Index

A

Accounting systems 17 , 74 , 131

Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) 133 , 139 n.9

Adaptive control 33 , 35 , 36–37

Advanced coatings 79

Advanced engineered materials (AEM) 9 , 12 , 21 ,78–80

educational infrastructure 82–83 , 94–96

knowledge-based systems 87–88 , 96–97

metal-matrix composites 81–82 , 91 , 92–93

polymer-based composites 80–81 , 92

potential of 83–85

process simulation and modeling 85–86 , 96–97 , 112

research needs 1 , 2 , 21 , 92–97

sensors 88–89

technical cost modeling 89–92

Advanced manufacturing technology

See also Technology

and competitiveness 1 , 3 , 5 , 17

data collection 11 , 13–14

development of 103–105

and organizational structure 10–11

work force skills and 2 , 7–9 , 17 , 18 , 120 , 126–127 , 132 , 138

Aircraft engine manufacturing 58 , 63–65 , 102

Aishin Seiki pump factory 59–60

Alcoa Research Laboratories 87

Alloys 79

aluminum 87 , 97 n.1

ceramic 84

polymer 81



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Index A Accounting systems 17 , 74 , 131 Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) 133 , 139 n.9 Adaptive control 33 , 35 , 36–37 Advanced coatings 79 Advanced engineered materials (AEM) 9 , 12 , 21 ,78–80 educational infrastructure 82–83 , 94–96 knowledge-based systems 87–88 , 96–97 metal-matrix composites 81–82 , 91 , 92–93 polymer-based composites 80–81 , 92 potential of 83–85 process simulation and modeling 85–86 , 96–97 , 112 research needs 1 , 2 , 21 , 92–97 sensors 88–89 technical cost modeling 89–92 Advanced manufacturing technology See also Technology and competitiveness 1 , 3 , 5 , 17 data collection 11 , 13–14 development of 103–105 and organizational structure 10–11 work force skills and 2 , 7–9 , 17 , 18 , 120 , 126–127 , 132 , 138 Aircraft engine manufacturing 58 , 63–65 , 102 Aishin Seiki pump factory 59–60 Alcoa Research Laboratories 87 Alloys 79 aluminum 87 , 97 n.1 ceramic 84 polymer 81

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing titanium 102 Aluminum, graphite-reinforced 91 Aluminum Alloy Design Inventor (ALADIN) 87 , 97 n.1 Analog-to-digital conversions 28 Annealing 84 Apprenticeship 125 , 127 Artificial intelligence 17 , 40 , 57 , 87 , 96–97 , 97 n.1, 116 Automation 109 , 116 , 124 Automobile part manufacturing 58–59 , 80 , 90 B Bachelor's degree 137 Blacks 152 Blend (alloy) polymers 81 Breakdown maintenance 54 , 57 Business-related assumptions 34 , 35–36 C Capacity utilization 19 , 74 Capital investment 77 n.3, 78 equipment reliability and maintenance and 9 , 54 , 56–57 , 58 , 61 , 74 , 75 Carnegie Mellon University 87 Ceramics 23 alloys 84 fibers 82 , 83 Chemicals industry 46–49 Closed-loop feedback control 39–40 , 42 , 51 Cognitive science 40 Communication 110 Competitiveness 1 , 9–11 barriers to 16–18 equipment reliability and 54 , 70 , 72 Computer-aided design (CAD) 46 , 48 , 95 , 102 , 115 , 117 Computer-aided engineering (CAE) 107 , 115 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) 115 , 131 Computer-integrated enterprising (CIE) 113 , 115 Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) 13 , 42 , 55–56 Computer simulation 85 , 89 , 102 , 112 Computer software in equipment reliability and maintenance 54–55 , 56 , 61 , 69 , 76 in intelligent manufacturing control 20 , 25 , 52 in materials production 88 Computer technology 28 Conceptual design 105–106 Conceptual thinking 136 Concurrent engineering 63 , 76 , 101 Contingencies 36 , 41 Control decisions 29 , 109–110 , 119. See also Intelligent manufacturing control; Process control Cooperative behavior 136–137 Cooperative Hierarchical Image Learning Dynamics (CHILD) 31–32 Copolymers 79 Copper-clad Invar (CIC) 91 Copper-clad molybdenum (CMC) 91 Cornell University 95 Cost accounting systems 17 , 131

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Cost models 68 cost-of-ownership models 112 technical cost modeling 89–92 Cost reduction 69 Costs education and training 135 equipment reliability and maintenance and 55 , 67 , 68 , 74 , 75 of machine downtime 19–20 , 59 , 74 nonproduction 17 production 17 , 55 , 109 , 110 in product realization process 14 , 101 , 109 , 110 semiconductor manufacturing equipment 61 , 62 , 63 Crystal growth techniques 84 , 102 Customer needs 9 and advanced engineered materials 85 and product realization process 98 , 99 , 100 , 105 , 106 , 107 , 110 , 111 , 115 , 116 D Data acquisition and analysis 31 , 32 in advanced manufacturing technology 11 , 13–14 on equipment reliability and maintenance 68 in intelligent manufacturing control 1 , 14 , 15 , 29 , 30 , 38 , 39 , 42 , 44 , 49 for product realization images 115 , 119 Decision making in cost modeling 90 intelligent manufacturing control 6 , 26–27 , 28–29 , 30 , 35 Least Commitment 97 n.1 manufacturing 73 , 74 , 117 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 95 , 133 Design 26 , 40 advanced engineered materials 2 , 93 detailed processes 107–108 for manufacturability 78 , 101 , 102 , 109 for product quality 106–107 and product realization process 14 , 100 , 112–113 , 115–116 , 118 for reliability 63–65 , 74 Diesel locomotives 33 Display technologies 116 Distribution systems 26 , 110–111 Downtime costs 19–20 , 59 , 74 Drafting 107 Drucker, Peter 17 E E-beam submicron lithography 95 Economist 18 , 122 Education 50 , 126 attainment levels 5 , 6 , 120 continuing 124–125 education and training consortia 134–135 faculty 133 , 137 funding 128 , 133 , 134 , 135 , 136 , 137 managerial 133–134

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing manufacturing 73 , 97 , 120–122 , 123 , 127 , 128 , 130–131 , 132–133 , 138 materials processing 82–83 , 94–96 microelectronics 128 , 129 paraprofessional 135 teaching factories 94–95 , 96 , 97 teaching methods 137 U.S., inadequacy of 2 , 18 , 22 , 122–123 , 138 Electromechanical equipment 69 Electron beams 84 Electronic materials 84 Electronics manufacturing equipment 8 Employees 99 , 117 . See also Work force educational attainment 5 , 6 , 120 performance assessment 17–18 , 122–123 Employment 3–5 , 122 , 148–153 Engineering advanced manufacturing technology and 10 , 11 of advanced materials 79 , 83 , 87 , 90 education 22 , 124–125 , 130–131 , 133 , 136 and equipment reliability and maintenance 57 , 69 , 72–73 in product realization process 100 , 101 , 107 , 108 , 109 , 115 Engineering Research Centers 135 Engineers, manufacturing 18 , 69 , 73 , 128 Environmental conditions 36 Environmental Research Institute of Michigan 53 n.3 Equipment reliability and maintenance (ERM) 1–2 , 9 , 12 , 15 , 20–21 , 54–57 , 112 automobile parts industry 58–59 barriers to progress 66–70 and competitiveness 54 , 70 , 72 current practice 57–58 potential of 63–66 pump production 59–60 research needs 70–77 semiconductor industry 61–63 , 64 , 65 steam turbine generators 60–61 Etching and deposition 84 Europe 117–118 Expert systems 15 , 17 , 116 and advanced engineered materials 87 , 94 in equipment maintenance 61 and intelligent manufacturing control 33 , 40 , 46 , 47–48 Expertise 41 F Facility systems 26 Factory as laboratory 18–19 , 22 , 33 , 49 , 50 , 51 Factory yields 63 Faculty 133 , 138 Failure modes and effects criticality analysis (FMECA) 62 , 63

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Feedback closed-loop control 39–40 , 42 , 51 open-loop control 39 , 49 time 20 , 25 , 26 Feldberg, Meyer 124 Fiber optic sensing 46 , 47 Fiber-reinforced composites 79 Fiber-reinforced polymers 80 Fiber-reinforced thermoplastics 81 Flexibility 10 , 119 Flexible manufacturing systems 7 , 8 , 78 , 93 , 95 , 100 , 109 , 130 Fortune 100 companies 51 Fortune 500 companies 122 Functional integration 14 , 39 Funding, education and training 128 , 133 , 134 , 135 , 136 , 137 G Gallium arsenide single crystals 84 , 102 Generally accepted accounting principles 74 Germany 120 Global information systems 102 Government 130 , 139 Graphite-reinforced aluminum 91 Great Lakes Manufacturing Technology Center 139 n.7 H Hierarchical organization 35 High modulus materials 79 High-pressure oxidation 84 High school 138 High-temperature structural materials 79 Hispanics 152 Hot isostatic pressing 102 Hudson Institute 123 Human decision making 28–29 Human knowledge 14 , 31 , 39 , 40 , 42 Human-machine integration 16–17 , 20 , 23 , 25 , 32 , 34 , 49 , 75 , 136–137 Human plane 101 Human resource development 8 , 126 I Illinois Institute of Technology 95 Imaging techniques 116 Implanter equipment 62–63 , 64 Industrial Technology Institute 31 , 53 n.3 Industry competitiveness 1 , 9 , 16–18 , 70 design practices 118 education and training in 124–125 , 127 , 130 research in 50–51 , 52 Information in advanced manufacturing technology 11 , 13–14 in manufacturing control 33 , 35 , 38 , 39 , 40 in product realization process 102 Information plane 101 , 102 , 103 , 118–119 Infrastructure processes 112–113

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Instrumented Factory Gear Center 95 Integrated circuits 8 , 30 , 84 , 95 , 96 Integration in advanced engineered materials 94 , 96 in advanced manufacturing technology 11 , 14 human-machine 16–17 , 20 , 23 , 25 , 32 , 34 , 49 , 75 , 136–137 in intelligent manufacturing control 31 , 39 sensor 17 , 49 , 50 Intel Corporation 61–63 Intelligence human-machine 25 , 32 , 34 , 36 machine 14 , 20 , 40–42 , 44 , 49 management 1 , 51 organizational 11 , 14–15 Intelligent manufacturing control (IMC) 6 , 9 , 11 , 13 , 23 , 25–34 and advanced engineered materials 14 , 86 , 87 , 88 in chemicals industry 46–9 data requirements and analysis 14 , 15 , 29–30 , 31 and equipment reliability and maintenance 65–66 , 75 manufacturing assumptions 34–36 and product realization 109–110 , 112 research needs 1 , 20 , 33 , 49–52 in wire-drawing industry 42–45 world model of 36–42 , 49 , 51 Intelligent processing of materials (IPM) 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 Intelligent product realization images 2 , 15 , 21 , 101–102 , 115–116 , 119 International standards 111 Inventory 111 Ion implantation 84 J Japan 117–118 automotive industry 58–59 education and training 122 equipment reliability and maintenance in 57 , 58–60 , 69 , 76 flexible manufacturing systems 7 , 8 Institute for Plant Maintenance 60 , 70 management skills 18 , 124 , 130 , 134 metalworking industry 7 , 8 pump production 59–60 quality control practices 119 n.1 semiconductor industry 9 , 61 Just-in-time (JIT) 57 , 77 n.1, 111 K Knowledge, process 34 , 35 , 38 , 39–40 , 41 , 51 , 120 Knowledge-based systems 15 , 33 , 87–88 , 96–97 Knowledge bases 1 , 16 , 32 , 49 , 51 L Labor utilization 7 , 17 . See also Work force Language translators 46 , 48 Laser ablation 96

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Lasers 84 , 89 Lead times 55 Learning economies of 35 in intelligent control 25 , 32 , 33 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 49 organization 10 and work force skills 18–19 , 23 , 51 Lehigh University 132 Liquid crystalline polymers 80 , 81 Literacy 2 , 22 , 128 Low-skill jobs 122 M Machine intelligence 14 , 20 , 40–42 , 44 , 49 Machine-machine integration 39 Machine-related assumptions 34–35 , 36 Machine tools 8 Machine utilization 7 , 66 , 130 Maintenance 54 , 57 , 59 , 60 , 63 , 67 , 74 , 111–112 Make-versus-buy decision 105 Management advanced manufacturing technology and 10 , 11 , 18–19 , 120 and equipment reliability and maintenance 1–2 , 21 , 23 , 57 , 59 , 67–68 , 71–73 and intelligent control 30 , 43 , 51 , 53 and manufacturing skills 124 , 127 , 130 , 133–134 , 138–139 and product realization process 99 , 108 , 110 , 113 , 115 , 117 , 118 Manufacturing 24 n.1, 50 , 76 , 136 advanced technology 22–24 , 28 , 105 , 117 , 130 competitiveness 1 , 2 , 9–11 decision making 74 design for manufacturability 78 , 101 , 102 , 109 education 73 , 130–131 , 133–134 employment 3–5 , 22 engineering and 109 , 128 factory as laboratory 18–19 , 22 , 33 , 49 , 50 , 51 flexible systems 7 , 8 , 78 , 93 , 95 , 100 , 109 , 130 lack of career esteem 18 , 22 , 124 , 126 , 128 , 131 models of 115 of product images 119 as a science 3 Manufacturing assumptions 34–36 Manufacturing capacity 67 Manufacturing control 25 , 38 Manufacturing Educational Centers 135 Manufacturing engineers 18 , 69 , 73 , 128 Manufacturing skills improvement 3–5 , 13 , 120–122 barriers to 126–130 educational deficiencies 2 , 22 , 122–123 necessity of 7 , 9 , 120 , 124–126 research needs 1 , 22 , 130–139 Marketing 102 , 108 , 110–111 time to market 6–7 , 9 Market strategy 100–101 , 105 Martian Rover 30–31 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 132

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Materials composition 102 Materials engineers 85 Materials-specific research 92–93 Mechanization 34 Mechatronic equipment 52 , 55 , 56 , 69 Metal-matrix composites (MMC) 81–82 , 91 , 92–93 Metal oxide chemical vapor deposition 95–96 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation System (MOSIS) 95 Metals 23 , 83–84 Metalworking industry 7 , 8 Microelectronics manufacturing 128 , 129 Microprocessor control systems 25 , 38 , 42 , 43 , 44 Microstructural modeling 86 , 93 , 94 Minorities 124 Model-based reasoning 110 Modularity 111 Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) 84 , 95 , 96 Multi-attribute utility analysis 89 Multilayered heterostructures 79 , 84 Multiobjective problems 90–91 Multiphase alloys 79 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 53 n.3, 130 National Center for Research in Vocational Education 125 National defense 126 National Institute of Standards and Technology 130 , 139 n.7 National Research Council 72 National Science Foundation (NSF) 130 , 131 , 138 recommended research funding 132 , 133 , 134 , 136 , 137 National security 8 National Submicron Center 95 National Technological University 132 , 137 Near net shape processes 78 , 102 New York Times 124 Nishio pump factory 59–60 Nonproduction costs 17 Nonvalue-added activities 101 O Open-loop control systems 39 , 49 Optical materials 79 Order entry 26 Organizational structure 16 , 18–19 compression of hierarchy 6–7 , 20 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 and product realization process 2 , 98 , 99–100 , 111 , 117–119 Organometallic chemical vapor deposition 84 Output 55 Overhead 69 P Paraprofessional education 135 Performance measurement 17–19 , 73–74

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Personal computers 52–53 Personnel systems 26 Photolithography 63 , 65 , 84 Physical plane 101 Piezoelectric transducers 88 Plasma-enhanced etching and deposition 84 Polymer-based composites 80–81 Polymers 23 , 83 , 92 Predictive maintenance 23 , 54–55 , 57 Preventive maintenance 54 , 57 , 60 , 69 Printed circuit boards 91 Problem solving 40–41 , 44 Process complexity 30 Process control 9 , 14 , 132 advanced engineered materials 79 , 85 , 87 , 102 costing 19 , 20 data bases 29 , 42 feedback loops 37 , 38 , 39–40 , 42 intelligent manufacturing control 25 , 26 , 33 , 109–110 wire-drawing industry 43 , 44 Process design 72–73 , 86 Process disruptions 30 Process industries 51 Process knowledge 34 , 35 , 38 , 39–40 , 41 , 51 , 120 Process simulation models 15 , 17 , 85–86 , 94 , 96–97 , 102 Process variance 43 , 44 Product cost of ownership 112 Product development life cycle 15 , 115 , 118–119 acceleration of 99 , 100 , 101 , 117 customer requirements and 98 life-cycle design 107–108 life-cycle support 111–112 product design and 109 , 112 simulation 23 , 112 Production 108–110 Production capacity development 108 Production control 131 Production costs 17 , 55 , 109 , 110 Production monitoring system 19 , 74 Productivity 119 , 134 advanced manufacturing technology and 7 , 10 of capital investment 9 , 54 equipment maintenance and 9 , 23 , 54 , 58 , 66 , 76 intelligent manufacturing control and 45 product design and 109 , 112 Product quality 9 , 25 , 28 , 106–107 , 110 Product realization process (PRP) 9 , 12 , 14 , 15 , 23 , 100–103 advanced technology development 103–105 conceptual design 105–106 customer needs and 98 , 99 , 100 , 105 , 106 , 107 , 110 , 111 , 115 , 116 detailed design process 107–108 distribution and marketing 110–111 end-to-end infrastructure processes 112–113 intelligent product images 2 , 15 , 21 , 101–102 , 115–116 , 119 life-cycle support 111–112 organizational framework

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing and, 21 , 98 , 99–100 , 117–118 production 108–110 product quality development 106–107 research needs 1 , 2 , 21 , 105 , 106 , 113–119 technological feasibility 21 , 98 , 99 Product specifications 23 , 106 , 115 Profitability 69 Purdue University 132 Q Quality 9 , 25 , 28 , 106–107 equipment maintenance and 55 , 66 , 76 management and 110 , 134 Quality control 85 Quality loss function 104 , 119 n.1 R Reliability 3 , 9 , 14 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 76 design for reliability 63–65 , 74 Research needs advanced engineered materials 1 , 2 , 21 , 92–97 equipment reliability and maintenance 70–77 factory as laboratory 18–19 , 22 , 33 , 49 , 50 , 51 intelligent manufacturing control 1 , 20 , 33 , 49–52 manufacturing skills improvement 1 , 22 , 130–139 product realization process 1 , 2 , 21 , 105 , 106 , 113–119 Risk and value analysis 113 Robotics 131 S Scale economies 35 Science manufacturing as 3 technology as 41 Sematech 96 Semiconductor industry 138 equipment reliability and maintenance in 61–63 , 64 , 65 Semiconductors 9 advanced engineered materials in 23 , 79 , 84 , 95–96 Sensor integration 17 , 49 , 50 Sensor technology 1 , 27–28 , 31 , 39–40 , 51 in equipment reliability and maintenance 56 , 63 , 75 in intelligent processing of materials 88–89 in machine intelligence 20 , 25 Simulation 72–73 , 89 process models 15 , 17 , 85–86 , 94 , 96–97 , 102 product life cycle 23 , 112 Simultaneous design 63 Southwestern Bell 122–123 Statistics 132 Steam turbine generators 33 , 60–61 Supermodulus materials 95 Synchrotron radiation 84 T Taguchi, Genichi 104 , 119 n.1 Taxation 127 , 128 Teaching factories 94–95 , 96 , 97

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Team concept 118 Technical cost modeling 89–92 Technological feasibility, product 21 , 98 , 99 Technology 16–17. See also Advanced manufacturing technology and decision making 26–27 , 28 diffusion of 50 , 51–52 and equipment reliability and maintenance 70 and materials development 84–85 and product realization 98 , 99 , 100 , 102 , 117–118 , 119 as science 41 transfer of 105 , 139 n.7 Technology management 72 , 130 , 134 , 138–139 Theoretical capacity 55 , 74 Thermoplastics 80–81 Thermostatic control 36–37 Tiger teams 101 Time-based competition 100 Time to market 6–7 , 9 Titanium alloys 102 Training programs 125 , 127–128 education and training consortia 134–135 Transducers 28 , 88 Transfer press 58 U Unified Technology Center 139 n.7 United States design practices in 107 educational system 2 , 18 , 22 , 73 , 122–123 , 131 , 138 flexible manufacturing systems in 7 , 8 industrial competitiveness 1 , 9 , 16–18 , 70 management practices in 69 , 124–126 , 127 , 134 manufacturing technology in 2 , 29 , 57–58 , 65–66 , 117–118 quality improvement in 119 n.1 semiconductor industry 61 utilities industry 60 U.S. Department of Commerce 134 U.S. Department of Defense 8 , 124 , 126 , 128 U.S. Department of Labor 123 Universities 128–130 , 132 , 134 , 136 University of Southern California 95 University of Wisconsin 132 User training 30 Utilities industry 60 V Very large scale integration (VSLI) chips 83 Village industry 118 Vocational education 135 W Wafer etch equipment 62–63 , 64 Wall Street Journal 122 Wave-soldering machines 33 Wire-drawing industry 42–45 Women 124 Work force 25

OCR for page 161
THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing educational attainment 5 , 6 , 120 employment trends 3–5 , 122 , 148–153 labor utilization 7 , 17 skills improvement 2 , 3–5 , 9 , 30 , 122 , 124–125 , 127–128 , 130–131 , 138 Work organization 117 Work-in-process inventory 63 Work teams 99–100 , 119 , 126–127 World War II 126 X X-rays 84 Z Zero defects 3 , 59