for the first time to establish a balance between the need to protect technology essential to U.S. national security and the desire to promote U.S. trade. This change was designed, in part, to engage the Soviets in an expanded set of trade relationships and, in part, to acknowledge the growing importance of U.S. export trade to overall national economic well-being. The change in emphasis was reflected in the very name of the act itself, in which the word, "administration," was substituted for the word, "control." The EAA of 1969 was the first of many subsequent legislative attempts to limit the number of items subject to control, and it also marked the first time that Congress recommended that foreign availability of controlled items be taken into account explicitly in the licensing process.

The Nixon administration, however, did not support unilateral liberalization of national security export controls. It preferred instead to use partial relaxation of controls as part of an explicit linkage strategy whereby non-strategic trade could be used as leverage to promote other positive changes in Soviet behavior. One of the principal concerns at this time was the growing international outcry over Soviet mistreatment of political dissidents and its refusal to permit expanded emigration of Jews and other minorities. The Congress subsequently formalized its commitment to human rights by passing the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the 1974 Trade Reform Act, which linked the granting of most favored nation (MFN) trade status to the Soviet Union and other countries to human rights improvements and liberalized emigration policies.* Passage of the act largely ended for the moment any possibility of further liberalization of the U.S.-Soviet trade relationship.

Congress also renewed and amended the EAA again in 1974, reiterating its interest in balancing the protection of national security and the promotion of trade and introducing a 90-day time limit in the review of license applications under some circumstances. The intent of Congress was further underscored in the EAA renewal of 1977, wherein it attempted (still without much success) to shorten the license processing time by setting stricter time limits for the Department of Commerce's review of license applications. Also during this period, in 1976, Congress revised the Arms Export Control Act, which regulates the import and export of defense articles (i.e., arms, ammunition, and implements of war), defense services, and directly related technical data.

THINGS FALL APART

By 1978, East-West relations had begun to deteriorate seriously, due in part to Soviet mistreatment of dissidents and foreign journalists. The United

*  

Reportedly, this amendment was largely drafted by Richard N. Perle, who was then a staff aide to Senator Henry (Scoop) Jackson.



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