10.  

Section 776.19, Export Administration Regulations.

11.  

Section 778, Export Administration Regulations.

12.  

Section 776.18, Export Administration Regulations.

13.  

Section 776.19, Export Administration Regulations.

14.  

The stated purpose of the various statutes is as follows:

Export Administration Act, Public Law 96-72, Section 3(2): "It is the policy of the U.S. to use export controls only after full consideration of the impact on the economy of the U.S. and only to the extent necessary

(a) to restrict the export of goods and technology which would make a significant contribution to the military potential of any other country or combination of countries which would prove detrimental to the national security of the U.S.;

(b) to restrict the export of goods and technology where necessary to further significantly the foreign policy of the U.S. or to fulfill its declared international obligations; and

(c) to restrict the export of goods where necessary to protect the domestic economy from the excessive drain of scarce materials and to reduce the serious inflationary impact of foreign demand."

Arms Export Control Act, Public Law, 90-629, Senate 2778: "In furtherance of world peace and the security and foreign policy of the U.S., the President is authorized to control the import and the export of defense articles and defense services . . . Decisions on issuing export licenses under this section . . . shall take into account . . . whether the export will contribute to an arms race, support international terrorism, increase the possibility of outbreak or escalation of conflict or prejudice the development of bilateral or multilateral arms control arrangements."

Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-467,

Section 3201: "The Congress finds and declares that the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices or of the direct capability to manufacture or otherwise acquire such devices poses a grave threat to the security interests of the U.S. and to continued international progress toward world peace and development."

Section 3202: "It is the purpose of this Section to promote the policies set forth (in Section 3201) by—

(a) establishing a more effective framework for international cooperation to . . . ensure that . . . the export by any nation of nuclear materials and technology intended for use in peaceful nuclear activities do not contribute to proliferation.

(b) authorizing the U.S. to take such actions as are required to ensure that it will act reliably in meeting its commitment to supply nuclear reactors and fuel to nations which adhere to effective non-proliferation policies;

(c) providing incentives to the other nations of the world to join in such international cooperative efforts and to ratify the Treaty; and

(d) ensuring effective controls by the U.S. over its exports of nuclear materials and equipment and of nuclear technology."

Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act of 1977. H.R. 7738.

The purpose of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act is to redefine the power of the President to regulate international economic transactions in times of war or national emergency and to separate war and non-war authorities. Presidential powers are narrowed and made subject to congressional review in times of "national emergency" short of war. A national emergency is defined in Title II, Section 202 as an "unusual and extraordinary threat which has its source in whole or substantial part outside the United



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