Index

A

Accident response

of barges, 142-143

distressed-ship cargo transfer system for, xxiii, xxvi, 112-113, 139-140

enhanced information processing for, 112-113, 137-138, 140

towing fittings to aid in, xxiii, xxvi, 112-113, 138-140

Accidents

availability of information regarding, xix-xx, xxvii, 160, 183

See also Research programs

definition of terms used for, 27-28n.18

high-energy, xix, 120, 125

low-energy, 125

low-velocity, xix

not causing pollution, 13-19

residual strength following, 65, 187-188

resulting in pollution, 10-13

See also Oil outflow;

Pollution;

Pollution prevention;

Pollution risk

Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, 53-54n.14

Alaska

oil traffic patterns from, 4

production level projections for, 3

tanker use in, 6

Aluminum sacrificial anodes, 67

ALVENUS, 15

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) rules, 47

AMERICAN TRADER, 15, 21

AMOCO CADIZ, 15, 71, 161

Analytical approach, costs and benefits of

to assessment of environmental damage, 160-161

to identification of base case, 159-160

to natural resource damage and recovery, 161-163

to placing dollar values on cost of spills, 163-165

to spill reduction analysis, 165-167

Anodic protection, 67, 69-71, 97

ARGO MERCHANT, 15, 71

Asphalt, 66

B

Ballast tanks.

See also Segregated ballast tanks

cargo piping in, xxiii



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design Index A Accident response of barges, 142-143 distressed-ship cargo transfer system for, xxiii, xxvi, 112-113, 139-140 enhanced information processing for, 112-113, 137-138, 140 towing fittings to aid in, xxiii, xxvi, 112-113, 138-140 Accidents availability of information regarding, xix-xx, xxvii, 160, 183 See also Research programs definition of terms used for, 27-28n.18 high-energy, xix, 120, 125 low-energy, 125 low-velocity, xix not causing pollution, 13-19 residual strength following, 65, 187-188 resulting in pollution, 10-13 See also Oil outflow; Pollution; Pollution prevention; Pollution risk Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, 53-54n.14 Alaska oil traffic patterns from, 4 production level projections for, 3 tanker use in, 6 Aluminum sacrificial anodes, 67 ALVENUS, 15 American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) rules, 47 AMERICAN TRADER, 15, 21 AMOCO CADIZ, 15, 71, 161 Analytical approach, costs and benefits of to assessment of environmental damage, 160-161 to identification of base case, 159-160 to natural resource damage and recovery, 161-163 to placing dollar values on cost of spills, 163-165 to spill reduction analysis, 165-167 Anodic protection, 67, 69-71, 97 ARGO MERCHANT, 15, 71 Asphalt, 66 B Ballast tanks. See also Segregated ballast tanks cargo piping in, xxiii

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design corrosion in, 70-71, 80, 97-98 dimensional considerations for, 83-85 inspection of, 215 in new vessels, 53n.3 in pre-MARPOL vessels, 53n.3 protective location for, xxvi, 104-105, 219, 221 Ballast water pollution caused by, 35 requirements for, 83 Barges design of, xxiii-xiv, 33-34, 141-143 diversion of cargo from tankers to, 176 retrofitting in, 117, 118, 120 traffic patterns of, 4-5 in U.S. fleet, 10, 11 used for Gulf product distribution, 5 Barriers uses in barges, 141-142 design alternatives for, 104-105, 114 double bottoms as, 104-105, 114-117 double hulls as, 104-105, 114, 119-120 double sides as, 104-105, 114, 117-119 protectively located segregated ballast tankers as, 104-105, 115 resilient membrane, 104-105, 114, 120-122 Base case identification, costs and benefits of, 159-160 Bow, grinding. See Grinding bow B.T. NAUTILUS, 21 Buckling inspection to detect, 216 of internal structures, 32 Bulkheads in collisions or groundings, 58-59 dimensional considerations for, 83-85, 218 BURMAH AGATE, 15, 20 C Capital costs, 168, 169 Cargo non-polluting, 29 removal from damaged tanks of, 93 research on influence of, 187 sloshing of, 123, 210, 211, 214 Cargo capacity of double bottoms, double sides, and double hulls, 218, 220, 222 of segregated ballast tanks, 221-225 tanker types and, 85 of 35,000 DWT tankers, 218-225 Cargo piping in ballast tanks, xxiii description of, 34-35 location of, 95, 99 Cargo systems description of, 34-35 oil outflow and, 94, 95 pumping capability of, 94-96, 99 Cargo transfer systems committee view of, xxiii, xxvi, 140 in double bottoms, 116 for enhanced accident response, 112-113, 139-140 Casualty databases, improving, 186-187 Ceramic coating on hulls, 110-111, 137 committee view of, 137, 140 CHEVRON OREGON, ix Chevron Shipping Company report, 89, 226-237 Classification societies definition of, 44 differences among, 33 examination of strength standards by, 81 requirements of, 44-45, 98 on use of scantlings, 211 Coast Guard, U.S. design approval by, xviii, 47 inspection of foreign-flag vessels by, 8, 48 inspection of tank barges by, 10 inspection responsibilities of, 47-51, 82 recommendations for small tankers, 143 regulation and enforcement responsibilities of, vii, 47-48 Coatings, to combat corrosion, 71, 97, 229

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design Collisions casualties due to, 23 committee interpretations of DnV report regarding, 299 definition of, 27-28n. 18 design for possibility of, xix, 52, 86 fires following, 67 momentum exchange and energy dissipation in, 58-65 oil outflow resulting from, 243-246, 297 stages of, 59-62 Combination carriers, 155-156 Committee RR761 (Japan), 183 Computer use for enhanced information processing, 138 for salvage calculations, 96-97 Concrete hull structure committee view of, 137, 141 for penetration resistance, 110-111, 136-137 Construction standards Coast Guard role in, 47 of world fleet, 6-8 Convertible tanks committee view of, 127, 140 outflow management and, 106-107, 127 Corrosion design margin and risk of, 79-80 explanation of process of, 69 methods of inhibiting, 69-71, 91, 229 resistance to, 33 of segregated ballast tanks to, 70-71, 80, 97-98 Cost analysis and measurement of economic effects, 167 methodology of, 168-171 results of, 171-172 Cost-effectiveness analysis, 159, 172-174, 179 Crack detection, 216 Crew safety, xxv, 97-98 Crude oil coastal trade in, 5 corrosive properties of, xxiv importation of, xvii, 30 increases in consumption of, 2-3 lightering of, 35-36 spillage of. See Oil outflow traffic patterns for imported, 4 Crude oil cargo tanks, 80 Crude oil washing (COW), xxvi, 42 Cubic-limited carriers, 43, 53n.9 D Damage stability. See also Tanker stability calculation of, 97 of double hulls, xxv, 99, 223, 229-237 35,000 DWT tankers and, 218-225 Damage survivability criteria for, 83-84 MARPOL requirements for, 200 Databases, casualty, 186-187 Deadweight, ratio to lightweight, 30, 32 Deadweight capacity, effect of concrete hull structure on, 137 Deadweight-limited carriers, 42-43, 53n.9 Death, causes of, 23 Deck, intermediate oil-tight, 106-107 Deflecting hull committee view of, 133, 140 for penetration resistance, 110-111, 132-133, 140 Design. See also Design alternatives classification requirements for, 44-46 Coast Guard role in, xviii, 47 committee evaluation of, ix, xxi-xxiii debate over, vii domestic legal requirements for, 44 hull strength and, 77-82 See also Hull strength personnel hazards due to, xxv research needs for, xxvii-xxviii, 183-184 risk reduction due to improved, ix, xviii safety of life issues and, 97-98 significance of MARPOL for, 42-43 standards of, xviii-xix, 29-34

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design structural elements of, 208-214 tank proportions, arrangements, and stability and, 82-89 Design alternatives for accident response, 112-113, 137-140 analytical approach to, 158-171 applicable to barges, 141-143 and barriers to loss of oil, 104-105, 114-122 increased penetration resistance as, 110-111, 132-137, 142 and matrix listing technical considerations, 102-113 to mitigate pollution, 101-102, 106-109, 122-132 and pollution control analysis, 143-151 summary of initial technical evaluation of, 140-141 summary of relative outflow estimates in study of, 151-156 Design loads, 78-79, 208-210 Design margins, 33, 79-81 Design regulations implementation of international law regarding, 43-44 implementation of U.S., 46-47 international, 39-42 methods for avoiding cost of new, 175-178 Det norske Veritas (DnV), 143, 183 Det norske Veritas (DnV) report, xix, 102, 141, 238 content list, 241 estimated oil outflow from 80,000 DWT tanker, 144, 294-296 estimated oil outflow in collision and grounding, 85, 243-251 interpretations and comments of committee concerning, 299-302 outflow estimates, xix, 330-333 preamble, 240 probabilistic ranking of 40,000 DWT tankers, 142, 148-151, 278-293 probabilistic ranking of VLCC designs, 145-148, 252-277 references, 298 scope of work, 242 summary, 239, 297 Distressed-ship cargo transfer systems, xxiii, xxvi, 112-113, 116, 139-140 Double bottom, imaginary, 108-109, 130-131, 140 Double-bottom tankers arrangements in, 86, 87 ballast requirements for, 84 as barriers, 104-105, 114-117 cargo capacity of, 218, 220, 222 committee view of, xxi, xxiv, 92, 116, 117, 141 damage stability of, 223 height requirements for (Chevron Shipping Company), 226-228 oil outflow in, 8, 92, 116 OPA 90 requirements for, 47 transport costs for, 312 in U.S. fleet, 8, 10 voids in salvage and, 90-94 Double-hull tankers arrangements in, 86, 87 ballast requirements for, 84-85 as barriers, 104-105, 114, 119-120 cargo capacity and, 218, 221, 222 Chevron design for, 233 coatings for, 229 committee view of, xix-xxi, xxiv-xxv, 120, 141 cost-effectiveness of, 179 design of, 226-228 with hydrostatic control, xxii, 141, 152, 308 implications on inspection of, 81 maintenance and safety of, 229 oil outflow in, xx, 120 OPA 90 requirements for, 46 results of extensive employment of, 81 spacing in, xx stability, xxv, 88-90, 223, 229-237 transport costs for, 308, 309 in U.S. fleet, 8, 10 Double-side tankers arrangements in, 86, 87

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design ballast requirements for, 84 as barriers, 104-105, 114, 117-119 cargo capacity and, 218, 220-222 committee view of, xxi, xxiv, 118, 141 damage stability of, 223 with hydrostatic control, 141, 152, 175, 310 with intermediate oil-tight deck, xxii-xxiii, 125-127, 141, 152, 154, 175, 179, 311 OPA 90 requirements for, 47 transport costs for, 309-311 width requirements for, 227 Draft and trim requirements (MARPOL), 40 E East Coast traffic patterns, 4 Economic considerations of application of standards to existing fleet, xxvi-xxvii regarding design, 33, 36-37 for retrofitting, 117-120 for use of hydrostatically balanced loading, 123 80,000 DWT tankers assessment of implications of design arrangements for outflow performance of, 144 committee interpretations of DnV report regarding, 302 estimated oil outflow from, 149, 294-296 Electrical installations, 67 Electricity, static, 66 Energy dissipation, 56-58, 58 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 3 Energy sources, alternative, 176 Engineering analysis, tanker design based on, 211-214 Environmental damage caused by spills, 20-22 decrease in, 164-165 economic assessment of, 160-161 ESSO PUERTO RICO, 15 Exclusive Economic Zone, 46, 54n.15 Expert judgment technique data analysis method in, 317-318 methodology overview of, 314-315 rating method used in, 175, 314, 322 results and conclusions of, 318-321 rules for, 315-317 Explosions conditions for, 66-67 definition of, 28n.18 design features for safety in, 97-98 hazards of, xxiii, xxiv, 23, 65-66 inert gas systems to resolve problem of, 32 outside of cargo tanks, 67, 69 spills resulting from, 15-17 EXXON VALDEZ committee tour of, ix, 61 cost of spillage, 160, 163, 174 potential net buoyancy of remaining oil in hull, 97 spillage from, vii, xvii, 20, 24, 71, 179 F Fatigue and fracture mechanic analysis, 214 Fatigue resistance, 33 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), 164 Finite element analysis (FEM), 80, 212-214 Fires conditions for sustaining, 66-67 definition of, 28n.18 design features for safety in, 97-98 hazards of, xxiii, xxiv, 23, 65-66 outside of cargo tanks, 67, 69 spills resulting from, 15-17 Flag of convenience ships, 44 Flammability, 65-66. See also Explosions; Fires Fluid/vessel motion, 74-75 40,000 DWT tankers outflow estimates for, 144, 332-333

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design probabilistic ranking of designs of, 142, 148-151, 278-293, 297 Fracture mechanics, 79 Fuel consumption, 169 G GEORGIA, 20 Green water, 210 Grinding bow committee view of, 134, 140, 141 for penetration resistance, 110-111, 134 Groundings benefit of study of controlled, 185, 188 committee interpretations of DnV report regarding, 299-300 definition of, 27n.18 design for possibility of, xix, 52, 86 double bottoms in, 117, 134 double hulls in, 154 information regarding, xix momentum exchange and energy dissipation in, 55-65 oil outflows resulting from, xviii, 8, 15, 20-22, 71, 85, 247-251, 297 stages of, 59-62 types of obstacles involved in, 90-91 Gulf of Mexico, traffic patterns along, 4 H High-energy accidents. See also Accidents intermediate oil-tight deck in, 125 performance of double hulls in, 120 results of, xix High-tensile steels, 80-81 High-yield steel bottom structure committee view of, 136, 140, 141 for penetration resistance, 110-111, 136, 141 Honeycomb hull structure committee view of, 136, 140 penetration resistance of, 110-111, 135-136, 140 Hull girder bending moment, 209, 212 Hull strength design loads, stress analysis, and scantling selection and, 78-79 design margins and, 79-81 inspection and maintenance and, 81-82 for penetration resistance, 110-111, 132-137 rupture initiation process and, 186 structural design principles to understand, 77 Hull structure committee view of, 135, 136, 140 high-yield steel, 110-111, 136, 140, 141 longitudinally reinforced, 140-142 prediction of extent of damage to, 186 unidirectionally stiffened, 110-111, 134-135 Hulls ceramic coating on, 110-111, 137, 140 concrete, 110-111, 136-137, 141 internal deflecting, 110-111, 132-133, 140 spacing of, 85 Hydrostatic control. See Hydrostatically balanced loading Hydrostatic equilibrium, 74, 96 Hydrostatic pressure, 71-74, 92 Hydrostatically balanced loading barges and, 141 committee view of, xxi-xxii, xxiv, 124, 141 explanation of, 72, 73 and oil outflow management, 106-107, 122-124, 127 requirements for, xxvi-xxvii Hydrostatically driven vacuum, 108-109, 129-130 Hypothetical outflow of oil formulas for, 41-42 MARPOL requirements for, 201-202 I Ignition sources. See Explosions; Fires Imaginary double bottom committee view of, 131, 140

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design for outflow management, 108-109, 130-131 Imports projections for, 3-4 replacement of Jones Act movements with, 177 Inert gas systems (IGS) mechanically driven vacuum and, 129 requirements for, 42 to resolve problem of fires and explosions, 32, 67-69, 97 Information processing for accident response, 112-113, 137-138, 140 committee view of, 138, 140 Injury causes of, 23 related to design, xxv, 23 Inspections adequacy of hull spacing for, 85 ballast tank, 215 Coast Guard, 8, 10, 47-51 to detect buckling, 216 importance of, 81-82 owner or classification society, 48 Insurance costs, 169 Interior Department (DOI) regulations, 164 Intermediate oil-tight deck (IOTD) committee view of, 126, 141 description of, 86, 88 with double sides, xxii-xxiii, 125-127, 141, 152, 154, 175, 179, 311 oil outflow management and, 106-107, 124-127 Internal deflecting hull, 110-111, 132-133, 140 Internal/external liquid pressure differential, 208-209 International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), 45, 52 member societies of, 53n.11 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships , 39. See also MARPOL requirements International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 39 International Convention on Load Lines (ICLL), 39-40 International Maritime Organization (IMO) conferences of 1973 and 1978, 42 implementation of conventions of, 43 involvement in research, 189 pollution-prevention provisions of, xxvi responsibilities of, xviii, xxiii, 39 structural design standards of, 52, 89, 226 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), 163-164 J Japanese research projects, 183 Jones Act ships, 7, 177 K KHARK5, 15 L Legislation implementation of international, 43-44 MARPOL requirements and U.S., 46-47 Lighter size, 36 Lightering to avoid compliance, 176, 177 in coastal activity, 5 to extinction, 35 as ignition source, 67 process of, 35-36, 93 reliability and safety of, 36 Lightning. See Lightering Lightweight, ratio to deadweight, 30, 32 Liquid pressure differential, 208-209 Load on top (LOT) system, 123 explanation of, 42, 53n.3 principle used for, 53n.8 Loadlines, 39-40 Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), 8, 36, 176 Low-velocity accidents, xix

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design M Machinery, as cause of fires, 67 Magnesium sacrificial anodes, 67 Maintenance adequacy of hull spacing for, 85 of double-hull tankers, 229 importance of, 81-82 Maintenance and repair costs, 169 Manning requirements, for barges, 34 MARPOL requirements Annex I text, 200-207 implementation of, xxvi, 39-41, 46-47, 125 list of major, 40-42 significance of, 42-43 for stability, xxiv-xxv, 83 MARPOL tankers ballast in, 84, 104-105, 115 as base case, 160 committee view of, 141 corrosion in, 80 See also Corrosion damage stability of, 89 transport costs for, 305, 306 Mechanically driven vacuums committee view of, 140 for outflow management, 106-107, 128-129 MEGA BORG, 15, 53n.4, 97 Membrane energy, 59 METULA, 92 Middle East imports, 4 Monetized benefit-cost analysis, 158 Multi-buoy moorings (MBMs), 34 N Natural resource costs, 161-162, 164 NESTUCCA, 21-22 Non-voyage operating costs, 168 O O/Os, 155, 156 OBOs, 155-156 Ocean-going barges. See Barges Oil. See Crude oil; Petroleum products Oil outflow amount of, vii, 16-17, 82 analysis of, 165-167 cargo systems and, 94, 95 causes of, xviii, 10-22 from collisions and groundings, xviii, 8, 15, 20-22, 52, 56, 71, 85, 92, 243-251, 297 committee estimates of, xix, 151-156, 330-333 cost of, 163-165 diffusion and dynamics of fluid/vessel motion and, 74-75 DnV estimates of. See Det norske Veritas (DnV) report from double bottoms, 8, 92, 116 in double hulls, xx, 120 effects of, 161-162, 179 50 major accidents resulting in, 13, 15-17 hypothetical, 41-42, 201-202 per gallon ratios of, 25-26 physical mechanisms governing, 71-74 risk of, xvii-xviii. See also Pollution risk ullage space and, 72, 74, 106-107 Oil outflow management barges and, 142 convertible tanks for, 106-107, 127, 140 explanation of, 122 hydrostatically balanced loading for, 106-107, 122-124, 127 hydrostatically driven vacuum for, 108-109, 129-130 imaginary double bottom for, 108-109, 130-131, 140 intermediate oil-tight deck for, 106-107, 124-127 mechanically driven vacuum for, 106-107, 128-129, 140 service tank location and, 108-109, 132 use of smaller tanks for, xxi, 108-109, 131-132 Oil outflow research projects planned on, 183-184

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design recent studies conducted on, 182-183 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), viii, 182 effects of, xviii, 81 encouragement of lightering by, 35 requirements of, xxi, xxiii, 46-47, 127, 160, 164 research funded under, 188 Oil prices, 3 Oil products. See Petroleum products Oil-tight deck. See Intermediate oiltight deck OLYMPIC GLORY, 20 Outer dynamics, 59 Outflow. See Oil outflow; Oil outflow management Oxidation films, 69-70 Oxygen, as cause of fires, 66, 67 P Penetration depth, 62 Penetration resistance for barges, 142 ceramic-clad outer hull for, 110-111, 137, 140 concrete hull structure for, 110-111, 136-137, 141 grinding bow for, 110-111, 134, 140 high-yield steel bottom structure for, 110-111, 136, 140 honeycomb hull structure for, 110-111, 135-136, 140 internal deflecting hull for, 110-111, 132-133, 140 unidirectionally stiffened hull structure for, 110-111, 134-135 Performance standards, 184-185 Petroleum hydrocarbons fire or explosion due to leakage of, xxiii, xxiv in marine environment, 10, 12, 28n.19 Petroleum products carried by barges, xxiv increases in importation of, xvii spillage of. See Oil outflow traffic patterns from imported, 4 Piping systems, 34-35 Pitting process, 70 Plating rupture, 60-61 Plimsoll Mark, 39-40 Pollution accidents resulting in, 10-13, 26 caused by ballast water, 35 caused by fires or explosions, 15 outflow management to limit, 106-109, 122-132 Pollution control analysis and committee conclusions from DnV analysis, 151, 299-302 and estimated outflow from 80,000 DWT tankers, 149, 296, 302 and ranking of 40,000 DWT tankers, 148-150 and ranking of VLCC tankers, 144-148 of selected design and design combinations, 143-144 Pollution prevention barriers for, 104-105, 114-122, 132 classification requirements for, 44-46 Coast Guard responsibilities for, 47-51 domestic legal requirements for, 44 implementation of international law regarding, 43-44 implementation of U.S. requirements for, 46-47 international legal requirements for, 39-42 significance of MARPOL for, 42-43 Pollution risk acceptability of, 24-26 background of, 23-24 control of, ix, xviii, 110-111, 132-137 defining, 24 of transporting oil by tanker, 26 Port depth limitations, U.S., 8 Port states explanation of, 8 regulations of, 44 Ports requirements for, 34

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design traffic at U.S., 2 transshippment in foreign, 177 PRESIDENTE RIVERA, 20 Protectively located segregated ballast tankers (PLBST), xxvi, 104 -105, 115, 219, 221 PUERTO RICAN, 15, 20 Pump rooms, as ignition source, 69 Pumping systems alternative, 96 capability of, 94-96 description of, 34-35, 121 R RACHEL B., 20 Ramming, 27-28n.18 Reefs, 91 Research programs needs, xxvii-xxviii, 188 new focus on, 184-188 presently in works, 183-184 recommended strategy for U.S., 188-189 as result of EXXON VALDEZ accident, 182-183 Residual strength following damage, 65 models for, 187-188 Resilient membrane as barrier, 104-105, 114, 120-122 committee view of, 122, 140 Retrofitting in double bottoms, 117 in double hulls, 120 in double sides, 118-119 of intermediate deck, 126-127 of intermediate oil-tight deck with double sides (IOTD w/DS), 127-128 in ocean-going barges, 117-120 Risk. See Pollution risk Risk ratios, 25-26 Royal Norweigian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (NTNF) , 183 S Sacrificial anodes, 71 magnesium and aluminum, 67 Safety considerations for crew, xxv, 97-98 introduction of, 30 regarding design, 37-39, 79, 229, 230 Safety Construction Certificate, 45 Salvage cargo systems and, 94 computer programs and, 96-97 concerns regarding, 89-90 definition of, 92 double-bottom tankers and voids in, 90-94 emergency cargo pumping capability and, 94-96 Scantlings classification societies on use of, 211 selection of, 210 Segregated ballast tanks (SBT). See also Ballast tanks arrangements, 86-88 cargo capacity of, 221-225 oil outflow in, 155 protective location for, xxvi, 104-105, 219, 221 requirements for, xxvi, 40, 42-43, 53n.5, 83 safety of crew and condition of, 97-98 salvage concerns related to, 89-97 susceptibility to corrosion of, 70-71, 80 Service tank location, 108-109, 132 Shear forces, 209 Ship owner associations, 183 Ship to Ship Transfer Guide, 36 Shipping regulation enforcement, vii Single-port moorings (SPMs), 34 Single-skin tank vessels cargo carrying capacity of, 221-222 conclusions concerning, xix damage stability of, xxv, 218, 219, 223 latest designs for, xxi

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design worldwide use of, 8 Size. See Tank vessel size Slamming, 209 Slop tanks, 42 Sloshing, 123, 210, 211, 213, 214 Sloshing analysis, 214 Sluice valves, 94 Small tanks accident response and, 142-143 committee view of, xxi, 132, 141 deflecting hull in, 133 outflow management in, 108-109, 131-132 transport costs for, 313 void spaces in, xx Societal insurance analysis, 159 SOLAS requirements class and, 45 objectives of, 39, 40 time frame for implementation of, 41 Sparks, as ignition source, 66 Spill reduction analysis, 165-167 Spillage. See Oil outflow S.T. ARROW, 162 Stability. See Tanker Stability Static electricity, as ignition source, 66 Steel high-strength, 32 high-tensile, 80-81 high-yield, 110-111, 136, 141 Steel-on-steel contact, 67 Stress analysis application of, 30, 32 hull strength and, 79 Stress corrosion, 70 Structural behavior criteria for, 52 need to understand, 185-186 Structural/machinery damage in collisions or groundings, 59 definition of, 28n.18 Structural weight reduction, 30, 32 Submerged reefs, 91 Surveys large tanker structural, 215-217 types of, 45-46 T Tank cleaning, 215-216 Tank subdivision requirements, 42, 204-207 Tank vessel age, 22-23, 178 Tank vessel size. See also various types of tankers casualties and, 22, 37, 38 as design issue, 82-85 increases in, 30, 31 limitations on, 40-41, 202-204 trend to less-regulated, 176 in U.S. trade, 8-10 Tank vessels. See also various types of vessels application of standards for existing, xxv-xxvi characteristics of, 32-33 description of operations of, 34-36 diversion of cargo to barges from, 176 extending life of existing, 178 number of ocean-going, 2, 26n.1 risk presented by, 1 two-tier market for, 177-179 types and control of, xvii, 6-10 Tanker stability. See also Damage stability double-hull, xxv, 88-90, 223, 229-237 requirements for, xxiv-xxv, 42, 83, 204-207 salvage and, 93 Tanks. See also individual types of tanks convertible, 106-107, 127, 140 small. See Small tanks TexPort, 36 Thermal loads, 210 Thermal stress analysis, 214 Tides, role in groundings of, 91 Towing fittings committee view of, xxiii, xxvi, 139, 140 for enhanced accident response, 112-113, 138-139

OCR for page 339
Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design Traffic concentrations of, 4 increases in, 1-4 intercoastal and intracoastal, 4-5 Transfer systems. See Cargo transfer systems Transport cost data development and use of, 170, 171, 178 for various vessels, 303-313 Transshipping, 177 Trim requirements, 40 U Ullage space, 72, 74, 106-107 Unidirectionally stiffened hull structure, 110-111, 134-135 V Vacuum systems barges and, 142 committee view of, 129, 131, 140 hydrostatically driven, 108-109, 129-130 mechanically driven, 106-107, 128-129 summary of, 131 Vessels. See Tank vessels Vibration analysis, 214 VLCCs (very large crude carriers) committee interpretations of DnV report regarding, 300-301 inspection of, 81-82 oil outflow from, 85, 144, 152, 153, 331-332 probabilistic ranking of, 144-148, 252-277, 297 structural surveys of, 46, 215-217 Void spaces in double-bottom tankers, 90-94 flooding of, xxv risk due to, xxiv, xxv in small tanks, xx Voyage costs, 168 W Water, green, 210 Weight reduction, structural, 30, 32 Welding improvements, 30, 32 West Coast traffic patterns, 4 WORLD PRODIGY, 20 Z Zinc sacrificial anodes, 67