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Index A Able seamen, 153 Accidents fatigue and, 39 investigation of, 48 Administrative provisions, 15~156 "Airline model," 11 Alcohol abuse, 4~45, 47 American Bureau of Shipping, 102 American President Lines (APL) C-9 container ship study by, 69-70 training by, 5~53 American Shipper (1935), 135-136 Attention, 46~7 Automation and human factors, 41 44, 55 labor unions on, 106, 107-108, 109 and manning level, 61, USE, '~5 rules on, 151, 155 Autopilots, labor unions on, 106 B Boiler controls, automated, 5-6 Boredom, 46~7 Bridge(s) integrated, 41-42, 13~131 single-handed, 4~43, 13~131 157 Bridge 90, 130-131 Bureau Veritas, 101 C Canada Shipping Act, 102 Captains of the Port (COPTs), 82~3 Cargo, containerization of, 7 Casualties emergency response capacity for, 33 U.S. Coast Guard annual reports on, 24, 25, 26 Certificate of Inspection (COI), 60, 145, 150 Certification adequacy of, 48 and dual~ualified officers, 52 recommendations on, 87 88 for "Ship of the Future," 54 statutes on, 147-148 Chilbar (1935), 137 Classification societies, survey of, 95, 101-102 Cleanliness, labor unions on, 107 C-9 container ships, American President Lines study of, 69-70 Coast Guard, see U.S. Coast Guard COI, 60, 145, 150 Containerization, of cargo, 7

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158 Continuity of service, 34 Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT), 80, 81 Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS), 80 Corporate training programs, 52-53 Cost effectiveness, labor unions on, 110 Coops, 82~3 Crew size, see Manning level; Manning reductions C-10 container ships, 12 D Deck department automation of, 43 and engine room automation, 44 innovations in, 4-5, ~7 manning reductions in, ~7, 62 Decklengine mechanic, 8, 153-154 Denmark, survey of, 103 Denny, M., 128 129 Det norske Veritas, 101 Disability, labor unions on, 106 107 Drug abuse, 44 45, 47 Dual-qualified officers, 7 and fatigue, 39 of Germany, 10, 50 of Japan, 49-50 of the Netherlands, 50-51 of the United States, 39~0, 51-52 EEl Estero (1926), 135 Emergent conditions, in task analysis, 68, 127 Emergency response capacity, 32-33 Engineman, 153-154 Engine room innovations in, 4, 5~ manning reductions in, 62 unattended, 5, 6, 4~44 Equipment failures, 33 Exxon, mixed product tanker study by, 70-71 INDEX F Fatigue, 38 labor unions on, 106, 109 management of, 46 47 and safety, 15, 31-32 standard watch rotations and, 40~1, 46 work hours and, 31-32, 3800, 46 Federal Republic of Germany, see Germany Fire fighting, 68, 70 Functional model, for task analysis, 6~73 G Gaffney, Michael, 12~130 General-purpose ratings and fatigue, 39 in Germany, 010, 50 in Japan, 50 Germany crew size of, ~10 survey of, 102 training in, 50 H Hardware analysis, 64 Health, labor unions on, 10~107 Helmsman, labor unions on, 106 Human Action Sequence Model, 48 Human factors accident investigation, 48 analysis of, 45, 48 automation and, 4104, 55 drug and alcohol abuse, 41 45, 47 excessive workload, 47 fatigue and boredom, 46 47 management of, 45~8 recommendations on, 86 87 social interaction, 44, 47 training and certification, 4~54 watch rotations, 4~41 work hours, 3~40 I ILO, 82 IMO, see International Maritime Organization (IMO) Injuries, Maritime Index Bureau data on, 22, 24

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INDEX INMARSAT, 80, 81 Innovation and manning level, 61 recommendations on, 86 Integrated bridges, 41-42, 13~131 International agreements, 79~2 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 80 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 80, 81 International Convention on Load Lines, 80 International Convention on Standards of Staining, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 80, 81 International Labour Organisation (ILO), 82 International Maritime Organization (IMO) international agreements negotiated by, 79~1 survey of, 101 tanker casualty data of, 2~25 J Japan crew size of, 9, 10-11 training in, 49-50 Japanese Committee on the Modernization of the Japanese Seafarers System, 129-130 Job design, and fatigue and boredom, 46 Junior engineer, 153-154 K Kane v. Amencan Tankers Corp. (1955), 137 L Labor organizations information from, 10~121 safety concerns of, 30 Language difficulty, labor unions on, 106 Laws, on manning, 76-78, 133-138, 145-150 Licensing, see Certification 159 Liverpool Polytechnic, 128 Living conditions, 34, 44, 47 Lloyd's Register of Shipping survey of, 101 vessel loss data of, 21-22, 23 Lookout labor unions on, 105 rules on, 153 M Maintenance labor unions on, 107 and manning level, 61 and safety, 15, 32 Maintenance departments establishment of, 78-79, 139-140 and manning level, 141 manning reductions in, 7~8, 62 watch-standing requirements for, 138 140, 150-151, 155 work hour restrictions for, 14~141 Maintenancepersons, 13~141, 154 Management team, 11-12 Man-machine tradeoff study, 64 Manning level American President Lines C-9 container ship study of, 69-70 automation and, 61 description of model for, 65-68 in emergency conditions, 68 evaluation of model for, 69-71 Exxon mixed product tanker study of, 7~71 functional model for assessing, 63-73 innovation and, 61 international agreements affecting, 79-82 labor unions on, 108 limitations of model for, 72-73 maintenance and, 61 operating conditions affecting, 68-69 port state control of, 82-83 regulatory procedures for, 60-61 shipboard task analysis and, 63 64 statutory basis for, 76-78 traditional, 133 U.S Coast Guard certification procedures for, 59-62 utility of model for, 71-73 Manning reductions automated boiler controls in, 5 -

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160 containerization of cargo in, 7 in deck department, 6-7, 62 elimination of relief person in, ~7 in engine department, 5 - , 62 first generation of, ~5 future, ~12, 62 by Germany, 9-10 historical pattern of, 3 - , 5, 62 by Japan, 9, 1~11 in maintenance department, 7-8, 62 by the Netherlands, 11 by Norway, 9 in state-of-the-art ships, ~12 in steward's department, 7 two models for, 11-12 unattended engine room in, 6 Manne Engineers Benef Assign v. Adams (1977), 136 Marine Safety Manual, 153-155 Maritime academies, 51-52 Maritime authorities, survey of, 95-96, 102-103 Maritime Index Bureau, injury data of, 22, 24 McCrea v. United States (1935), 135-136 Merchant Marine Act (1936), 149-150 N National authorities, survey of, 95-96, 102-103 Navigation and Inspection Circulam, 156 Netherlands crew size in, 11 survey of, 102 task analysis in, 13~131 training in, 5~51 Night watch, 155 Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, 101-102 Norway crew size of, 9 survey of, 102-103 o Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), 6~}61 Officer training in Germany, 50 in Japan, 49-50 in the Netherlands, 5~51 INDEX in the United States, 51-53 O'Hara v. L~ckenbach S.S Comparly (1926), 130135 Oilers, 153-154 Oil spill data, 25, 26, 27 Operating conditions, affecting manning, 6~69 Organizational analyses, 64 Overtime work, 78, 137-138, 154 p Pacific Gulf Marine (PGM), 12~129 Physical demands, 34 Pioneer Ship, 9, 11 Port state control, 82-83 Power failures, 33 Power plants, human factors and automation of, 55 R Radio officers, 153 Recertification, 54, 88 Registro Italiano Navale, 101 Regulatory policy administrative provisions for, 153-156 background of, 132-138 continuing problems with, 141-144 findings on, 83 ideal framework for, 74 inflexibility of, 141-143 international agreements affecting, 79-82 labor unions on, 109-110 on maintenancepemons, 13~141 need to modernize, 78-79 port state control of, 82-83 recommendations on, 88 rules, 15~153 in shipping vs. civil aviation, 75-76 statutes, 76-78, 145-150 Relief helmsman, elimination of, 6-7 Requirements analysis, 63, 64 "Riding crews," 32, 39 Rules, 15~153 Safety emergency response capacity, 3~33 fatigue and, 15, 31-32

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INDEX findings on, 35-36 further research on, 3~35 improving data collection on, 20 individual company data, 25-28, 29 industry information on, 21-30 labor organizations on, 30, 108 lack of reliable data on, 1~20 Lloyd's vessel loss data, 21-22, 23 maintenance and, 15, 32 Marine Index Bureau injury data, 22, 24 oil spill data, 25, 26, 27 physical demands on crew members and, 34 problem of quantifying, 17-20 recommendations on, 85~6 service continuity and, 34 social conditions and, 34 tanker casualty data, 22-25 training and, 15, 33 trends in, 21, 2~30 U.S. Coast Guard annual casualty reports, 24, 25, 26 vessel operators on, 3~31 Sailors, 133n, 151 Schuffel, H., 130-131 Service continuity, 34 Ship management officer, 10, 50 Ship 90 bridge, 130 131 "Ship of the Future," 9 Ship operation center, 9, 41 Ship owners/operatom questionnaire for, 122-125 safety concerns of, 30-31 Ship's foreman, 9 Ship's mechanics, 9 Single-handed bridges, 42~3, 130-131 Skill losses, labor unions on, 107 Sleep disruption, 39, 40-41 Smith v. Reinauer Oil Transp. (1958), 137 Social conditions, 34, 44, 47 Software analysis, 64 SOLOS, 80, 81 Southem Pacific Ca v. Hair (1928), 135 Stanwick Corporation study, 126, 127 State-of-the-art ships, ~12 Statutes, on manning, 76-78, 13~138, 145-150 STCW, 80, 81 Steward's department, innovations in, 4, 7 Stress, 38 watch rotation system and, 40 161 Sweden, survey of, 103 Systems engineering approach, 12-13, 59, 63 64 T Tank vessels casualty data for, 2~25 manning standards for, 148 149 Task analysis functional model for, 63-73 previous research on, 126-131 Technology and fatigue and boredom, 46 making best use of, 12-13 and manning statutes, 76, 78 and recertification, 54 recommendations on, 86 TNO Institute of Perception, 130 131 Gaining corporate programs for, 52-53 in Germany, 50 in Japan, 49-50 labor unions on, 106, 107-108 in maritime academies and schools, 51-52 officer, 51-53 need for changes in, 4~49 in the Netherlands, 5~51 recommendations on, 87~8 and safety, 15, 33 in the United States, 51-54 of unlicensed crew membem, 33, 53-54 U Unattended engine room, 5, 6, 43~4 United Kingdom, survey of, 103 U.S. Coast Guard annual casualty reports of, 24, 25, 26 Captains of the Port, 82~3 manning requirements of, 59-62 oil spill data of, 25, 26, 27 Unlicensed crew members in Germany, 50 in Japan, 50 in the Netherlands, 51 training of, 33, 5~54 in the United States, 53-54

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162 V Vessel loss International Maritime Organization data on, 2~25 Lloyd's data on, 21-22, 23 Vessel operators questionnaire for, 12~125 safety concerns of, 3~31 Vigilance, 46~7 W Watch officers, 50 Watch rotation system, and fatigue, 40~1, 46 Watch-standing categories, 154 Watch-standing requirements discussion of, 133-137 for maintenancepersons, 138 140 and overtime, 138 rules on, 150-151 INDEX statutes on, 77, 145-147 Western Pioneer, Inc. v. United States Coast Guard (1983), 137n West Germany, see Germany Wheelhouse 90, 42-43 Williams, V. E., 127-128 Work assignment restrictions, 77-78, 137 Work hours authority to set, 15~155 and fatigue, 31-32, 38~0, 46 for maintenance department, 14~141 statutory limitations of, 78, 137-138, 142n Workload and fatigue, 38 labor unions on, 108, 11~111 task analysis of, 47 y Yamanaka, Keiko, 129-130 Youngstown (1940), 137