compounds, 120, 123, 124

trace metals, 116, 117, 161, 180

Bluefish, 10, 93, 96, 103, 127, 245, 248-249, 329, 330

Bone diseases, 115, 116

Botulism, 3, 6, 58-61, 64, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 124, 316

C

Cadmium, 115-116, 130-131, 141, 160-161, 234, 243, 244, 253, 293, 299

Caliciviruses, 51

California, 96, 118, 128, 240, 245, 249-250, 316, 348

Campylobacter jejuni, 3, 55-56, 303

Canada, 23, 26, 100, 101, 154, 201, 226, 229, 325-328

Canning, 23, 244, 278-281, 321, 329, 330

bacteria, 59, 63, 278

salmon, 63, 244, 278, 321

tuna, 23, 224, 244, 329

Carboxylic acid, 118, 121, 139, 150

Carcinogens and carcinogenesis, 15

arsenic, 114-115, 159

chemical residues, general, 11, 12, 15, 113, 174, 181-184, 219, 222, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 252, 253, 254-255

organic compounds, 119, 120, 121, 186, 188-196, 243, 245, 252, 253, 254-255

Caribbean Sea, 2, 317

ciguatera, 6, 9, 91, 92, 102

see also Puerto Rico;

Virgin Islands

Catfish, 24, 123, 313, 322

The Catfish Institute, 322

Centers for Disease Control, 3, 9, 16, 66-67, 76, 334

bacterial infections, 31, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 53, 55, 57-58, 59, 60, 61



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OCR for page 425
Seafood Safety Index A Academic research, 126 Acceptable daily intake (ADI), 222, 226, 229-238 Acute toxicity, 13, 174, 176-180, 252 Additives, 74 Administrative Procedures Act, 288 Advisories, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 324-325, 330, 335-336 Aeromonas, 36, 45, 73, 74, 75 Age factors, 12, 25, 30, 50, 57, 65 chemical residues, general, 184, 185, 249 elderly persons, 12, 30, 184, 185, 249, 331 perinatal period, 57, 119, 161, 195, 205 trace metal poisoning, 159-163 Agricultural Marketing Act, 300 Alabama, 343-345 Alaska, 6, 59, 63, 75, 76, 96, 316 Allergies, 6, 35, 125, 310, 317, 319 American Public Health Association, 71 Amnesic shellfish poisoning, 101-102, 105 Analogue seafoods, 74, 310, 319 Anisakis simplex, 30, 67, 68, 77 Antibiotics, 27, 75, 98, 122, 123, 312 Antihistamines, 10, 95, 96 Antimony, 231, 232 Antitrust law, 323 Aquaculture, 22, 24-25, 27, 36, 75, 313-314, 329, 330 chemical residues, 13, 121-124, 312, 329 FDA, 25, 122, 312 foreign countries, 13, 18, 22, 23, 25, 123, 124 state-level activities, 311-312, 320 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 120, 136-137, 241, 293 Arsenic, 114-115, 128, 130, 139-140, 158-160, 231, 233, 243, 247 Asian Americans, 74, 249 Association of Food and Drug Officials, 319, 320 Association of Food and Drug Officials of the Southern States, 320-321 Asthma, 310 Astroviruses, 51 Atlantic Ocean, 96, 127 Atrazine, 121, 150 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 226, 229 B Bacteria, 6, 32, 36-46, 65-67 antibiotic resistance, 75 canning and, 59, 63, 278 CDC efforts, 31, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 53, 55, 57-58, 59, 60, 61 estuaries, 38, 41, 42, 45, 67, 72 ethnic foods, 59, 316 FDA efforts, 7, 30, 31, 38, 53, 58, 63, 71, 329, 332 fecal, 6, 33, 36, 67, 69, 71 food processing, 31, 44, 45, 53-62, 63-64, 72-73 molluscs, 38, 39-41, 42, 44, 46, 55, 72, 76, 309, 330-331 risk assessment, 3-9, 30, 31, 37, 39, 41, 42-43, 44-45, 54-55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 66 scombroid toxin, 95 temperature effects, 73, 330 see also Vibrio bacteria; specific bacterial organisms Benzene compounds, 120-121, 138-139, 148-149, 247 Bioassays, 9, 78, 92, 98, 180, 181, 194 Bioconcentration levels organics, 119, 134-139, 144-150, 299 trace metals, 113, 129-134, 139-143 Blood analysis, 159-163 (passim), 201-219 (passim) Blood diseases, 182 hemochromatosis, 41, 42, 68, 77, 78 organic compounds, 120, 123, 124 trace metals, 116, 117, 161, 180 Bluefish, 10, 93, 96, 103, 127, 245, 248-249, 329, 330 Bone diseases, 115, 116 Botulism, 3, 6, 58-61, 64, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 124, 316 C Cadmium, 115-116, 130-131, 141, 160-161, 234, 243, 244, 253, 293, 299 Caliciviruses, 51 California, 96, 118, 128, 240, 245, 249-250, 316, 348 Campylobacter jejuni, 3, 55-56, 303 Canada, 23, 26, 100, 101, 154, 201, 226, 229, 325-328 Canning, 23, 244, 278-281, 321, 329, 330 bacteria, 59, 63, 278 salmon, 63, 244, 278, 321 tuna, 23, 224, 244, 329 Carboxylic acid, 118, 121, 139, 150 Carcinogens and carcinogenesis, 15 arsenic, 114-115, 159 chemical residues, general, 11, 12, 15, 113, 174, 181-184, 219, 222, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 252, 253, 254-255 organic compounds, 119, 120, 121, 186, 188-196, 243, 245, 252, 253, 254-255 Caribbean Sea, 2, 317 ciguatera, 6, 9, 91, 92, 102 see also Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands Catfish, 24, 123, 313, 322 The Catfish Institute, 322 Centers for Disease Control, 3, 9, 16, 66-67, 76, 334 bacterial infections, 31, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 53, 55, 57-58, 59, 60, 61

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Seafood Safety data collection, general, 15, 16, 19, 22, 31, 35, 302-304 Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance Program, 31, 54 natural toxins, 88, 91, 95, 96, 98, 99 parasitic infections, 7, 30, 31 state-level actions, 314, 315, 317 viral infections, 51, 52, 54, 62 Cestodes, 30, 48, 77 Chemical toxins, general, 2, 11-13, 17, 111-164, 172-259, 292, 295, 299, 332-333 age factors, 184, 185, 249 aquaculture, 13, 121-124, 312, 329 carcinogens, 11, 12, 15, 113, 174, 181-184, 219, 222, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 252, 253, 254-255 chemical residues, 11-12, 112-113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 126, 151, 157-64, 172-259, 307, 333 data bases, 12, 14, 17, 112, 126-128, 151-152, 222-225, 231-243, 253-254, 307 disease control, 150-154, 253-254 dose-response assessment, 11-12, 112, 113, 119, 153, 157-164, 174-186, 187, 197 economics of regulation, 17, 190-192, 193, 219, 244, 255, 307 EPA, 112, 119, 157, 173, 186, 188-189, 192, 222, 231, 257, 332, 333 epidemiology, general, 187, 188, 195, 252 ethnic foods, 249 exposure, 112, 124, 126-150 (passim), 151, 187, 188, 193, 222-251 FDA, 12, 25, 113, 119, 123, 124, 125, 126, 154, 173, 186-187, 188, 189-224, 231, 240-245, 247, 250, 254-255, 257-258, 332-333 federal government, general, 12, 254, 255 finfish, 139-150, 223, 232-237, 239, 243, 244, 245-251, 331-330 funding, 307 genetics, general, 175, 181, 182 immunological factors, 11-12 inspection issues, 12, 126, 150-151 molluscs, 125, 128-139, 225, 232-237, 239 mortality, 178-179, 195 neurotoxicity, 11, 15, 184, 252, 256 public information, 12-13, 150, 222, 245-246, 250, 251, 256 recreational fishing, 17, 127, 225, 245-251, 330 regional/geographic factors, 11, 12, 17, 112, 126, 128, 129-150 regulations, 12, 13, 17, 124, 125, 150, 173, 174-219, 223, 253-254, 306-307 reproductive toxicology, 11, 12, 151, 178-179, 181, 219, 250, 252, 253, 256, 330 research, 12, 252-253 respiratory system, 184 risk assessment, 11-12, 112-113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 126, 151, 157-64, 172-259, 307, 333 sampling, 127-128, 181, 189, 199, 223-224, 241, 243, 244, 248-249, 254, 307 sex differences, 115, 151, 159 shellfish, 115, 232-237, 239, 247; see specific species standards, 123, 150-152, 154-155, 190-193, 240 state-level actions, 12, 13, 14, 112, 306-307, 315-316, 324 stochasticprocesses, 174, 181-184 subsistence fishing, 17, 225, 245-251, 330 time factors, 124, 130 waste management, 17, 254 see also Acute toxicity; Chronic toxicity; Organic compounds; Pesticides; specific toxins Chemotherapeutic agents, 121-122 Chesapeake Bay, 39, 41, 43, 250 Children, 116, 117, 161, 162, 204-207, 252, 330 perinatal period, 57, 119, 161, 195, 205 China, 23, 25, 252 Chloramphenicol, 123 Chlordane, 120, 130, 147 Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 12, 118, 120-121, 137-139, 145-146, 148-149 see also specific substances Chlorine, 52, 124-125, 246 Cholera, 19, 37-41, 45, 66, 292, 316-317, 318 Chromatography, 98 Chromium, 231, 235, 243 Chronic toxicity, 2, 13, 114, 158-164, 174, 180, 184-186, 188, 194-195, 250, 252-253 see also Carcinogens and carcinogenesis; Mutagens and mutagenesis; Neurotoxicity; Reproductive toxicology Ciguatera, 1, 2, 6, 9, 88, 89-93, 102, 104, 106, 305, 306, 316, 318, 329, 330 imports, 92, 102, 316 inspection issues, 9, 92, 93 recreational fishing, 92, 306, 330 regional factors, 6, 89, 92, 305 regulations, 9, 306 research, 92, 93, 306 state government, 9, 106, 316 Cirrhosis, 41, 42, 68, 78 hemochromatosis, 41, 42, 68, 77, 78 Clams, 72, 309, 315 Clean Water Act, 295 Clostridium botulinum, 8, 58-59, 64, 73, 74, 77, 78, 316 Clostridium perfringens, 8, 95 Codex Alimentarius, 325, 335 Colorado, 319 Commercial seafood industry, 23-24, 73, 225-245, 321-325 education of personnel, 2, 18, 44, 103, 307, 309, 313-314, 336 exports, inspection of, 301, 326, 328 fragmentation of, 22 state-level situation, 342-414 (passim) vessels and docks, regulations, 19, 26, 300, 307-311 see also Aquaculture; Food processing; Imports Computers and computer science Monte Carlo simulations, 187 see also Data bases Conference of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 302 Consumers and consumption environmental issues awareness, 22 fear as impediment, 307 recreational catches, 247-248 statistical methods, 21-27 (passim), 199-200, 225-226 trends, 21-27 (passim), 225-226, 227-228, 231-239 see also Exposure; Public information Crabs, 42, 50, 59, 74, 115, 277-278, 290, 291, 309, 323 Crawfish, 24-25 Cross-contamination, 27, 30, 40, 41, 68, 74, 76, 78, 309, 311 Culture techniques, 41 Curing and smoking, 23, 48, 59, 75, 124, 319 D Data bases, 19, 20, 31-32, 35, 78, 31 CDC, 15, 16, 19, 22, 31, 35, 302-304 chemical residues, general, 12, 14, 17, 112, 126-128, 151-152, 222-225, 231-243, 253-254, 307 imports, 225, 226, 228, 244-245 pesticides, 126, 139, 222-225, 254 recreational fishing, 22-23, 24 DDT, 120, 137-138, 145-146, 243, 246, 247, 249 Demography of consumers, 25-26 seafood industry, 22-23 Denmark, 26 Department of Agriculture, 24, 287, 292, 300, 313-314, 319, 320, 322 Department of Commerce, 24, 292, 300, 322 see also specific agencies Department of Defense, 287, 292 Department of Health and Human Services, 157, 292 see also Food and Drug Administration Depuration, 72, 125, 315 Developing countries, 74 Developmental toxicology, 11 children, 116, 117, 161, 162, 204-207, 252, 330

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Seafood Safety perinatal period, 57, 119, 161, 195, 205 see also Reproductive toxicology Diabetes, 30, 42, 46 hemochromatosis, 41, 42, 68, 77, 78 Diarrhea, 37, 55, 56, 89, 101, 105 diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, 9, 99-100 selenium poisoning, 117 Dibenzofurans, 12, 194 Dieldrin, 120, 146-147, 241, 243, 245 Dinophysis, 99-100 Dioxins, 12, 119, 145, 182, 184, 223, 243, 245, 246, 248, 253, 293, 299 Disease control, 16-18, 67-75, 286-337 antibiotics, 27, 75, 98, 122, 123, 312 bacterial agents, 38, 39-40, 41, 44, 55, 58, 59 chemical residues, 150-154, 253-254 ciguatera, 92, 106 parasites, 48 viruses, 51, 52-53 see also Centers for Disease Control; Inspection issues; Regulations; Standards; Waste management DNA probes, 20, 41, 57, 68, 78 Dock facilities, 19, 26, 308 Dose-response assessment, 65, 95 bacterial agents, 44, 65, 67-68 chemical residues, 11-12, 112, 113, 119, 153, 157-164, 174-186, 187, 197 models, 176-179, 181-182, 184-185, 187-188 Drugs antibiotics, 27, 75, 98, 122, 123, 312 antihistamines, 10, 95, 96 residues, 25, 121-122, 312 E Ear infections, 39 Economic factors aquaculture, 312 chemical toxins regulation, 17, 190-192, 193, 219, 244, 255, 307 ciguatera, 92-93 commercial fishing, 23 FDA imports enforcement, 298 inspection activities, 298, 300, 301, 307, 308, 327 local efforts, 311 Ecuador, 23, 25, 123 Education fishing/processing personnel, 2, 13, 18, 44, 103, 106, 307, 309, 313-314, 336 health professionals, 13, 15, 44, 77, 78, 103, 106, 301, 307, 309, 313-314, 336 see also Public information Edwardsiella tarda, 75 Elderly persons, 12, 30, 331 chemical residues, 184, 185, 249 Electron microscopy, 71 ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay), 9, 78, 98 Endosulfan, 120, 138, 148 Endrin, 120 Environmental issues, 22 see also Pollution Environmental Protection Agency, 13-14, 16, 295 chemical residues, 112, 119, 157, 173, 186, 188-189, 192, 222, 231, 257, 332, 333 standards and guidelines, 287, 288, 290, 307, 320, 327, 328 Epidemiology, 3-6, 7, 9, 15, 19-20, 301-304 bacterial infections, 30, 31, 37, 39, 40, 42-43, 44-45, 46, 53, 54-55, 57-58, 59, 61, 69, 77, 318 chemical toxins, 187, 188, 195, 252 national system, 2, 126-150, 240-245, 254, 268-269, 287-304 natural toxins, general, 89, 93-94, 98-99, 100, 101 parasitic infections, 30, 31, 46, 47, 48 state-level data, 302, 314-319 vibrio, 37-38 viruses, 49, 50-51 see also Centers for Disease Control; Data bases; Mortality; Reporting issues; Risk assessment Erythromycin, 123 Escherichia coli, 56, 72, 73, 277-278, 290, 294, 330-331 Estuaries, 320 bacteria, 38, 41, 42, 45, 67, 72 Chesapeake Bay, 39, 41, 43, 250 Galveston Bay, 40, 42 organic compounds, 120, 138 viruses, 51, 72 water quality standards, 68-69 Ethnic foods, 3, 6, 30, 48, 59, 74-75, 225, 245-251, 316 Europe, 59, 63, 100, 123 European Economic Community, 26-27, 327-328 Exports, 301, 326, 328 Exposure chemical residues, 112, 124, 126-150 (passim), 151, 187, 188, 193, 222-251 levels, 174-175 microorganisms, 65-66 F Fecal pollution, 6, 33, 36, 49-53, 67, 69, 71 E. coli, 72, 73, 277-278, 290, 294, 330-331 Federal government, 2, 13-16, 106, 308, 322, 332-334 advisories, 325, 335 chemical residues, 12, 254, 255 interagency issues, 16, 17, 19, 320 monitoring, 301-304 national surveillance system, 2, 126-150, 240-245, 254, 268-269, 287-304 natural toxins, general, 10, 106, 306 recreational catches, 251, 308 standards, 68-70, 123, 186-187, 189-196, 288-294, 307 state cooperation with, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18-19, 31, 69, 106, 223, 302, 306, 307, 309, 310, 312, 313-314, 319-321; see also National Shellfish Sanitation Program see also Centers for Disease Control; Environmental Protection Administration; Food and Drug Administration; Laws; National Marine Fisheries Service; other agencies Federal-State Standing Committee on Residues in Fish, 307 Federal Trade Commission, 323 Fermentation, 6, 59, 75, 316 Fertilizers, 115 Finfish, 22, 47, 48, 89, 329, 330 chemical residues, 139-150, 223, 232-237, 239, 243, 244, 245-251, 331-330 see also specific species Fish and Wildlife Service, 122, 126 Florida, 9, 43, 89, 91, 99, 313, 317, 319, 353-359 Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations), 222, 229, 230, 235-239, 275, 325, 326 Food and Drug Administration, 13-15, 16, 287, 321, 332, 336 aquaculture, 25, 122, 312 bacteria, 7, 30, 31, 38, 53, 58, 63, 71, 329, 332 chemical residues, 12, 25, 113, 119, 123, 124, 125, 126, 154, 173, 186-187, 188, 189-224, 231, 240-245, 247, 250, 254-255, 257-258, 332-333 imports, 244-245, 313 inspection and enforcement, 295-300 parasites, 7, 30, 31, 38 puffer fish poisoning, 101 sampling, 189, 199, 223-224, 241, 243, 244, 248-249, 254, 267-284, 296-297, 321 saxitoxins, 98 scombroid, 95, 103 standards, 68-70, 123, 186-187, 189-196, 288-294 Total Diet Study, 222-223, 238, 241 see also Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; National Shellfish Sanitation Program; Northeast Technical Support Unit Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance Program, 31, 54 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, 151, 288, 289-290, 296, 298 Food Inspection Act (Canada), 326 Food processing, 6-7, 17, 22, 33, 78 additives, 74 analogue foods, 74, 310, 319 associations, 225, 321-324, 337

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Seafood Safety bacteria, 31, 44, 45, 53-62, 63-64, 72-73 cross-contamination, 27, 30, 40, 41, 68, 74, 76, 78, 309, 311 curing and smoking, 23, 48, 59, 75, 124, 319 depuration, 72, 125, 315 dock facilities, 19, 26, 308 education of personnel, 2, 18, 44, 103, 307, 309, 313-314, 336 fermentation, 6, 59, 75, 316 irradiation, 44, 45, 67-68, 77 marination techniques, 75 new techniques, 9, 310 nitrosamines, 124 packaging and containers, 23, 59, 60, 63-64, 70, 74, 300; see also Canning ready-to-eat foods, 25-26, 311 refrigeration, 44, 49, 56, 59, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 78, 95-96 salting, 60 scombroid, 95-96, 103, 316 standards, 63-64, 72-73, 342-414 (passim) state-level actions, 308-311, 316, 342-414 (passim) viruses, 62 see also Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; Inspection issues Freshwater fish, 23, 126, 223, 225, 243, 248, 316 catfish, 24, 123, 313, 322 see also Great Lakes Frozen food, 48, 73, 329 Funding, 19, 292 chemical toxin control, 307 enforcement, 52 federal aid to states, 19, 307 industry recipients, 322 local efforts, 311 natural toxin control, 106 G Galveston Bay, 40, 42 Gambierdiscus toxicus, 89, 90, 92 Gastrointestinal system, 8, 30, 37, 39, 40, 45, 51, 76, 89, 94-95, 99, 100, 114, 124 see also Diarrhea Genetics chemical residues, general, 175, 181, 182 DNA probes, 20, 41, 57, 68, 78 trace metals, 114, 117 Geographic factors, see Regional factors; specific geographic areas Georgia, 359-365 Gonyaulax, 97, 98 Government role, 13-16 chemical toxin control, 12 interagency issues, 16, 17, 19, 310, 320 see also Federal government; Local government; Regulations; Standards; State government Great Lakes, 12, 17, 73, 124, 195, 201, 240, 243, 245, 248, 329, 330 Guam, 7, 89, 102, 316-317, 318 Gulf of Mexico, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 67, 71, 99, 305 Gymnodinium breve, 99, 317 see also Red tides H Hafnia alvei, 95 Hallucinogenic fish poisoning, 102 Halogen compounds, 124-125 Hawaii, 89, 91, 92, 94, 100, 101, 102, 314, 316, 330, 365-370 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, 4-5, 7, 9, 10, 16, 17, 27, 31, 72, 78, 283-284, 314, 319, 321, 325, 333, 335 Health professionals associations, 71, 319-321 education, 13, 15, 44, 77, 78, 103, 106, 301, 307, 309, 313-314, 336 Hemochromatosis, 41, 42, 68, 77, 78 Hemorrhages, 117 Hepatic system cirrhosis, 41, 42, 68, 78 defective, 30, 76 hemochromatosis, 41, 42, 68, 77, 78 organic compounds, 120 trace metals, 115, 116, 159 Hepatitis, 8, 49, 50-51, 52-53, 62, 66, 72, 117, 316 Heptachlor compounds, 120, 138, 147-148 Herbicides, 115, 119, 121, 139, 150 Herring, 244, 276 High-performance liquid chromatography, 98 Histamine poisoning, 94 I Immunological factors allergies, 6, 35, 125, 310, 317, 319 aquaculture, 122 bioassays, 9, 78, 98, 180, 181, 194 chemical residues, 11-12 immunocompromised individuals, 30, 31, 39, 41, 42, 57, 65, 68, 76, 77, 78 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 96 radioimmunoassays, 92, 98, 180 southern blotting, 38 vaccines, 53 Imports, 2, 16, 22, 23, 36, 73-74, 334-335 aquaculture products, 13, 18, 22, 23, 25, 124 ciguatera, 92, 102, 316 export inspections, 301, 326, 328 FDA, 244-245, 313 inspection requirements, 7, 14, 15, 18, 76, 124, 298-299, 300, 301, 325-328, 335 mercury, 244 puffer fish, 106 regulatory programs, 14, 15, 16, 18, 25, 26-27 sampling, 244-245, 267 scombroid, 96, 106, 316 shellfish, 23, 73, 76, 77-78, 100, 103, 106, 298-299, 315, 329 standards, 8-9, 13, 73, 77-78, 298, 300, 325, 334-335, 337 state-level action, 313, 316 statistical data, 225, 226, 228, 244-245 Individual risk assessments, 219, 243, 257 Industry associations, 225, 321-324, 337 Inhalation toxicology, 113, 115 Insecticides, see Pesticides Inspection issues, 1, 9, 13-17, 19, 31, 78, 294-301, 313, 319, 333-334 aquaculture, 124 chemical toxins, 12, 126, 150-151 ciguatera, 9, 92, 93 cost factors, 298, 300, 301, 307, 308, 327 EPA, 295 exports, 301, 326, 328 FDA, 295-300 imports, 7, 14, 15, 18, 76, 124, 298, 300, 325-328, 335 mercury, 299 molluscs, 8, 9, 76, 309 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 10, 296, 306, 315 parasites, 68 research, 9, 10, 16-17, 19-20, 30, 78, 92, 93, 103, 106 scombroid, 95-96, 103 state-level, 18-19, 308-311, 321-324 voluntary programs, 287, 300-301, 320, 321, 322, 323 see also Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; Sampling International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, 320 International perspective, 14-16, 18, 26-27, 125, 222, 229, 230, 235-239, 275, 301, 325-331, 335, 337 see also Imports; specific countries Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference, 310, 320, 336 Interstate trade, 223, 224, 229, 287, 300, 336 voluntary programs, 287, 300-301, 320, 321, 322 Irradiation, 44, 45, 67-68, 77 J Japan, 23, 40, 92, 100, 101, 115, 196 K Kelbsiella pneumoniae, 71, 95 Kepone, 121, 139 Kidneys, see Renal system L Labeling, 6, 26, 150, 222, 251, 310, 319, 322 imports, 26 state actions, 310 Lactobacillus, 95 Langostinos, 278, 291 Laws, 19, 112, 254, 255, 302, 323 Administrative Procedures Act, 288 Agricultural Marketing Act, 300 Clean Water Act, 295

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Seafood Safety Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 151, 288, 289-290, 296, 298 Food Inspection Act (Canada), 326 Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, 295 National Aquaculture Act, 320 Presidential Reorganization Order No. 3, 288, 300 Toxic Substances Control Act, 118 Lead, 116, 131-132, 142, 161-163, 180, 235-236, 243, 253, 293, 299 Legal issues, 302, 323 litigation, 289-290, 324 poaching, 8, 52, 77, 315, 331 see also Laws; Regulations; Standards Licenses and permits, 78, 96, 106, 308, 313, 323 recreational fishing, 16, 96, 106, 313 Lindane, 148, 244 Listeria monocytogenes, 57-58, 64, 73, 74, 78, 292, 298 Litigation, 289-290 advisories, 324 Liver, see Hepatic system Local government, 14-16, 31, 96, 99, 103, 302, 304, 311, 315, 319, 330 Louisiana, 43, 317, 324, 370-376 M Mahimahi, 10, 93, 94, 298, 329 Maine, 96, 321-322 Maitotoxin, 91 Marination techniques, 75 Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, 295 Marketing and distribution, 310-311 Agricultural Marketing Act, 300 labeling, 6, 26, 150, 222, 251, 310, 319, 322 National Aquaculture Act, 320 Maryland, 307-308 Massachusetts, 96, 128, 315, 376-380 Meningitis, 57 Mercury, 12, 17, 113, 116-117, 132-133, 142-143, 154-155, 162-163, 185-188, 196-219, 220-221, 223, 229, 237-238, 241, 243, 244, 246, 248, 253, 299, 330 Mexico, 23 Michigan, 201, 248, 316 Microbiology and microorganisms, 9, 34, 41, 64-76, 78, 92, 98, 100, 181, 194, 296, 305, 309, 319, 332 see also Bacteria; Genetics; Parasites; Viruses; specific organisms Minorities, 6, 25, 74, 75, 249, 316 see also Ethnic foods Mirex, 121, 149 Mississippi, 380-385 Models dose-response, 176-179, 181-182, 184-185, 187-188 nonlinear, 181, 182 recreational catches, 250 Molecular biology, 175 see also Genetics; Stochastic processes Molluscs, 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 15, 30-31, 77-78, 299, 330-331 bacteria, 38, 39-41, 42, 44, 46, 55, 72, 76, 309, 330-331 chemical residues, 125, 128-139, 225, 232-237, 239 clams, 72, 309, 315 natural toxins, 96, 98, 99-100, 309 oysters, 68-71, 72, 250, 309, 324 state-level actions, 309, 310, 313, 315, 317, 324 viruses, 50-51, 66, 76 Monte Carlo simulations, 187 Morganella morganii, 95 Mortality, 9, 302 chemical residues, 178-179, 195 ciguatera, 90 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 96, 98-99 puffer fish poisoning, 100, 101 V. vulnificus, 30, 42 Mussels, 102 Mutagens and mutagenesis, 115, 117, 119, 125, 174, 175, 181, 182, 256 N National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food, 292 National Aquaculture Act, 320 National Blue Crab Industry Association, 323 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program, 127-128 National Fisheries Institute, Inc., 70, 323 National Food Processors Association, 321 National Marine Fisheries Service, 13, 16, 24, 224-226, 231-239, 243, 244, 287, 300-301, 314, 320 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 14, 101, 126-127, 137, 139, 141, 148-149, 332 National Status and Trends Program, 126-127, 128-147, 152 National Oceanographic Data Center, 152 National Pesticide Monitoring Program, 126, 139 National Research Council, 229, 230, 231-238 (passim) National Shellfish Sanitation Program, 14, 15, 68-69, 229, 293-295, 305, 310, 313, 331 National Status and Trends Program, 126-127, 128-147, 152 Native Americans, 6, 75, 249, 316 Natural toxins, 9-11, 87-106, 291, 332 CDC, 88, 91, 95, 96, 98, 99 federal government, general, 10, 106, 306 molluscs, 96, 98, 99-100, 309 natural toxins, 9-10, 92-93, 94, 102 public information, 9, 92, 96, 103, 106, 306 regional factors, 6, 9, 10, 14, 89, 92, 305 regulations, general, 106, 306, 332 research, 92, 93, 103, 106 risk assessment, 9-10, 92-93, 94, 102 shellfish, general, 292, 309 standards, 95, 98, 103 state-level regulation, 9, 10, 103, 106, 306, 316 see also specific toxins Nematodes, 48-49 Neurotoxicity, 15 amnesic shellfish poisoning, 101-102 chemical residues, general, 11, 15, 184, 252, 256 ciguatera, 89-90 hallucinogenic fish poisoning, 102 organic compounds, 119, 120, 121, 195 paralysis, 90, 100 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 6, 9, 10, 88, 96-99, 102, 104, 296, 306, 315, 330, 331 parkinsonism, 12, 186 scombroid, 94-95 trace metals, 114, 115, 117, 161, 162, 180, 185-186, 188, 204-211, 213-219 Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (red tides), 9, 10, 99, 105, 306, 317 New York, 128, 314, 315 Nickel, 113 Nitrofurans, 122, 124 Nitrosamines, 124 Northeast Technical Support Unit, 19, 66, 76 bacteria, 31, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46, 53, 55-57, 60, 61, 66 naturally occurring toxins, 96, 99 parasites, 31 viruses, 51, 52 North Carolina, 99, 385-391 Norwalk virus, 6, 7, 30, 49, 50, 51-52, 66, 66, 72, 76 Norway, 26, 244 O Oregon, 319 Organic compounds, 17, 118-125, 134-139, 144-150, 240-243 bioconcentration levels, 119, 134-139, 144-150, 299 blood diseases, 120, 123, 124 estuaries, 120, 138 hepatic systems, 120 neurotoxicity, 119, 120, 121, 195 reproductive toxicology, 119, 121, 189, 195, 219, 250 see also specific chemicals Oxytetracycline, 123 Oysters, 324 chemical residues, 250 Gulf of Mexico, 71 processing, 309 viruses, 72 water quality standards, 68-71 Ozonation, 125

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Seafood Safety P Pacific Islands, 2, 6, 9, 40, 91, 96, 316 see also Guam; Hawaii Packaging and containers labeling, 6, 26, 150, 222, 251, 310, 319, 322 modified atmospheres, 64 standards, 70, 300 vacuum, 60, 63-64, 74 see also Canning Paralysis ciguatera, 90 puffer fish poisoning, 100 Paralytic shellfish poisoning, 6, 9, 10, 88, 96-99, 102, 104, 296, 306, 315, 330, 331 Parasites, 6-9, 31, 35, 46-49, 67, 68, 77, 121, 296 CDC, 7, 30, 31 epidemiology, 30, 31, 46, 47, 48 ethnic foods, 30, 48 FDA, 7, 30, 31, 38 finfish, 47, 48 frozen food, 48 public information, 68, 75, 78 regional factors, 67, 68 risk assessment, general, 3-9, 30, 31, 46, 47, 48-49 sampling, 276-277 shellfish, 30-31 see also specific parasites Parkinsonism, 12, 186 Pasteurization, 62-63 Pentachlorophenol, 121 Persistence, in environment organic compounds, 121 trace metals, 113, 117, 158-164, 197-199, 213, 219 Pesticides, 12, 115, 118, 120, 121, 122, 126, 137-138, 145-149, 245, 299-300 data bases, 126, 139, 222-225, 254 see also specific pesticides pH conditions, 46, 50, 70 bacteria, 56, 58, 61, 62 Phenols, 120-121, 138-139, 148-149 Plesiomonas shigelloides, 36, 45-46 Poaching, 8, 52, 77, 315, 331 Polioviruses, 72 Pollution, 1, 35, 68-73 fecal, 6, 33, 36, 49-53, 67, 69, 71, 72, 73, 277-278, 290, 294, 330-331 legislation, 295 public awareness of, 22 see also Chemical toxins; Environmental Protection Agency; Trace metals; Waste management Polychlorinated biphenyls, 12, 17, 113, 118-119, 120, 127, 134-135, 144-145, 154-155 as carcinogens, 186, 188-196 imports, 244, 245 risk assessment, 175, 176, 178, 182, 184, 186-196, 223, 224, 240, 241, 253, 254, 257-258 recreational catches, 246-249, 250 standards, 293 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 120, 136-137, 241, 247, 293 Polyether compounds, 93 Polymerase chain reaction techniques, 68, 78 Preservation techniques, 319 curing and smoking, 23, 48, 59, 75, 124, 319 fermentation, 6, 59, 75, 316 salting, 60, 66 vacuum packaging, 60, 63, 64, 74 see also Canning; Packaging and containers Presidential Reorganization Order No. 3, 288, 300 Prorocentrum, 100 Public Health Service, 69 see also Centers for Disease Control Public information, 2, 15, 19, 22, 27, 293, 308, 331, 332, 336 advisories, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 324-325, 335-336 chemical residues, 12-13, 150, 222, 245-246, 250, 251, 256 labeling, 6, 26, 150, 222, 251, 310, 319, 322 microorganisms and parasites, 68, 75, 78 natural toxins, 9, 92, 96, 103, 106, 306 recreational fishing, 18, 68, 96, 245-246, 306, 308 state activities, 306, 308, 309 Puerto Rico, 89, 91, 314, 316, 391-400 Puffer fish poisoning, 9, 100-101, 104, 106 Puget Sound, 246-247 R Radioimmunoassays, 92, 98, 180 Recreational fishing, 2, 15, 27, 28, 68, 77, 250, 331, 334 aquaculture and, 25 chemical toxins, 17, 127, 225, 245-251, 330 ciguatera, 92, 306, 330 consumption, 247-248 data on, 22-23, 24, 247-248 education, 18, 68, 96, 245-246, 306, 308 advisories, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 324-325, 330, 335-336 federal government, general, 251, 308 licenses and permits, 16, 96, 106, 313 mercury, 246, 248, 330 PCBs, 246, 247, 248-249, 250 sampling, 248-249, 250 scombroid, 10, 96, 103 shellfish, 8, 24, 52, 313 state actions, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 306, 308, 312-313 Red tides, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 9, 10, 99, 105, 306, 317 Refrigeration, 44, 49, 56, 59, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 78, 95-96 see also Frozen food Reef fish, 1, 2, 102 ciguatera, 6, 9, 89, 90, 92, 102, 106, 329 see also specific species Regional factors, 2, 15, 18, 22, 117, 305, 314, 319 chemical residues, 11, 12, 17, 112, 126, 128, 129-150 (passim), 193, 240, 244, 247-248 ciguatera, 6, 89, 92, 305 control measures, 14, 15, 17, 68, 306, 309 monitoring, 14, 127-128, 240 natural toxins, general, 6, 9, 10, 14, 89, 92, 305 parasites, 67, 68 viral infections, 50, 52 see also specific geographic areas Regulations, 13-16, 17, 296, 305, 309, 319, 332 chemical residues, 12, 13, 17, 124, 125, 150, 173, 174-219, 223, 253-254, 306-307 economic factors, 17, 190-192, 193, 219, 244, 255, 307 ciguatera, 9, 306 costs, 17, 190-192, 193 dose-response relationships, 174-186 ethnic foods, 75 illness surveillance program, 78 imports, general, 14, 15, 16, 18, 25, 26-27 interstate trade, 223, 224, 229, 287, 300 labeling, 6, 26, 150, 222, 251, 310, 319, 322 natural toxins, general, 106, 306, 332 scombroid, 106 shellfish, 7 specific states, 342-414 state-level, 9, 10, 103, 106, 303, 304-314, 316, 319-324, 336 vessels and docks, 19, 26, 300, 307-311 waste management, 1, 2, 8, 17, 30, 52, 77, 254 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Food and Drug Administration; Inspection issues; Licenses and permits; Standards Renal system, 42, 115, 116, 117, 123, 160-161, 162, 180 Reporting issues, 22, 31, 302-303, 314-319 see also Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance Program; Northeast Technical Support Unit Reproductive toxicology chemical residues, general, 11, 12, 151, 178-179, 181, 219, 250, 252, 253, 256, 330 education on, 18 organic compounds, 119, 121, 189, 195, 219, 250 perinatal period, 57, 119, 161, 195, 205 trace metals, 114, 115, 118, 119, 159-164, 197, 205-207, 213-219, 231, 330

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Seafood Safety Research, 19-20 academic, 126 chemical residues, 12, 252-253 ciguatera, 92, 93, 306 consumer information, 27 inspection technology, 9, 10, 16-17, 19-20, 30, 78 microorganisms, 30, 78 natural toxins, 92, 93, 103, 106 risk assessment, 252-253 standards, 73-74 toxicology, experimental, 219, 332 Respiratory system, 97, 99, 100, 113, 115, 184 Risk assessment, 1, 2, 16, 320 allergies, 6, 35, 125, 310, 317, 319 bacterial infections, 3-6, 6-9, 30, 31, 37, 39, 41, 42-43, 44-45, 54-55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 66 chemical residues, 11-12, 112-113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 126, 151, 157-164, 172-259, 307, 333 ciguatera, 92-93 comparative, various products, 328-331 high-risk groups, 8, 14, 30, 31, 39, 41, 42, 44, 65, 68, 76, 77, 125, 229, 310, 330 mercury, 223, 229, 237-238, 241, 243, 253 microorganisms, general, 34, 64-76 parasites, 3-6, 6-9, 30, 31, 46, 47, 48-49 PCBs, 175, 176, 178, 182, 184, 186-187, 188-196, 223, 224, 240, 241, 253, 254, 257-258 natural toxins, 9-10, 92-93, 94, 102 sex differences, 115, 151, 159 vibrio, 37-38 viruses, 52, 62, 66, 67, 72 see also Dose-response assessment; Epidemiology; Exposure S Salmon, 24, 54, 59, 63, 244, 245, 278-281, 321 Salmonellae, 3, 8, 53-55, 67, 69, 73, 75, 77, 274-275, 292, 298, 303, 318, 329 Salting, 60, 66 Sampling, 14, 267-284, 307 chemical residues, 127-128, 181, 189, 199, 223-224, 241, 243, 244, 248-249, 254, 307 FDA, 189, 199, 223-224, 241, 243, 244, 248-249, 254, 267-284, 296-297, 321 imports, 244-245, 267 recreational catches, 248-249, 250 state-level actions, 307 Saxitoxins, 97-98, 100-101 Scaritoxin, 90 Scombroid poisoning, 6, 9, 10, 11, 88, 93-96, 102, 103, 105, 106, 313, 315, 316, 317, 329 Seasonal factors bacteria, 36, 39-40, 42, 44, 45-46, 67-68, 71, 77, 305 Gonyaulax, 98 Selenium, 113, 114, 117-118, 133-134, 143, 163-164, 238-239, 243 Septicemia, 39, 42, 57, 68 Sex differences bluefish, 248 chemical residues, 115, 151, 159 see also Reproductive toxicology Shark, 224, 244, 299, 330 Shellfish, 1, 4-6, 19 bacterial infections, 30-31, 34, 37-39, 40-42, 44, 45, 54, 55, 56, 61, 66-67, 68, 278, 291 chemical residues, 115, 232-237, 239, 247 crabs, 42, 50, 59, 74, 115, 277-278, 290, 291, 309, 323 diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, 9, 99-100 imports, 23, 73, 76, 77-78, 100, 103, 106, 245, 298-299, 329 langostinos, 278, 291 natural toxins, general, 292, 309 neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 9, 10, 99, 105, 306, 317 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 6, 9, 10, 88, 96-99, 102, 104, 296, 306, 315, 330, 331 parasitic infections, 30-31 recreational fishing, 8, 24, 52, 313 risk, general, 66-67 sampling, 277-278, 281-283 sulfites, 125, 310 standards, 68-70, 77-78, 322, 323 state-level action, 306, 309, 310, 315, 316 see also Molluscs; National Shellfish Sanitation Program Shigella, 8, 36, 45-46, 60-61, 67, 292 Shrimp, 328-329 Size and size restrictions, 150, 151-152, 154-155, 248-249 Skin and skin diseases, 94-95, 113, 114-115, 159, 163 Smoked seafood, see Curing and smoking Sous vide products, 63-64, 74 South Carolina, 400-411 Southeast Fisheries Association, 322 Southern blotting, 38 Southern California Coastal Water Research Organization, 240 Sport fishing, see Recreational fishing Standards, 19, 288-294 acceptable daily intake (ADI), 222, 226, 229-238 action levels, 289-290 advisories, 18, 251, 324, 335 aquaculture, 122 chemical residues, 123, 150-152, 154-155, 190-193, 240 crabs, 323 EPA, 287, 288, 290, 307, 320, 327, 328 FDA, 68-70, 123, 186-187, 189-196, 288-294 federal government, general, 68-70, 123, 186-187, 189-196, 288-294, 307 food processing, 70, 72-73, 74, 342-414 (passim) imports, 8-9, 13, 73, 77-78, 298, 300, 325, 334-335, 337 industry, 321-324 natural toxins, 95, 98, 103 PCBs, 293 regional, 319 risk models and, 177 shellfish, 68-70, 77-78, 322, 323 size restrictions, 150, 151-152, 154-155, 248-249 tolerances, 288-289 voluntary, 287, 300-301, 320, 321, 322 water quality, 68-69, 70, 77 Staphylococcus agents, 30, 61-62, 73 sampling, 271, 275 State government, 2, 13, 15, 16, 63, 304-325, 336, 342-414 (passim) aquaculture, 311-312, 320 CDC relations, 314, 315, 317 chemical residues, 12, 13, 14, 112, 306-307, 315-316, 324 ciguatera, 9, 106, 316 education, 9, 18, 306 federal aid to, 19, 307 federal cooperation with, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18-19, 31, 69, 106, 223, 302, 306, 307, 309, 310, 312, 313-314, 319-321; see also National Shellfish Sanitation Program food processing, 308-311, 316, 342-414 (passim) imports, 313, 316 inspection, 18-19, 308-311, 321-324 interstate trade, 223, 224, 229, 287, 300, 336 molluscs, 309, 310, 313, 315, 317, 324 natural toxins, general, 9, 10, 103, 106, 306, 316 neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 99, 306 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 10, 98, 306, 315 public information, 306, 308, 309 advisories, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 324-325, 335-336 recreational fishing, 18, 245-246, 250, 251, 306, 308, 312-313 regulations, general, 9, 10, 103, 106, 303, 304-314, 316, 319-324, 336 reporting, 22, 302-303, 314-319 sampling, 307 scombroid, 96, 316, 317 shellfish, 306, 309, 310, 315, 316 standards, 70, 319 vibrio bacteria, 309, 315, 316, 317

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Seafood Safety voluntary programs, 287, 300-301, 320, 321, 322 water quality, 310 see also Licenses and permits; specific states and U.S. territories Statistical programs and activities classification issues, 30, 240, 243, 269-273, 325, 332 consumer trends, 21-27 (passim), 199-200, 225-226 models, 176-179, 181-182, 184-185, 187-188, 250 Monte Carlo simulations, 187 morbidity and mortality, 302 national surveillance system, 2, 126-150, 240-245, 254, 268-269, 287-304 stochastic processes, 174, 181-184 uncertainty, 177-178, 187, 190, 193, 196, 219, 257, 268, 283 see also Centers for Disease Control; Data bases; Epidemiology; Reporting issues; Risk assessment; Sampling Stochastic processes, chemical toxicity, 174, 181-184 Subsistence fishing, 2, 10, 15, 17, 225, 245-251, 330 Sulfites, 125, 310 Sulfonamides, 122-123 Sweden, 196, 223 Swordfish, 12, 17, 154-155, 223, 224, 244, 298, 299, 330 T TCBS media, 41 Temperature effects, 63-64, 76 bacteria, general, 38, 41, 44, 46, 48, 58, 59, 61-64, 73, 330 control requirements, 17, 68, 69, 73 cooking, 9, 30, 70, 77, 78, 311, 328-329 cross-contamination, 311 distribution of seafood, 73 harvest waters bacteria, 36, 39-40, 41, 42, 44, 45-46, 48, 67-68, 69, 71, 77, 305 scombroid, 94, 103 molluscs, 7, 30, 39-40, 46, 67-68 nitrosamines, 124 pasteurization, 62-63 scombroid, 10, 94, 103, 106 vibrio, 40, 41, 44, 72 viruses, 62 see also Frozen food; Refrigeration Tennessee, 96 Tetracycline, 75 Tetratogenesis, see Reproductive toxicology Tetrodotoxin, 100 Thailand, 23 Three-class attribute sampling, 271-272 Time factors, 76 chemical residues, 124, 130 distribution of seafood, 73, 310 dose response, 113 molluscs, 7, 68 preparation by consumers, 26 scombroid, 106 terminal sale dates, 310 vibrio, 40, 41, 44 Tin, 113-114 Total Diet Study, 222-223, 238, 241 Toxaphene, 149-150 Toxicology, see Chemical toxins; Developmental toxicology; Natural toxins; Reproductive toxicology Toxic Substances Control Act, 118 Trace metals, 12, 113-118, 126, 128, 129, 139-143, 157-164, 224 acceptable daily intake, 226, 229-238 bioconcentration levels, 113, 129-134, 139-143 blood diseases, 116, 117, 161, 180 chronic toxicity, 158-164 hepatic system, 115, 116, 159 neurotoxicity, 114, 115, 117, 161, 162, 180, 185-186, 188, 204-211, 213-219 persistence, 113, 117, 158-164, 197-199, 213, 219 reproductive toxicology, 114, 115, 118, 119, 159-164, 197, 205-207, 213-219, 231, 330 see also specific metals Trematodes, 47-48 Tribal fishing, 225, 245-251 Tuna, 10, 93, 95, 96, 103, 199-200, 299, 330 canned, 23, 224, 244, 329 Tuna Research Foundation, 199-200 Two-class attribute sampling, 269-270 Typhoid, 55, 69 U United Nations, see Food and Agriculture Organization United Kingdom, 201 Urinary disorders, 123 V Vaccines, 53 Vacuum packaging, 60, 63, 64, 74 Vessels, regulation of, 19, 26, 300, 307-311 Vibrio bacteria, 2, 6-8, 19, 30-34, 36-45, 66-68, 72-74, 76, 77, 95, 100, 292, 305, 320, 324 cholera, 19, 37-41, 45, 66, 292, 316-317, 318 state-level actions, 309, 315, 316, 317 Virgin Islands, 89, 91, 314, 316 Viruses, 32, 49-54, 62, 65-67, 72, 76 see also specific viruses Voluntary programs, 287, 300-301, 320, 321, 322, 323 Vomiting, 89, 95, 100 W Washington, 96, 128, 246, 311, 316, 411-414 Waste management, 8, 17, 30, 52, 77, 254 see also Pollution Water quality monitoring, 17, 30, 295, 310, 335 harvest waters bacteria, 36, 39-42, 44-46, 48, 67-69, 71, 77, 305 scombroid, 94, 103 standards, 68-69, 70, 77 see also National Shellfish Sanitation Program Wisconsin, 319 Women, 115, 151 see also Reproductive toxicology World Health Organization, 222, 229, 230, 275, 326 Wound infections, 37, 39, 42 Y Yersinia enterocolitica, 56-57, 73, 74