need for changes in access to, 107

proliferation of, 2, 59

Brazil

cooperation on export controls with U.S., 123

nuclear facilities, 56

Bucy, J. Fred, 28n, 339

Bulgaria

change in relationship with Soviet Union, 43-44

economic aid for, 50

Bulk licensing, 109

Bureau of Export Administration (BXA), 79-80, 94, 95, 146, 191, 338

C

Cambodia, 72, 78

Canada fact-finding mission

general issues, 299-300

meeting with government officials, 300-301

meeting with industry representatives, 302-303

Canadian Aerospace Industries Association, 303

Canadian Export Association, 302

Canopies for jet fighter planes, 21n

Carter, Jimmy, 314, 316

Center for Information on Strategic Technology, 298

Center for Study of Relation Between Technologies and Strategies (CREST), 276

Central America, regional conflict in southern, 55

Chad, 57

Chemical weapons

availability in countries in Middle East, 55

foreign policy controls and, 116

license processing for items related to, 83

need for changes in access to, 107, 108

problems in monitoring, 35-36

proliferation controls, 2, 71, 77, 79, 89, 132, 135-136, 178

proliferation of, 57-59

Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), 71, 135-137, 185

China. See People's Republic of China

China Green Line, 51, 65, 279, 281

CoCom. See Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls

CoCom countries

See also Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom);

individual countries

access to export control information in, 20

differences in control practices vis-à-vis U.S., 19, 101

interest in changing dual use item restrictions, 107

opposition to extraterritoriality, 317

prevention of reexports of CoCom-controlled items, 30

Third Country Cooperation initiative, 66-68, 122-126, 171, 176

trade between European Community members of, 120-122

CoCom High-Level Meeting (June 1990)

redefinition of control levels for computers, 25

results, 20, 67, 96, 126, 343

CoCom Industrial List, 3, 75, 87, 95, 118, 121, 175, 192, 242, 302

Cold War era, 310-312, 321

Commerce Department, U.S.

as chief export control administrative agency, 145-146, 180

enforcement procedures of, 150

involvement in judicial review, 101-102, 321-333

involvement in National Security Council meetings, 153

licensing responsibilities, 79-86

problem of overlapping jurisdictions facing, 94-95

study on emerging technologies, 21, 200

technical advisory committees established and administered by, 102 , 103, 195, 336, 338, 343-347

Commercial aircraft and jet engine industries

Airbus Industrie, 23, 227

effect on U.S. economy and national security, 225

effectiveness of controls based on structure of, 240-241

export control problems related to, 241-243

features of, 224-225

foreign partnerships, 226, 246

impact of export controls on, 22-23, 222, 238-239

major companies, 223

nations with heavy maintenance capability, 226, 247

purchase orders, 244, 245

report of subpanel on, 222-247

Soviet, 234-238

technologies critical to military lead of West, 230-231, 234

technology components, 228-230

trend toward globalization and foreign competition, 225-228

U.S. vs. Soviet technologies, 236-238

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), 57, 6-7, 306-307

Commodities

characteristics of, 252

computer products classified as, 256

definition of, 163, 164

Commoditization of products, 250

Commodity Control List (CCL), 72, 73, 77, 80, 95, 190, 192, 241

analysis of selected entries, 207-213

application of risk/opportunity formula to items on, 200, 214

controllability of items, 172

Computer industry

controllability issues in, 251-253

export controls, 23-25, 256-261

and foreign availability assessments, 255-256



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