• capabilities and objectives of the missile and space programs of the recipient country;

  • nonproliferation credentials of the importing country; and

  • types of assurances or guarantees against use for nuclear weapons delivery purposes or proliferation given in a particular case.

The Commerce Department initially reviews license applications to determine the potential contribution of the items to missile development and the sensitivity of the end use and end user based on information from the intelligence community. Applications for items that could make a significant contribution and are destined to countries identified as being of potential concern are referred to the interagency Missile Technology Export Control (MTEC) group, chaired by State's Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs (PM), Office of Weapons Proliferation Policy.

The PM bureau chairs MTEC meetings on U.S. export licensing decisions and foreign sales to missile-related programs on alternate weeks. The Commerce and Defense Departments, ACDA, NASA, and the intelligence community are represented in these interagency meetings. Licensing recommendations, including provisions for certain conditions or government-to-government assurances, are forwarded to Commerce. If government-to-government assurances are necessary, they are requested by State from the recipient government on behalf of Commerce. Disputes on the appropriate licensing action may be referred to the PCC on Non-Proliferation.

Chemicals

The United States requires an individual license for export of core list chemicals to any destination, except other Australia Group members; exports of chemicals on the warning list to Libya, Syria, Iran, or Iraq require an individual license. There is a presumption of denial for applications to export chemicals on the core or warning lists to Libya, Syria, Iran, or Iraq. Applications to export chemicals on the lists to other destinations identified by the intelligence community as being of potential concern are referred by Commerce to State's Economic Bureau. Disputes on the appropriate licensing action may be referred to the PCC on Non-Proliferation.

Enforcement

The U.S. Customs Service and BXA's Office of Export Enforcement share responsibility for export enforcement functions. The Customs enforcement program covers all export control laws, including the Export Administration Act, Arms Export Control Act, Atomic Energy Act, and Trading with the Enemy Act, as well as other, unrelated laws. Interdiction efforts related to



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