APPENDIX

C

International Fishing Industry Safety Activities

Although the U.S. commercial fishing industry fleet has not been heavily regulated for safety, the United States has participated in international forums addressing engineering and technical aspects of fishing vessel safety. These forums have led to development of extensive design, construction, and safety guidelines pertaining to vessels and corresponding safety and training guidelines pertaining to personnel. However, actual safety-improvement initiatives have been significantly less progressive in the United States than in other industrialized fishing nations.

Safety programs implemented by fishing nations have focused on vessel quality, operator licensing, manning standards, and compulsory safety training. These programs vary. Canada, Norway, and the United Kingdom, for example, have extensive requirements, while other countries are less stringent. Generally, vessels about 50 feet (15 meters) or larger are addressed; however, some countries address vessels as small as 30 feet (9 meters), such as New Zealand, and 40 feet (12 meters), such as the United Kingdom. Canada is considering extending vessel regulations to small fishing vessels, and some countries are beginning to focus more effort on practical training (T. Staalstrom, Det norske Veritas, personal communication, 1990; IMO News, 1990; Bárdarson, 1984).

This appendix provides an overview of international fishing vessel safety activities. Because of the similarities between Canadian and northern U.S. commercial fishing, Canadian activities are described in more detail. Information concerning fishing industry licensing programs administered by fishing nations was obtained by the U.S. Coast Guard and made available for this study. It was supplemented with material on licensing and vessel inspection provided directly



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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program APPENDIX C International Fishing Industry Safety Activities Although the U.S. commercial fishing industry fleet has not been heavily regulated for safety, the United States has participated in international forums addressing engineering and technical aspects of fishing vessel safety. These forums have led to development of extensive design, construction, and safety guidelines pertaining to vessels and corresponding safety and training guidelines pertaining to personnel. However, actual safety-improvement initiatives have been significantly less progressive in the United States than in other industrialized fishing nations. Safety programs implemented by fishing nations have focused on vessel quality, operator licensing, manning standards, and compulsory safety training. These programs vary. Canada, Norway, and the United Kingdom, for example, have extensive requirements, while other countries are less stringent. Generally, vessels about 50 feet (15 meters) or larger are addressed; however, some countries address vessels as small as 30 feet (9 meters), such as New Zealand, and 40 feet (12 meters), such as the United Kingdom. Canada is considering extending vessel regulations to small fishing vessels, and some countries are beginning to focus more effort on practical training (T. Staalstrom, Det norske Veritas, personal communication, 1990; IMO News, 1990; Bárdarson, 1984). This appendix provides an overview of international fishing vessel safety activities. Because of the similarities between Canadian and northern U.S. commercial fishing, Canadian activities are described in more detail. Information concerning fishing industry licensing programs administered by fishing nations was obtained by the U.S. Coast Guard and made available for this study. It was supplemented with material on licensing and vessel inspection provided directly

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program to the committee, interviews with Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) officials, and published and unpublished literature. The material, while incomplete, provides general insight into approaches taken by other fishing nations. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION The International Maritime Organization (IMO, formerly the International Maritime Consultative Organization, or IMCO, from 1960 to 1982), is the United Nations marine safety organization. The IMO has been working to improve the safety of commercial fishing vessels for years. The U.S. Coast Guard has actively supported this work since about 1966. At that time, the Coast Guard supported an IMCO panel on fishing vessel stability. Since 1968, the IMCO subcommittee has been the only subcommittee solely dedicated to an individual class of vessel. The Coast Guard is designated by the U.S. State Department as the federal marine safety agency and is empowered to represent U.S. marine safety and environmental interests to the IMO. United States involvement in IMCO fishing vessel safety work was a cause for concern, since there was no enabling authority for any U.S. agency to promulgate regulations pertaining to fishing vessel design or construction, the method by which international conventions are brought into force by member nations. The Coast Guard nevertheless approached the State Department with a plan to voluntarily support international fishing vessel safety activity. The agency believed this would be a way to promote essential research leading to operation, design, construction, stability, and safety guidelines that would benefit U.S. fishermen. The State Department approved this approach. During the mid-1960s, an international fishing vessel safety program was started by three United Nations agencies—the International Labor Organization (ILO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and IMCO (Appave, 1989; Plaza, 1989). This activity led to a two-part code of safety for fishermen and vessels: Part A, operational safety guidelines (printed in the mid-1960s), and Part B, design and construction aspects of fishing vessels, which was purely voluntary guidance. Initial IMCO input to Part B began as specialized information on stability of fishing vessels. This was subsequently broadened to cover the entire design and construction of fishing vessels, including fire safety, engine machinery safety, radio communications safety, and all other safety functions. Work on Part B progressed from 1968 to 1974. In 1974, the IMCO Assembly scheduled an international convention for 1977 on the safety of fishing vessels. Three years were spent preparing for the conference, which culminated in the Torremolinos International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessels, 1977. The United States sent a full delegation, led

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program by a Coast Guard flag officer, to the conference. Since 1977, U.S. delegations have remained active and have considered extending safety guidelines to smaller fishing vessels in a new code discussed by the IMO Subcommittee on Stability, Load Lines, and Safety of Fishing Vessels, which meets about once a year. The Torremolinos International Convention has not yet entered into force, principally as a result of technical requirements unacceptable to some nations. The IMO is developing a protocol to the convention to resolve these impediments, but recognizes that more work is needed internationally to improve commercial fishing vessel safety, with consideration given to vessel standards and training of personnel (IMO News, 1989, 1990; Plaza, 1989). The Coast Guard's international work, even in the absence of enabling authority for regulations, resulted in a flow of information to the U.S. commercial fishing industry through the Coast Guard and the National Marine Fisheries Service. The Coast Guard has routinely invited naval architects and fishing industry representatives to participate on its advisory committee for the U.S. IMO subcommittee delegation. As a result, Coast Guard involvement has provided the technical insight needed to develop its voluntary guidelines (consolidated in NVIC 5-86) and to support development of fishing vessel safety manuals for the North Pacific, Gulf, and Atlantic coasts. Canadian fishing vessel safety regulations and activities are described in the section that follows, and those of other representative fishing nations are summarized in Table C-1. CANADIAN VESSEL SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS The Canadian commercial fishing industry is similar in some respects to the industry in northern U.S. waters, for example, gear types, stocks exploited, and environmental conditions. Commercial fisheries are a prominent element of the Canadian economy and are a major industry in coastal communities. Considerable provincial and national attention is focused on the fishing fleets, and national concern for continuing high fatalities and vessel losses prompted a CCG fishing vessel safety study. Analysis of fishing vessel search and rescue (SAR) cases in Canadian waters strongly implicated human error as a primary cause of vessel losses and fatalities. The CCG also found that a large portion of casualties was associated with smaller fishing vessels (CCG, 1987). Between 1982 and 1986, the primary causes of loss of life in the Canadian fishing industry were man overboard, capsizing, foundering (sinking), grounding, fire, and explosion. High-value fisheries, which induce increased risk taking for profit, had a disproportionate share of the fatalities. Fisheries implicated were seining, shellfish (lobster and crab), and groundfish, especially where small fishing vessels operated at considerable distances offshore. About 90 percent of the fatalities involved vessels under 60 gross tons, and 60 percent involved vessels under 15 gross tons. The primary causes of vessel losses were fire and

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program TABLE C-1 Synopsis of Representative International Fishing Vessel Safety Rules and Regulations Regulation and Infrastructure Registration and Licensing Education and Training AUSTRALIA Commonwealth regulates the safety of fishing vessels engaged in overseas operations. Uniform codes (Australian Transport Advisory Council) apply to 5 classes of fishing vessels categorized by operating area: unlimited operations, offshore operations, restricted offshore operations, sheltered water operations for partially smooth of smooth water, and sheltered water operations for smooth water only. Extensive licensing requirements for all classes of vessels. Qualifications required for skippers, mates, engineers, and crew. Extensive training requirements for all classes of fishing vessels. Crew members on overseas vessels must undergo basic safety and survival training. DENMARK Danish Maritime Authority operates all training ships and maritime training institutions. Education is coordinated with the maritime industry through the Maritime Education Council, an advisory group representing seafarers and fishermen's associations. Masters must be Danish citizens and hold a 1st or 3rd Class Skipper 's Certificate of Competency, which certifies criteria have been met to operate certain size fishing vessels on limited or open waters. Three general phases for training are: (1) noncompulsory pre-sea training--5 weeks of entry level, general knowledge, on shore training for those with at least 9 years of schooling; and skipper school training with (2) 3rd class, and (3) 1st class programs. Skipper school requires 24 months seagoing service, 12 of which must be aboard fishing vessels. Training for 3rd and 1st class examinations is compulsory.

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program FINLAND Vessels 8.5-27.5 m engaged in open-sea fishing in the Baltic Sea and contiguous gulfs are regulated by the National Board of Navigation. Those > 27.5 m or fishing outside of specified Baltic waters are regulated under merchant vessel enabling authorities. Criteria for masters and machine attendants on board fishing vessels include medical fitness and certification. Fishing vessels must have master with Skipper's Certificate A and B, and a machine attendant with a Machine Attendant 's Certificate A or B. Candidates for Skippers Certificates must prove their identity, be medically fit, and have proof of formal training. Candidates for a Skipper's A or B Certificate need certificate from a maritime school or inspector covering specific expertise and serve 2 years on a vessel. Machine Attendant candidate B must serve 9 months in a motor vessel engineering department and have technical school or machine surveyor certificate attesting to his or her knowledge. Certificate A criteria expand in-service requirements. JAPAN The government administers a comprehensive safety program for all commercial fishing vessels, which includes compulsory licensing and manning standards. Mandatory safety inspections are required for all Japanese fishing vessels. Certain survey and technical standards are not applied to small fishing vessels used within 12 miles of the coast. Ministry of Transport administers a comprehensive, multi-tiered licensing program for masters, mates, and engineers. Manning standards depend on vessel employment and tonnage for deck officers, and power output for engineering officers. The licensing program promotes officer competency.  

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program NEW ZEALAND Fishing vessels > 12 m long must be surveyed to determine the vessel's category. Vessels categorized as Class X fishing vessels are regulated for fire fighting and lifesaving equipment and maintenance requirements. There are extensive training and certification requirements for skippers and mates on board fishing vessels. A Commercial Launchmaster certificate is required to fish within 12 miles of shore in vessels < 15.26 m long. To operate a fishing vessel up to 100 miles offshore, the vessel operator must be certificated as a New Zealand Coastal Master. Launchmaster applicants must have 18 months sea service and pass an examination covering various topics. Coastal master applicants require 3 years sea service and must pass an examination. Training and examination requirements for mates and skippers of deep sea fishing boats include 4 years sea service and examination for mates; 5 years sea service and examination for skippers. NORWAY Commercial fishing vessels > 15 m long are heavily regulated for operation and material condition. Compulsory, comprehensive licensing for masters, mates, “master fisherman,” deck officers, and engineering officers. Basic requirements for licenses include prerequisite deck or engineering sea-service and 1-3 years practical training. Since 1986, safety training is compulsory for all fishermen aboard any type and size of vessel, except those operating on inland fresh waters. SWEDEN Fishing vessels with overall hull length at least 9 m are regulated. Competency, medical, manning, and watch keeping requirements are in effect for operators, mates, and engineers. They vary by operating area and vessel size. Theoretical training at an educational facility, practical experience, and a medical certificate are required. Masters of 9-12 m vessels must obtain a Skipper's examination certificate; no sea service requirements are specified; skippers of 12-24 m vessels require a B certificate; officers in charge of a watch in extended coastal or North Sea areas must have a Skipper's examination certificate. Vessels > 24 m and < 500 gross tons must have Skipper B for sheltered trade and Skipper A for extended coast and North Sea; mates must hold Skipper B certificate. Skipper B candidates must have examination certificate and 36 months ' deck service, 12 of them aboard merchant vessels. Skipper A candidates must have 36 months' deck service, 18 of them in extended coast or extended trade, including 12 months aboard a merchant vessel; must complete the Skipper A or Skipper First Class course. Training and marine engineering service requirements are similar to those for deck officers, but in engineering disciplines.

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program   There are three categories of engineers: on vessels < 405 KW, one crew member must have passed an engineer examination; 405-750 KW, one crew member must hold Engineer B certificate; 750-1,600 KW, one crew member must hold Engineer A certificate.   UNITED KINGDOM Comprehensive regulations have been in force since 1975. Surveys and certification of fishing vessels > 12 m are required; they apply to about 2,000 vessels. For vessels > 16.5 m, deck officers and engineers have comprehensive entry level professional training, certification, manning, and watch keeping requirements. There are 5 categories of fishing vessels and 3 levels of competency certification (Class 1, 2, and 3) for operators and engineers. Minimum deck officer manning is keyed to a combination of fishing area and vessel size. New entrants and working fishermen must complete a basic training course or skipper or mate courses with basic elements. This training requirement is being phased in over 4 years with seasoned fishermen receiving the most time to complete the requirements. Owners and operators must ensure that new entrants produce satisfactory training course attendance certificates. Examinations and sea service requirements vary by class of certificate.

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program explosion, foundering (sinking), and grounding: 90 percent of vessels lost were under 60 gross tons. The CCG, while noting that the vast majority of fishermen have operated safely and successfully during their fishing careers, nevertheless attributed the majority of incidents resulting in the loss of 824 vessels and 140 fatalities to human error (CCG, 1987). It found that principal considerations leading to human error were: risk taking for profit induced by increased economic pressures, vessel design and safety sacrificed for economic benefit, and normal practice of seamanship disregarded or not known. Concern for the well-being of Canadian fishermen also prompted examination of occupational safety and health aboard fishing vessels. The committee considered Canadian studies on occupational safety and health (Gray, 1986, 1987a,b,c). The report of a tripartite committee representing industry, federal, and provincial views that was appointed by Labour Canada to recommend corrective action was also considered (Canada, Government of, 1988; Carter, 1989). Examining the relationships among human factors, plant and equipment, and regulations, Gray (1987c) found that: There are competent and fully qualified fishermen in all regions, “but varying numbers of untrained or partially trained persons who are attempting to learn the business by the process of exposure and survival.” Safety in the fishermen's workplace is primarily the result of effective application of knowledge, training, and awareness of the job and reasons for accidents. There is strong industry support for education and training as the primary alternative for improving safety, but a lack of confidence in regulations unless they are developed in consultation with affected fishermen. Gray further identified three basic principles for correcting occupational safety and health problems in the Canadian fishing industry and recommended that the principles be addressed in the following order (Gray, 1987c): establish an educated or trained work force, provide safe vessels and equipment, and establish simple, readily enforceable regulations. The Labour Canada committee in its 1988 report (Canada, Government of, 1988) found that emphasizing training and education was the best way to improve safety performance in the fishing industry. They were “not persuaded that volunteerism in the field of training will materially alter the existing reality. Whether as a result of the rugged individualism which typifies the industry or an apparent discomfort with the educational setting, there seems to be a natural reluctance on the part of fishermen to submit to a formal training

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program process.” The committee recommended a compulsory safety training program “as a prerequisite to obtaining an annual, personal, commercial fishing license.” Also recommended were: a training curriculum that, insofar as practical, is based on existing courses and facilities with flexibility to accommodate varying regional needs, public awareness programs targeted to high-risk fisheries and specific fishing seasons, a formal material inspection program for fishing vessels under 15 gross tons, and a mandatory self-inspection checklist completed annually as a prerequisite for obtaining a vessel fishing license. The actions called for by the Labour Canada committee have been addressed in part by ongoing CCG safety initiatives associated with its study of fishing vessel safety (Carter, 1989; CCG, 1987). Training standards for marine emergencies have been in place for more than 10 years and were updated in 1988 (CCG, 1988). Certification for masters, mates, and engineers is required on vessels in excess of 100 gross tons, and this will soon be reduced to 60 gross tons. The CCG has conducted a public awareness program to communicate risks to fishermen in selected locations. A new fisherman's handbook has recently been published, incorporating voluntary self-inspection checklists. The handbook was initially distributed by the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans to all fishermen with their annual fisherman 's license. Inspection regulations for small fishing vessels are being developed but are progressing slowly, partly because of socioeconomic factors in some sectors of the fishing industry. New inspection regulations for large fishing vessels are on hold pending completion of action on small-vessel regulations. Existing fishing vessel regulations require immersion suits on all fishing vessels exceeding 150 gross tons. Thermal deck suits are proposed on all fishing vessels under 150 gross tons, and these amendments are expected to be in place by the end of 1990. Additionally, life rafts will be required on all fishing vessels regardless of size or location after March 1991. These efforts have not reached the stage at which their effectiveness can be determined. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNATIONAL AND FISHING NATION SAFETY MEASURES A major question is whether compulsory programs to overcome or mitigate vessel-related casualties or human factors through engineering or technical solutions will work. There is little material on program effectiveness in other countries. Studies have been conducted in Norway, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Spain, for example, but they have tended to focus on training, statistics, and causes of accidents rather than on performance of technical

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program systems in relation to compulsory programs. It appears that fatalities have generally been reduced, while rates of incidence for injuries related to vessel casualties and workplace accidents appear unchanged. The lack of apparent change in injury rates may be related to working conditions and methods, vessel design, training deficiencies, and changes in the numbers of fishing vessels and fishermen (Carbajosa, 1989; Dahle and Weerasekera, 1989; Hoefnagel and Bouwman, 1989; Hopper and Dean, 1989; Stoop, 1989). The number of vessel casualties has varied. For example, in the United Kingdom, since safety rules were applied to all vessels over 12 meters during the mid-1980s, the number of losses of these vessels has been significantly reduced. However, losses of vessels under 12 meters have more than doubled, perhaps partly because of a large increase in the number of vessels under 12 meters, to which only lifesaving and fire-safety government regulations apply (Hopper and Dean, 1989). At least for the Scottish inshore fishing fleet, new designs have favored beamy vessels in order to satisfy length-based legislation, with suspected but as yet unproven adverse changes in seaworthiness (Macleod and MacFarlane, 1989).