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Index A Airbus Industrie, 96 Aircraft engine industry, 33-34, 46, 48,51,93-97 critical technologies, 34, 97 Europe, 33, 34, 96 foreign direct investment, 33 government role, 33, 95 interflrm alliances, 33, 93-95 Japan, 33, 34, 96 product cycles, 33, 93-94 R&D, 33, 34, 94, 95, 96 American Technology Preeminence Act, 12,86 Antitrust policy, 11-12, 51-52, 74, 85-86 electrical equipment, 124 electric turbine generators, 123 Japan, 69, 74 monopolies, global 51-52 see also Interfirm alliances; Mergers and acquisitions Artificial intelligence, see Expert systems 15 ASEA Brown Boveri, 123 Asia, 17, 19, 26, 27, 40, 54, 68, 135 South Korea, 63 see also Japan Automotive industry, 29-31, 45-46, 48,6(}61,98-102 Europe, 30, 31, 98 foreign direct investment, 30 foreign trade, 30-31 government role, 101 Japan, 30-31, 45-46, 98, 99, 101-102 joint ventures and interim alliances, 30, 99, 100, 101 management, 99, 102 protectionism, 30 B Ben Franklin Partnership Program, 6,64 Best practice techniques, 46 generic technologies, 7-8, 79-81 Biotechnology, 28, 35, 41, 47, 103-109

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152 C Canada, 17, 18 Canon, 114, 115 Capital investment, 35, 46, 51, 6~66, 68 electrical equipment manufacturing, 123 foreign sources for U.S. universities, 38 government role, 83 venture, 59, 67~8 see also Infrastructure Chemical process industry, 110-113 Coal-powered generators, 123, 131-133 Commercialization of technology biotechnology, 108 downstream capabilities, 4, 6, 9, 67,78 generic technologies, 7-8, 79-81 government role, 76-83 historical perspectives, 14-15, 64, 75-76 patents, 1, 15, 17, 19-21, 46, 52, 56 university role, 63-64 Computer-aided design, 79, 112, 120 Computers and computer science, 17, 51, 59, 114, 120, 134 printer industry, 35, 46, 11~118 Concurrent engineering, 46 Construction industry, 31-33, 119-122 Japan, 32-33, 120 management, 32-33, 122 mergers and acquisitions, 31-32 R&D, 31,32, 121 standards, 31, 119, 121-122 Consumers and consumption, 58 auto industry, 100 Japanese, 67 INDEX Corporate nationality, 3, 8, 76, 82, 85,99 discrimination against U.S. firms, 11, 76, 82, 85 Corporations, see Transnational corporations Costs, 27, 51, 72, 82 aircraft engine development, 33, 34 computer printer manufacturing, 116 generic technologies, government assistance, 7-8, 80, 81 of protectionism, 48, 52 D Defense industries, see Military technology Department of Commerce, 8, 40, 41, 81,83, 125 Department of Defense, 8, 81 Developing countries, 46, 52, 63, 98, 111 Diffusion, technology, 4, 6, 7, 72, 76, 77 generic, 7-8, 79-81 E Education, 5, 6,57, 60, 61-63, 76, 82-83 national learning differentials, 51 primary/secondary, 60, 61-63 public investment, 9 see also Universities Electrical equipment and power systems, 123-133 Electronics, 17, 123 semiconductors, 7, 46, 51, 52, 67, 134-137 see also Computers and computer science

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INDEX Energy, see Electrical equipment and power systems Engineers and scientists, 2, 46~7, 59-60,62,75 foreign, 5, 26, 35, 36-37, 59-60, 62-63, 64, 77, 95, 112, 113 spending on, 15 statistics on, 15, 55, 56 Environmental issues, 47, 74, 111, 112 clean coal technology, 123, 131-133 Europe, 15-17, 19, 23, 74, 113, 134, 135 aircraft engines, 33, 34, 96 auto industry, 30, 31, 98 computer printers, 118 construction industry, 32, 120 Eastern Europe, 52 electrical equipment, 124 foreign direct investment, 26, 40, 49,50 infrastructure investment, 65 patents, 17 R&D, 27, 54, 68, 96 technology gap, 14, 54 worker skills, 62 see also specific countries European Community, 11, 74, 85, 134 Expert systems, 59 Exports and imports, see International trade F FAX technology, 118 Federal government, see Laws, specific federal; National governments; specific departments and agencies Financial factors, 5, 9 policy, 74, 76 153 student aid, 38, 42, 68 see also Mergers and acquisitions Ford, Henry, 125 Foreign direct investment, 1, 2, 10, 11,40,41,48-50,52,71,73, 77,81, 8~85 aircraft industry, 33 auto industry, 30 Europe, 26, 40, 49, 50 history of, 14, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30,40,48-50,71,75 Japan, 30, 49, 50, 85 laws affecting, 10-11, 84-85 in universities, 38, 42 Foreign and foreign-born engineers, 5,26,35,36-37,59-60, 62-63, 64, 77, 95, 112, 113 Foreign students, 35, 36-37, 42, 57. 62-63 Fujitsu, 135 G Genentech, 108 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 12, 74, 86, 125 General Electric, 33, 34, 93, 95, 96 Generic technologies, 7-8, 79-81 Genetic engineering, see Biotechnology Group of Five, 15, 50 Group of Seven, 17, 18 H Hewlett-Packard, 40, 114, 115 Human factors, 5 creativity, 60, 68 cultural factors, 51, 60, 76, 112 individualism, 60 see also Engineers and scientists

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154 IBM, 40 Imports and exports, see International trade Industrial Technology Institute, 6, 12,79 Information industry, 28,58,59 publication, scientific, 57 technical personnel, 47 see also Computers and computer science Infrastructure, 5, 7, 8-9, 76, 82-83 automotive industry, 101 investment in, 64 66 rational, 7, 8-9,73, 86 regional, 7 see also Capital investment; Education Intellectual properly, 71 computer software, 59 patents, 1, 15, 17, 19-21,46,52, 56 Interf~rm alliances, 27-28,30, 32, 45,51,52 International Electrical Association, 124 International negotiations and agreements, 52, 74 see also Antitrust policy; European Community; GATT; OECD; U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Agreement; U.S.-Japan Structural Impediments Initiative International organizations, 12, 16, 17, 39-40, 68, 86 see also GATT, OECD International trade, 1, 9-10, 25, 26, 45, 46, 47-52, 84 aircraft industry, 33 autos, 3~31 INDEX construction industry, 31-32 electrical equipment, 124 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 12, 74, 86, 125 high-tech, 15, 19, 22, 25-26, 40 see also Antitrust policy; International negotiations and agreements; International organizations; OECD Intraindustry trade, 49-51 Japan, 14, 15-16, 17, 19, 41, 67, 135 aircraft engines, 33, 34, 96 antitrust, 69,74 auto industry, 3~31,45-46, 98, 99, 101-102 capital investment, 68 computer primers, 115, 116, 117-118 construction industry, 32-33, 120 consumers, 67 electrical equipment, 124 foreign direct investment, 30, 49, 50, 85 infrastructure investment, 65 patents, 17 protectionism, 11,48-49, 85, 124 quality control, 46 U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Agreement, 52 U.S.-Japan Structural Impediments Initiative, 74 Joint ventures, 7, 27-29, 38, 41,51, 73, 79, 100, 101 aircraft, 33 auto industry, 30, 99, 100, 101; see also Interfere alliances; Technology, licensing electrical equipment, 124 electric turbine generators, 123

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INDEX Kodak, 117 K L Laser technology, computer printers, 115 Laws, specific federal American Technology Preeminence Act, 12, 86 foreign direct investment, 1~11, 84-85 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act, 12, 86 Technology Corporation Act, 12, 86 Licensing, see Technology, licensing M Machine tool industry, 48 Management and managers, 2, 34-35, 45, 46, 47, 62, 71, 80, 84 auto industry, 99, 102 construction industry, 32-33, 122 chemical process industry, 111, 112 electrical equipment, 124 see also Process design; Product cycles Manufacturing, 12, 39, 78, 86, 100 aircraft industry, 33-34, 46, 48, 51, 93-97 automotive industry, 29-31, 45-46,48,60-61,98-102 basic skills education and, 61 chemical process industry, 110-113 competition, 11-12, 14, 17, 3~35, 48, 51-52 155 computer printer industry, 35, 46, 114-118 electrical equipment and power, 123-133 electronics, general, 17, 123 flexible, 3~31, 135 generic technologies, 7-8, 79-81 high-tech, 15, 17, 19, 22, 25-26, 40, 45, 59, 62, 73, 108 inventories, 41, 46 machine tools, 48 organization of, 46, 62, 78, 102 productivity, 14, 17-19 semiconductors, 7, 46, 51, 52, 67, 134-137 steel industry, 45~6, 48 university mismatch with industry, 63-64, 66, 68, 125 Markets, see Antitrust and antitrust law; Competition; International trade; National markets Materials science, 28, 35 computer printers, 116 technical personnel, 47 Mergers and acquisitions, 12, 24, 26-29, 51-52, 74 construction industry, 31-32 electrical equipment, 124 Military technology, 7, 8, 16, 24, 39, 79 aircraft engines, 33, 95 university funding, 63-64 Monopolies, see Antitrust policy Multinational corporations, see Transnational corporations N National governments, 2-3, 5, 6-10, 76-77, 78-79, 82-84 aircraft industry, 33, 9S

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156 auto industry, 101 capital investment, 83 commercialization of technology, 76-83 competition intervention, 2-3, 9 construction industry, 121 corporate relations, 84-85 generic technology, 7-8, 80, 81 interagency coordination, 9-10, 83 procurement codes, 125 R&D, 33, 37 student aid, 42, 68 technical competence, 83-84 technology development programs, 52 see also Laws, specific federal; Protectionism; specific U.S. federal departments and agencies National Institute of Standards and Technology, 6, 83 National markets, 47, 51 aircraft engines, 33-34 auto industry, 30 closed, 48-49 construction industry, 31-32 electrical equipment, 124 infrastructure, 7, 8-9, 73, 86 integration, 23, 25, 45 U.S., openness, 57-59 see also Protectionism National Science Foundation, 6, 64, 79 National security, 7, 33, 79, 82, 33, 95-97 see also Military technology National treatment, see Corporate nationality NEC, 135 Nuclear power, 129-131 INDEX o Office of Management and Budget, 103 Office of Technology Assessment, 108 Ohio, 6, 79 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act, 12, 86 Organizational factors, 9, 26, 83 auto industry, 30 construction industry, 12(~121 decentralization, 2, 26 federal government, 9-10, 83 manufacturing, 46, 62, 66, 78, 102 U.S. research and economy, 55-59 vertical integration, 32-33, 35, 102 see also Infrastructure; Management and managers Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 12, 16, 17, 39-40, 68, 86 p Patents, 1, 15, 17, 19-21, 46, 52, 56 Pharmaceuticals, 17, 108 Policy, =10, 8, 1(}12, 71-86 foreign funding of U.S. research, 38 international directions, 84-86 nationally managed trade, 2, 27 see also Regulation and deregulation Pratt & Whitney, 33, 34, 93, 95, 96 Process design, 6, 24, 34, 35, 46, 62, 72, 80, 95, 11~113 Product cycles, 2, 27, 28, 65, 66, 72

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INDEX aircraft engines, 33, 93-94 autos, 102 Product design, 6, 7, 24, 35, 46, 62, 72, 80, 96 aircraft engines, 94, 95 computer-aided, 79, 112, 120 construction industry, 31, 32 Production and productivity, 15, 17 auto industry, 31 Gross Domestic Product, 16, 18, 65 Gross National Product, 16, 39, 58,65 internationalization, 1-2, 24 manufacturing, 14, 17-19, 22, 62 national government intervention, 3 research and downstream capabilities, 4, 6, 9, 67, 78 total factor, 39 Protectionism, 10, 11, 48-51, 73, 74,84,85 auto industry, 30 cost of, 48, 52 discrimination against U.S. firms, 11, 76, 82, 85 electrical equipment, 124 see also Antitrust policy; Foreign direct investment; International trade; Regulation and deregulation Q Quality control, 41~2, 46, 79 R Regional issues, 6, 48, 74, 78-79 auto industry, 98-99 generic technology, 80 infrastructure, 7 interfirm alliances, 29 157 Regulation and deregulation, 5, 9, 74, 76, 82, 83 autos, 99 biotechnology, 109 construction industry, 31, 119, 121-122 generic technologies, 80 see also International negotiations and agreements; Protectionism; Standards Research and development, 1, 2, 39-41 academic, 36-37 aircraft, 33, 34, 94, 95, 96 biotechnology, 109 chemical processes, 111 competition and, 4, 6, 15, 77-78 construction-related, 31, 32, 121 interdisciplinary, 38 law, specific federal, 12, 86 military technology, 7, 8, 16, 24, 33,39,63-64,79,95 product cycles and, 2, 27, 28, 33, 65, 66, 72, 93-94 spending, 1, 15-16, 27, 37-38, 39, 41, 55, 64, 77, 81, 94, 95 U.S., 4, 5-6, 54-57, 63-64 see also Engineers and scientists Rolls-Royce, 33, 34, 93, 95, 96 S Semiconductor industry, 7, 46, 51, 52, 67, 134-137 Service sector, 40, 58, 78, 86 chemical process industry, 113 competition, 11-12 construction industry, 31-33, 119-122 Siemens, 117 Southern Technology Council, 6, 12,79 Standard of living, 9, 80, 82

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158 Standards, 71, 74 aircraft engines, 95 construction, 31, 119, 121-122 corporate role in U.S. economy, 8 electrical equipment, 125 industry classification, federal, 39-40, 103 manufacturing, multinational, 24 procurement codes, 125 State government, 5, 6, 8, 76-77, 78-79, 83 Ben Franlclin Partnership Program, 6, 64 Thomas Edison Program, 6, 79 university funding, 42, 64,77 Steel industry, 45~6, 48 Structural factors, see Infrastructure; Organizational factors Synergism research and downstream techniques, 4, 6, 9, 67, 78 T Technical personnel, see Engineers and scientists Technology biotechnology, 28, 35, 41, 47, 103-109 construction, 119-120 converging national capabilities, 1-2,4, 1~23,34,71,72-73 cooperation agreements, 27-28, 30,32,45,51,52,73,80, 95-96, 100, 101 critical, 8, 29, 34-35, 81 downstream capabilities, 4, 6, 9, 67,78 generic, 7-8,79-81 interim alliances, 27-29, 33-34, 35,41,51,66-67,69,78,81, 84, 86, 9~95, 100; see also Joint ventures INDEX licensing, 51, 41, 80, 113, 122 materials science, 28, 35, 47, 116 military technology, 7, 8, 16, 24, 33, 39, 63~4, 79, 95 see also Patents; Research and development; Transfer of technology Technology Corporation Act, 12, 86 Telecommunications, 48, 59 Communications, 17, 48,58 FAX, 118 mass media, 38 Thomas Edison Program, 6,79 Transfer of technology, 26, 40, 35, 51,73 construction industry, 121-122 diffusion, 4, 6, 7, 72, 76, 77, 78-81 generic, 7-8,79-81 homogenization, 99-100 national security, 7, 33, 79, 82, 95-97 Transnational corporations, 2, 3, 1(~11,72,75 auto industry, 3(}31, 99 cooperation agreements, 27-28, 30,32,45,51,52,73,80, 95-96, 100, 101; see also Technology, licensing corporate citizenship, 3, 82, 85 foreign affiliates, 24-25, 27-28, 35, 45, 66, 84 government relations, 74, 84-85 historical development, 14, 24, 26-29, 34 interfirm alliances, 27-29, 33-34, 35,41,51,66~7,69,78,81, 84, 86, 94-95, 100; see also Joint ventures research funding in U.S. universities, 37-39 Technology Corporation Act, 12, 86

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INDEX Transportation, 58 aircraft engine industry, 33-34, 93-97 auto industry, 29-31, 45~6, 48, 6()61,98-102 U Universities, 35-39, 57, 77, 83 chemical engineering, 11~111 doctoral degrees, 36, 42, 57, 62 foreign funding of research, 38, 42 foreign faculty, 26, 35, 36-37, 60,63,77 foreign students, 35, 36-37, 42, 57, 62-63 master's degrees, 62 relations with industry, 63~4, 66, 68, 125 159 research, 36-39, 64, 77 state role, 42, 64, 77 student aid, 38, 42, 68 U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Agreement, 52 U.S.-Japan Structural Impediments Initiative, 74 V Venture capital, 59, 67-68 W Westinghouse, 124 X Xerox, 114, 117