Summary of References

American Petroleum Institute. 1989. Measuring Natural Resource Damages: An Economic Appraisal. Prepared by Health and Environmental Sciences Dept., API, Washington, D.C. API Publ. 4490.


Card, J. C. 1975. Effectiveness of Double Bottoms in Preventing Oil Outflow from Bottom Damage Incidents. Marine Technology 12(1):60-64.

Chevron Shipping Company. 1990. Double Hull Tanker Design. Paper prepared for Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers convention, sent to Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., October, 1990. San Francisco.

Cohen, M. A. 1986. The Costs and Benefits of Oil Spill Prevention and Enforcement. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 13(2):167-188.

Cutter Information Corp. 1990. Oil Spill Intelligence Report. Newsletter published by Cutter, Arlington, Massachusetts, June 14, 1990.


Det norske Veritas. 1990. Potential Oil Spill from Tankers in Case of Collision and/or Grounding: A comparative study of different VLCC designs. Report conducted for the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Oslo. DnV 90-0074.


Energy Information Administration. 1989. Petroleum Supply Annual. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Exxon Corp. 1982. Large Tanker Structural Survey Experience. Paper published by Exxon, New York.


Farrow, R. S. 1990. Managing the Outer Continental Shelf Lands: Oceans of Controversy. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Ferguson, J. M. 1990. Structural Integrity and Life Expectancy. Paper published by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, London.


Gray, W. O. 1979. Requirements for Inert Gas Systems. Paper presented at IMCO Tokyo Seminar on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention, Tokyo, February 19-23, 1979.

Gundlach, E. R. 1989. Amoco Cadiz Litigation: Summary of the 1988 Court Decision. Proc. 1989 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 503-508.



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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design Summary of References American Petroleum Institute. 1989. Measuring Natural Resource Damages: An Economic Appraisal. Prepared by Health and Environmental Sciences Dept., API, Washington, D.C. API Publ. 4490. Card, J. C. 1975. Effectiveness of Double Bottoms in Preventing Oil Outflow from Bottom Damage Incidents. Marine Technology 12(1):60-64. Chevron Shipping Company. 1990. Double Hull Tanker Design. Paper prepared for Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers convention, sent to Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., October, 1990. San Francisco. Cohen, M. A. 1986. The Costs and Benefits of Oil Spill Prevention and Enforcement. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 13(2):167-188. Cutter Information Corp. 1990. Oil Spill Intelligence Report. Newsletter published by Cutter, Arlington, Massachusetts, June 14, 1990. Det norske Veritas. 1990. Potential Oil Spill from Tankers in Case of Collision and/or Grounding: A comparative study of different VLCC designs. Report conducted for the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Oslo. DnV 90-0074. Energy Information Administration. 1989. Petroleum Supply Annual. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Exxon Corp. 1982. Large Tanker Structural Survey Experience. Paper published by Exxon, New York. Farrow, R. S. 1990. Managing the Outer Continental Shelf Lands: Oceans of Controversy. New York: Taylor & Francis. Ferguson, J. M. 1990. Structural Integrity and Life Expectancy. Paper published by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, London. Gray, W. O. 1979. Requirements for Inert Gas Systems. Paper presented at IMCO Tokyo Seminar on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention, Tokyo, February 19-23, 1979. Gundlach, E. R. 1989. Amoco Cadiz Litigation: Summary of the 1988 Court Decision. Proc. 1989 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 503-508.

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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design Iarossi, F. (president, American Bureau of Shipping). 1990. Getting Ready for a Shortening Life. Fairplay International September 20:37. International Association of Independent Tanker Owners. 1990a. Measures to Prevent Accidental Pollution. Oslo, Norway: the Association. International Association of Independent Tanker Owners. 1990b. Quest for the Environmental Ship. Draft of paper to be published by the Association , Oslo, Norway. International Chamber of Shipping. 1978. Ship to Ship Transfer Guide. London: Witherby. International Chamber of Shipping, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, and International Association of Independent Tanker Owners. 1990. Oil Tanker Design and Pollution Prevention. Study prepared for the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C. International Maritime Organization. 1988. Manual on Oil Pollution, Section IV, Combating Oil Spills. London: IMO. International Maritime Organization. 1989. Analysis of Serious Casualties to Sea-going Tankers, 6,000 gross tonnage and above, 1974-1988. London: IMO. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 1989. Maritime Overseas Corporation 64,000 DWT Product Oil Carrier Sloshing Investigation. Report prepared for MOC, New York, October, 1989. CSD 89/33. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 1990. Statistical Study of Outflow from Oil and Chemical Tanker Casualties. Report conducted for the American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. Technical Report STD R2-0590. Mielke, J.E. 1990. CRS Report for Congress, Oil in the Ocean: The Short- and Long-Term Impacts of a Spill. Report prepared by Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., July 24, 1990. 90-356 SPR. Ministry of Transport-Japan. 1990. Prevention of Oil Pollution. Report prepared for IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee, received by Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., November, 1990. Toyko. Minorsky, V.U. 1959. An Analysis of Ship Collisions with Reference to Protection of Nuclear Power Plants. Journal of Ship Research 3:1-4. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. 1990. Mid-Deck Tanker. Design study received by the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., November 1990. Tokyo. National Research Council. 1975. Petroleum in the Marine Environment. Report based on a workshop held by the Ocean Affairs Board, Airlie, Virginia, May 21-25, 1973. National Research Council. 1981. Reducing Tankbarge Pollution. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1985. Oil in the Sea. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Ponce, P. 1990. An Analysis of Total Losses Worldwide and for Selected Flags. Marine Technology 27(2):114-116. Royal Institute of Naval Architects. 1990. The Naval Architect. September:E357, E381, E385. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 1980. Ship Design and Construction. New York: SNAME. Tanker Advisory Center. 1990. Guide for the Selection of Tankers. New York: TAC. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. Coast Guard. 1973. Note by the United States--Report on Study I Segregated Ballast Tanker. Prepared for IMCO International Conference on Marine Pollution, London, October 8-November 2, 1973. U.S. Coast Guard. 1989a. Navigation and Inspection Circular 10-82. Published by the Coast Guard, Washington, D.C., September 18, 1989. U. S. Coast Guard. 1990a. Navigation and Inspection Circular 2-90. Published by the Coast Guard, Washington, D.C., September 21, 1990.

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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design U. S. Coast Guard. 1990b. Report of the Tanker Safety Study Group, Chairman H. H. Bell (rear admiral, USCG, retired). Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Transportation. U.S. Coast Guard. 1990c. Report on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Service (TAPS): Tanker Structural Failure Study (draft). Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Transportation. U. S. Coast Guard. 1990d. Update of Inputs of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Into the Oceans Due to Marine Transportation Activities. Paper submitted to IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee 30, September 17, 1990. U.S. Maritime Administration. 1990. Foreign Flag Merchant Ships Owned by U.S. Parent Companies. Report prepared by Office of Trade Analysis and Insurance, Washington, D.C., January 1, 1990. Vaughan, H. 1977. Damage to Ships Due to Collision and Grounding. Paper published by Det norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway, August 1977. DnV 77-345. White, I.C. and J.A. Nichols. 1983. The Cost of Oil Spills. Proc. 1983 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 541-544. Other References--Unpublished and Internal American Waterways Operators. Letter report to the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., April 6, 1990. Clarkson Research Studies, Ltd. FAX to D. Perkins, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., August 31, 1990. Jones, N. 1990. Some Comments on the Collision Protection of Ships with Double Hulls. Paper presented at meeting of the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., June 6, 1990. Liu, D. 1990. Letter to the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., May 10, 1990. Liu, D. Structural Design of Tankers. Paper presented to meeting of the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., March 26, 1990. Temple, Barker & Sloane, Inc. 1990. Analysis of a Sample of 38 Major Persistent Oil Spills. Internal study conducted by TBS, Lexington, Massachusetts. U. S. Coast Guard. 1989b. Marine Safety Center internal memorandum, May 25, 1989. U. S. Coast Guard. 1990e. Assessment of Success of Tankships with Double Bottoms and PL/SBT in Mitigating Pollution Due to Casualties. Internal analysis by the Coast Guard, Washington, D.C., March 12, 1990. Wierzbicki, T., E. Rady, and J.G. Shin. 1990. Damage Estimates in High Energy Grounding of Ships. Paper presented at meeting of the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, NRC, Washington, D.C., June 6-7, 1990. Additional Background Material Alaska Oil Spill Commission. 1990. Spill: The Wreck of the Exxon Valdez, Implications for Safe Marine Transportation. Anchorage: The Commission. American Institute of Merchant Shipping. 1974. Tanker Double Bottoms: Yes or No? Washington, D.C.: The Institute. American Petroleum Institute. 1988. Oil Spill Studies: Measurement of Environmental Effects and Recovery. Guidelines based on API workshops Feb. 23-25, 1982 and May 19-20, 1983. Prepared by Health and Environmental Sciences Dept., API, Washington, D.C. American Petroleum Institute. 1989. Task Force Report on Oil Spills. Washington, D.C.: API.

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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design Beaumont, J. G. 1990. Ship Construction and Safety (with particular reference to Oil Tankers). Paper published by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, London, March, 1990. Björkman, A. 1990. Letter to D. Perkins, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., August 23, 1990. Data comparing Coulombi Egg hull design to other designs. Caiafa, C. A., and L. M. Neri. 1986. The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID Structural Experiments, Philosophy, and Results). Paper presented at the annual winter meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Anaheim, California, December 7-12, 1986. Czimmek, D. W., and C. R. Jordan. 1981. Optimization of Segregated Ballast Distribution and its Impact on Tanker Economics. Marine Technology 18(2):127-148. Electric Power Research Institute. 1986. Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, Vol. I: Methodology. Palo Alto, California : EPRI. NP-4726. Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook 1990. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Finnish Tanker Safety Committee. 1987. Safety Requirements for Tankers. Report to the Ministry of Trade and Industry, Helsinki. Gray, W. O. 1979. Accidental Spills from Tankers and Other Vessels. In The Prevention of Oil Pollution. London: Graham and Trotman. pp. 79-114. Herbert Engineering Corp. 1990. VLCC Light-Loading Damage Stability Calculation. Report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. HEC File 9004. Hussain, M. 1990. An Active Inert Gas Controlled Method to Reduce Spillage Resulting From Hull Rupture in Oil Tankers. Paper prepared for API Forum on Alternative Tank Vessel Design, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1990. Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. 1977. Tanker Safety and Tanker Inspection and Certification. Presentation to IMCO Maritime Safety Committee by the United States of America, April 12, 1977. International Chamber of Shipping and Oil Companies International Marine Forum. 1986. Guidance Manual for the Inspection and Condition Assessment of Tanker Structures. Prepared on behalf of Tanker Structure Co-operative Forum. London: Witherby. International Maritime Organization. 1988. Fire Protection Aspects Related to Vacuum Systems to Minimize The Effect of Pollution by Oil After Damage . Paper submitted to IMO Fire Protection Subcommittee by Sweden, December 22, 1988. International Maritime Organization. 1990. Prevention of Oil Pollution. Paper submitted to IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, February 9, 1990. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. 1989. Annual Report. London: IOPC. Jacobsson, M. 1989. The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund: Ten Years of Claims Settlement Experience. Proc. 1989 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 509-511. Keeney, R. I., and D. Von Winterfeldt. 1988. Probabilities are Useful to Quantify Expert Judgments. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 23(4):293-298. Keith, V. F., and J. D. Porricelli. 1990. A Double Hull Oil Tanker Without a Loss of Cargo Carrying Capacity. Paper prepared for API Forum on Alternative Tank Vessel Design, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1990. Kimon, P. M., R. K. Kiss, and J. D. Porricelli. 1973. Segregated Ballast VLCCs: An Economic and Pollution Abatement Analysis. Marine Technology 10(4):334-363. Kopp, R. J., and V. K. Smith. 1989. Benefit Estimation Goes to Court: The Case of Natural Resource Damage Assessments. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 8(4):593-612. Leighou, R. B. 1942. Chemistry of Engineering Materials. New York: McGraw-Hill. McKenzie, A. 1990. Double Hulls and the Prevention of Oil Spills. Paper prepared for API Forum on Alternative Tank Vessel Design, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1990.

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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design McNatt, T. R., and O. F. Hughes. 1990. Tank Vessel Structural Design Using the Computer Program Maestro. Paper prepared for API Forum on Alternative Tank Vessel Design, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1990. McNeely, J. A. 1988. Economics and Biological Diversity: Developing and Using Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Nalder, E. 1989. Tankers Full of Trouble: Crude Deliveries Push Safety to the Limit. Reprinted from The Seattle Times, November 12-17, 1989. National Research Council. 1990. Crew Size and Maritime Safety. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Resources Defense Council. 1990. No Safe Harbor: Tanker Safety in America's Ports. New York: NRDC. National Wildlife Federation. 1990. The Day the Water Died: A compilation of the November 1989 Citizens Commission Hearings on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Washington, D.C.: NWF. Noble, P. G. Safe Transport of Oil at Sea. Paper prepared for API Forum on Alternative Tank Vessel Design, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1990. Norwegian Shipowners Association. 1989. Report on Accidental Pollution from Crude Oil Tankers, Measures for Prevention and Abatement. Oslo, Norway: The Association. Ohyagi, M. 1987. Statistical Survey on Wear of Ship's Structural Members. Technical Bulletin of Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 5:75-85. Okamoto, T., T. Hori, M. Tateishi, R. Masaru, S. M. H. Rashed, and S. Miwa. 1985. Strength Evaluation of Novel Unidirectional-Girder-System Product Oil Carrier by Reliability Analysis. Trans. SNAME 93:55-78. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1989. Environmental Policy Benefits: Monetary Valuation. Paris: OECD. Ortiz, N. R., T. A. Wheeler, R. L. Keeney, and M. A. Meyer. 1989. Use of Expert Judgment in NUREG-1150. Paper presented at American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Probability, Reliability, and Safety Assessment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 1989. Porricelli, J. D., V. F. Keith, and R. L. Storch. 1971. Tankers and the Ecology. Trans SNAME 79:169-221. Skinner, S. K., and W. K. Reilly. 1989. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, a report to the President. Prepared by the National Response Team. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Smith, V. K. 1987. Nonuse Values in Benefit Cost Analysis. Southern Economic Journal 54(1):19-26. Stopford, M. 1990. Forecasts for the International Shipbuilding Market: Demand, Pricing, and Capacity. Paper prepared for Shipbuilders Council of America seminar, Washington, D.C., January 31, 1990. Tanker Structure Co-operative Forum. 1990. Effect of Structural Design Aspects on Mitigating Pollution, draft. Work Group Project prepared with participation of the American Bureau of Shipping, Paramus, New Jersey. Temple, Barker & Sloane, Inc. 1985. Summary of Analysis of Oceangoing Tank Barge Navigation Incidents in Inland Waters. Prepared for Sonat Marine Inc., Philadelphia. Townsend, R. 1990. Shipping Safety and America's Coasts. Report prepared by Townsend Environmental for the Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, D.C. Tornay, E. G. 1990. Limiting Cargo Loss from Damaged Tankers. Paper presented at Ship Operations, Management, and Economics Symposium, Kings Point, New York, April 16, 1990. U.S. Coast Guard. 1974. Double Hull Effectiveness Analysis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.

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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design U.S. Coast Guard. 1978. Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention--Requirements for U.S. Tankers in Domestic Trade. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. U.S. Coast Guard. 1980. Commercial Vessel Safety: Economic Benefits--Appendix A, Estimating Procedures for Benefits of Marine Safety Regulations. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. DOT-CG-351-A. U.S. Coast Guard. 1986, 1989. Marine Safety Manual, Volume I--Administration and Management (M16000.6), Volume II--Material Inspection (M16000.7), and Volume IV--Technical (COMDTINST m16000.9). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Coast Guard. 1989. Development and Assessment of Measures to Reduce Accidental Oil Outflow from TankShips. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. U.S. Coast Guard. 1989. Polluting Incidents In and Around U.S. Waters. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. COMDTINST M16450.2H. U.S. Congress, Senate. 1977. Recent Tanker Accidents: Legislation for Improve Tanker Safety. Hearings before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Washington, D.C. , March 8, 15, 16, and 18, 1977. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Congress, Senate. 1977. The Tanker and Vessel Safety Act of 1977: Report of the Committee on Commerce, Society and Transportation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1977. Tanker Pollution Abatement Report: A Study of Tanker Construction Design, Equipment, and Operating Features Related to Improved Pollution Abatement. Washington, D.C.: Maritime Administration. MA-SC7302-78012. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1983. Assessing the Social Costs of Oil Spills: the Amoco Cadiz Case Study. Rockville, Maryland: National Ocean Service. NOAA-83092912. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection. Prepared by Science Advisory Board, Washington, D.C. SAB-EC-90-021. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1990. Federal Costs Resulting from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Washington, D.C.: GAO. GAO/RCED-90-91FS. U.S. Minerals Management Service. 1990. Offshore Oil Terminals: Potential Role in U.S. Petroleum Distribution, draft. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. 1978. An Analysis of Oil Tanker Casualties 1969-1974. Prepared for the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the National Ocean Policy Study. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design APPENDIXES

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