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Appendix A Biographies of Committee Members RICHARD T. SOPER, appointed chairman in January 1990, was un- til April 1990, Chairman of the American Bureau of Shipping, a leading international ship classification society. He is an articulate proponent of innovation in the maritime industries and in operating safety. Mr. Soper earned his B.S. degree in 1955 through combined study at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy and Harvard University. He has worked in international shipping for more than 30 years, gaining experience in marine vessel opera- tions and marine insurance. His work prior to graduation was as a licensed deck officer and port captain for American Export Lines. After graduation he was employed by Kemper Insurance in several managerial positions, As- sistant to the Vice President of Engineering, Chief Hull Underwriter, and Assistant Manager of the Marine Insurance Division. In 1962, he joined Sea-Land Service, Inc., serving as Manager, Vessel Operations, and later as Assistant Director of Marine Operations. Following a period (19661969) as Executive Vice President of Columbus Line, Inc., Mr Soper rejoined Sea-Land where he rose to Executive Vice President. Mr. Soper has served on the Marine Board and on its Committee on Requirements for a Ship Operation Research Program. WILLIAM M. BENKERT, chairman until his death in December 1989. received his B.S. degree in marine engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in 1943. His Coast Guard career was composed of extensive sea duty and marine safety assignments. He was captain of the icebreaker Eastwind on arctic and antarctic assignments, commanded the Marine 89

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go APPENDIX A Inspection Office in New York and was Chief of the Headquarters Office of Merchant Marine Safety. After retiring from the Coast Guard, he served as President of the American Institute of Merchant Shipping. He was a member of several professional societies, was a past member of the Maritime Transportation Research Board and the Marine Board, and served on several NRC committees. He chaired Marine Board committees on marine vapor control and on removal of offshore platforms. JOHN v. CAFFREY is Manager, Maritime Relations, Mobil Oil Cor- poration, Marine Transportation Department. He has general oversight of safety, security, and internal affairs for Mobil's domestic and international fleets and develops policy positions on legislative and regulatory shipping matters. He entered the marine industry as an unlicensed seaman aboard United Fruit Lines vessels. He served at sea in all deck capacities, ad- vancing to command as master (a license he still holds) before joining the U.S. Coast Guard. He served 27 years in the Coast Guard, ashore and afloat, with extensive service in the office of Merchant Marine Safety. Recent assignments included Chief Officer of Merchant Vessel Personnel, and Deputy Chief, Office of Merchant Marine Safety. He serves on the Gaining Committee of the American Institute of Merchant Shipping, the General Purposes Committee of the Oil Companies International Marine Forum, the National Executive Committee of the Council of American Master Mariners. He is a member and past Chairman of the National Safety Council's Marine Section. Captain Caffrey was a member of the NRC Marine Board Committee on Effective Manning in 1983-1984. MICHAEL DENNY is an industrial psychologist specializing in the hu- man factors design of automated work systems. He is a Senior Systems Designer for the Grumman Corporation's Data Systems Division. He re- ceived B.S., M.N and Ph.D. degrees in experimental psychology from Michigan State University, where he was a National Science Foundation fellow. As assistant professor of psychology, he received the MSU Founda- tion Faculty Award. He later became project manager and branch manager for Ship Analytics, Inc., where he led several large programs focusing on ship operations research and the restructuring of vessel crews and their management. These efforts were aimed at improving work efficiency and achieving optimal reduced manning. His ship operations research studies included experiments at the U.S. government's Computer Aided Operations Research Facility (CAORF) at Kings Point, New York, a large ship-handling simulator facility. He made vessel manning and management studies for two major vessel operating companies and the U.S. Navy, which formed the basis for successful fleetwide manning reductions and restructuring. These included both existing vessels and proposed new vessel designs, in which the entire vessel-crew system could be optimized for cost and safety.

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BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 91 WILLL`M D. EGLINTON is Director of Vocational Gaining at the Sea- farers Harry Lundeberg School of Seamanship, operated by the Seafarers International Union. He received a B.S. degree in technology and manage- ment from the University of Maryland, graduated from the Calhoon Marine Engineers Beneficial Association School. After serving as a licensed offi- cer in the U.S. merchant marine, he became an engineering instructor at the Harry Lundeberg School, then head of the Engineering Department, before assuming his present post. He personally trained the initial crews of several U.S. merchant vessels and developed courses on diesel engines and other engineering systems. He is the author of the Marine Engineroom Blue Book and the Study Guide for Third and Second Assistant Engineers (Cornell Maritime Press). ROBERT El};ENSOHN is Director of the Maritime Institute of Tech- nology and Graduate Studies (MITAGS), operated by the International Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots (IOMMP). He graduated from the U.S. Maritime Services Officers School. He holds numerous certifi- cations for unlicensed and licensed maritime skills and grades, including advanced training in shiphandling from MITAGS. During World War II, Captain Elsensohn served as an unlicensed seaman in various U.S. ocean vessels. He has served in positions of increasing responsibility, including seagoing deck officer, on many ship types. He has served as President of Columbia River Bar Pilots, Vice President-Pilotage of the International Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots (IOMMP), President and Chief Executive Officer of the Columbia Navigation Corporation, and Pilot Com- missioner of the state of Oregon. In his present position as Director of MITAGS, he supervises all operations, including courses on the handling of conventional dry and liquid cargoes and hazardous commodities, such as liquefied natural gas, petroleum gas, and ammonia. Captain Elsensohn is a member of the IOMMP and the American Pilots Association, and is a fellow of the Nautical Institute. MARCIA GRABOWSK1 is Research Assistant Professor in the Depart- ment of Decision Sciences and Engineering Systems at Rennselaer Poly- technic Institute and is Assistant Professor of Business at LeMoyne College in Syracuse, New York. She received a B.S. degree in Marine liansporta- tion from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, and M.S., M.B.N, and Ph.D. degrees from Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute. She served as a li- censed deck officer on a liquefied natural gas tanker for E1 Paso Marine Company and on conventional tankers for Exxon and Hvide Shipping, and was commissioned a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve. She is Manager of Expert Systems Applications for General Electric Company, where she received management awards in 1984 and 1987 for leadership

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92 APPENDIX A in developing expert systems. Her research is supported by the U.S. Mar- itime Administration, and she is at present developing a Shipboard Piloting Expert System (SPES) and investigating the effects of smaller shipboard crews and advanced technology on maritime safety, methods for stream- lined development of expert systems, and the organizational impact of expert systems. HAIL W. HENDRICK is professor and dean, College of Systems Science, University of Denver. His expertise is in industrial and organizational psychology, behavioral science, and human factors. Dr. Hendrick has done extensive research in leadership, managerial decision making, individual differences and performance, organizational assessment and development, and human factors. Former academic positions have included Professor and Director of the Institute of Safety and Systems Management, University of Southern California, and positions on the faculty of the U.S. Air Force Academy. Dr. Hendrick is a fellow of the Human Factors Society and the American Psychological Association. Dr. Hendrick received a B.N (psychology) from Ohio Wesleyan University and M.S. (human factors) and Ph.D. (industrial psychology) degrees from Purdue University. FRANK ~ IAROSSI was until April 1990 President of Exxon Shipping Company and is now Chairman of the American Bureau of Shipping. He received his B.S. degree in Marine Engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, M.S. degree in Naval Architecture and Mechanical Engineering from the University of Michigan, and M.B.N degree from New York Uni- versity. He joined Exxon International Company in 1968 in the research and development division, and was manager of the Far East lanker Con- struction Program in Kobe, Japan during the building of E=on's fleet of very large tankers in the early 1970s. He later served as a marine operations senior advisor for Exxon. He is a member of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, a director of the American Institute of Merchant Shipping, past chairman of the Marine Transportation Committee of the American Petroleum Institute, and a member of the Board of Managers of the American Bureau of Shipping. Since 1967, JEROME E. JOSEPH has served as Executive Vice President for District 2 of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association Associated Maritime Officers. He received a B.S. degree from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New YorL He then sailed as deck officer aboard U.S. merchant vessels for four years before becoming Assistant Operations Manager for a U.S.-flag steamship company. Mr. Joseph has also served as president of the Propeller Club of the United States, Port of New York. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Propeller Club of the United States, the College Council, the State University of

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BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 93 New York Maritime College, the Kings Point Fund, the Chairman Walter Jones' Kitchen Cabinet, the New York City Office of Collective Bargaining, and the Navy League. EUGENE M. KELLY was until April 1990 Vice President, Engineering, for Central Gulf Lines, a U.S.-flag ship operating company. He received a B.S. degree in Marine Engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, and an M.S. degree in naval architecture, marine engineering, and mechan- ical engineering from the University of Michigan. He served in the Coast Guard as a seagoing deck and engineering officer, and later as staff officer in the Merchant Marine Technical Office at Coast Guard Headquarters. While with the Coast Guard, he served in London with the U.S. delegation to the 1969 International Maritime Organization Conference on Tonnage Measurement. Following this, Mr. Kelly served in naval architecture posi- tions in the Tanker Department of Exxon International Company and the Marine Department of Continental Oil Company. He joined Sea-Land Ser- vice, Inc. in 1977, and served as Vice President of FIeet Engineering, Vice President and General Manager of Sea Readiness, Inc., Director of Marine Engineering, Regional Manager Fleet Engineering/Atlantic, Chief Naval Architect, and Group Vice President, Marine Operations and Engineering. STEPHEN F. SCHMIDT is Vice President of Marine Operations for American President Lines (APL), where he has overall responsibility for the APL fleet of 23 U.S.-flag containerships, plus various foreign-flag feeder vessels. He received a B.S. degree in marine transportation from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, then sailed as 3rd and 2nd officer aboard U.S. merchant vessels for three years before returning ashore, where he had various management positions for Sea-Land Service in the United States and Europe. After moving to APL, he was Director of Terminal Operations, Vice President of Asia, and Vice President of Logistics for APL and American President Intermodal before assuming his present position.