The MTCR's purpose is to restrict the export of goods and technology that could be used to produce a missile capable of carrying a nuclear payload. The parameters of control are missiles with ranges greater than 190 miles and payloads of more than 1,100 pounds (300 kilometers/500 kilograms).
The MTCR includes guidelines for participants and an annex of items to be controlled, but national export decisions are not subject to group review or consensus. Exports of munitions items on the annex are to be denied to nonmembers, but dual use items can be exported with "appropriate assurances" from the government of the importing country. Multilateral cooperation is based on an agreement not to undercut the export denials of other members and to share intelligence on "projects of concern."
Twenty nations, under the leadership of Australia, have joined what has come to be known as the Australia Group.* The Australia Group identifies chemical precursors that could be significant in the development of chemical weapons and are being sought for such purposes. The Australia Group is meant to be an interim arrangement in anticipation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) currently being negotiated as part of the Conference on Disarmament.
The Australia Group has no formal basis and does not specify required conduct by its participants. Export controls or appropriate restrictions are recommended for trade in the chemicals identified as weapons precursors. Intelligence is shared among the participants on suspected chemical weapons development, and Iran, Iraq, Libya, and Syria have been identified as official targets of export controls. There are no collective sanctions for end-use violations.
In addition to the East-West national security controls, nuclear proliferation controls, and other, foreign policy based proliferation controls, the United States targets a number of individual countries for specific export restrictions. Authority for these specific types of controls is found in Section 6 of the EAA and in the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) of 1977. Before imposing controls under the IEEPA, the President must determine that a situation constitutes a national emergency or an "unusual and extraordinary