Index

A

Abandon-ship drills, 123

Accidents.

SeeFatalities;

Fishing accidents;

Vessel casualties

Alaska

boarding programs in, 93

buyback programs in, 96

compliance examination programs targeting fisheries in, 15

employment estimates for, 41

injury compensation provided by, xv, 5, 68

local weather reports in, 140-141

material failures in, 237

overview of fishing industry around, 33-37

safety data for, 45-47, 196-197

state vessel numbering system in, 5

Alaska Fishermen's Fund, 67-69, 195-197

Alaska Marine Safety Education Association (AMSEA), 11

Allisions, 80-81

Alternatives.

SeeSafety-improvement options

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), 94, 223, 240

American Hull Institute Syndicate (AHIS), 100-101

American Institute of Marine Underwriters (AIMU), 136

Australia, 181

B

Boarding programs, 87-88, 93, 131, 213-219

Buyback programs, 96

C

Canada

fishing vessel safety in, 14, 107-108, 178, 180, 185-186

role in survival equipment development and regulation, 128-129

Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) emergency equipment development by, 14

fishing vessel safety study by, 127, 180

training standards for emergencies by, 107

Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 186

Capsizing, 45



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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program Index A Abandon-ship drills, 123 Accidents. SeeFatalities; Fishing accidents; Vessel casualties Alaska boarding programs in, 93 buyback programs in, 96 compliance examination programs targeting fisheries in, 15 employment estimates for, 41 injury compensation provided by, xv, 5, 68 local weather reports in, 140-141 material failures in, 237 overview of fishing industry around, 33-37 safety data for, 45-47, 196-197 state vessel numbering system in, 5 Alaska Fishermen's Fund, 67-69, 195-197 Alaska Marine Safety Education Association (AMSEA), 11 Allisions, 80-81 Alternatives. SeeSafety-improvement options American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), 94, 223, 240 American Hull Institute Syndicate (AHIS), 100-101 American Institute of Marine Underwriters (AIMU), 136 Australia, 181 B Boarding programs, 87-88, 93, 131, 213-219 Buyback programs, 96 C Canada fishing vessel safety in, 14, 107-108, 178, 180, 185-186 role in survival equipment development and regulation, 128-129 Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) emergency equipment development by, 14 fishing vessel safety study by, 127, 180 training standards for emergencies by, 107 Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 186 Capsizing, 45

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program as cause of vessel-casualty-related fatalities, 59, 60 vessel-related causes of, 77-79 Captain, 2 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificates, 232 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificates, 232 CASMAIN data casualty causes and, 47-52, 140, 233-234 documentation of, 3, 17, 40 explanation of, 41-43, 188-190 for fatalities, 59-65 for material failure, 81, 82 recommendations for upgrading, 146 regarding survival equipment, 67 regional variations in, 45, 46 reporting maintenance deficiencies, 75 SAR data vs., 52, 190, 191 as source of human factors information, 69, 100-102, 105 tables of selected, 200-212 vessel size and, 52-53 vessel type and usage and, 47 Casualties, 82-83. See also Vessel casualties; Vessel casualty data Certificate of Documentation, 221 Certificate of Inspection (COI), 4, 95, 224, 225, 230-232 Certification education and training programs leading to, 115-116 establishment of program leading to, 152 explanation of, 2 Classification societies, 88, 240 Coast Guard, U.S. cost-benefit analysis of safety programs conducted by, 7-8 data recorded by, 3, 5, 17, 70, 100. See also CASMAIN data; SAR data; SEER data inspection role of, 87, 95-96, 149-150, 228, 239-240. See also Vessel inspection international work of, 180 proposed rulemaking by, 6, 87, 88 recommendations for, 144-147, 149-154 role in fishing vessel safety, xvii, 7-10, 15-16, 87, 131, 179 role in licensing, 116, 117, 152 survival equipment approval by, 124, 126, 129, 251-260 survival system publications of, 260 vessel identification system of, 70 Coast Guard compliance examinations, 10 and courtesy marine examinations, 216-217 extent and results of, 215-216 nature of, 213-214 objectives of, 214-215 recommendations for, 149 as safety alternative, 92-93 Sitka sac roe herring program and, 217-218 Coast Guard flag officer, as voting member of regional fishery management council, xvii, 154 Code for Safety for Fishermen and Fishing Vessels (IMO), 13 Collisions fishing industry perspectives on, 84 human factors involved in, 102-105 vessel-related causes of, 80-81 Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission (Alaska), 196, 222 Commercial fishing accidents. See Fatalities; Fishing accidents; Personal injuries; Vessel casualties Commercial Fishing Claims Register (CFCR), 17, 139, 194 Commercial fishing industry. See Fishing industry Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 (CFIVSA), v, xv, 7, 136, 143, 195. See also Federal legislation requirements of, 14, 69, 91, 116, 139, 214, 225-226, 239 survival equipment regulations prescribed by, 122, 252 text of, 261-271 training guidelines pat forth by, 115 Commercial landings, 21 Committee recommendations. See Safety recommendations Communication to population at risk, 85, 109

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program problems, 23, 24 Competence standards development of, 114-115 requirements for, 152-153 Compliance examinations Coast Guard, 92-93, 149, 213-218 to improve vessel safety, 10, 96 Computer software to monitor professional registration, 71 to monitor safety performance, 17 Congress, U.S. establishment of Coast Guard flag officer as voting member of regional fishery management council by, xvii, 154 role in fishing vessel safety, 8, 16 Conservation economic interests and, 133 regulation of, 27, 28 role of FMCs in, 131-132 Construction. See Vessel design, construction, and maintenance Convention Measurement Method, 223 Courtesy marine examinations (CMEs), 192-193, 216-217 Crew/crewmen, 2 Crew size, 237-238 Crushing injuries, 67-68 D Data. See CASMAIN data; Safety data; SAR data; Vessel casualty data Deckwear, protective, 127 Denmark, 181 Design. See Vessel design, construction, and maintenance Designers, 89-90 Det norske Veritas Classification (DnVC), 94, 240 Disappearances, 103-104 Distant-water fleets, 33-35 Dockside boarding program, 87-88 Document for Guidance on Fishermen's Training and Certification (IMO), 13 Documented fishing industry vessels explanation of, 4, 221 number of, 18-20, 221-222 Drowning, 59, 61, 67 Drug violations, 216 Drydock examinations, 231-232 E Economic concerns competition between fishing industry and aquaculture products, 21 cost of equipment as, 14 of fishermen, 134 management innovations dealing with, 133-134 Education, 2 Education programs behavioral change due to, 109 emergency preparedness, 112-114, 259 international, 181-184 leading to certification, 115-116, 152 licensing prerequisite, 116 promotion of, 115, 152 Emergency equipment, See also Survival equipment Canadian requirements for, 107-108 examination to identify deteriorating, 114 failure to use, 104 relationship between fatalities and, 67 requirements regarding, 10, 232 Emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs), 14, 122, 125-126, 254, 257-259. See also Survival equipment Emergency preparedness drills for, 123 recommendations for improvement of, 151 training for, 112-114 Engine failure, 81 Environmental conditions in Alaska region, 37, 140-141 as cause of casualties, 39, 49-52 flexible openings to accommodate adverse, 133, 134 in Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region, 31 in North Atlantic region, 29-30 in South Atlantic region, 30 in West Coast region, 33 Equipment.See also Emergency equipment; Survival equipment fire-fighting, 10, 51, 80, 88 high rate of failure in, xvi

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program Equipment requirements. See also Emergency equipment; Survival equipment expansion of, 91-92 fire-fighting, 10, 88 lifesaving, 10 of self-insurance pools, 137 standard setting for, 149 Explosions fishing industry perspectives on, 84 vessel-related causes of, 79-80 Exposure, 120-121 External influences on safety fisheries management as, 131-135 insurance issues as, 135-140 marine weather service as, 140-141 F Factory trawlers, 34, 237-238 Falls human causes of, 103-104 injury due to, 67, 127 Fatalities causes of, 82, 83 data regarding, 3, 17, 40, 43, 200-212. See also CASMAIN data; Safety data; SAR data data reporting, 59-62, 189, 190 definition of, 39 due to falls, 127 rate of, xv, 62-67 vessel size and, xvi, 62-64, 238 Fatigue awareness of danger of, 117-118 as cause of accidents, 105 Federal government lack of fishing industry regulations by, 5-6 marine surveys requirements of, 93-94 regulatory and compliance requirements of, 10 safety leadership recommendations for, 144 Federal legislation. See also Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988; Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (MFCMA) of 1976 affecting commercial fishing, 26-28 authority questions regarding, 13 Federal safety programs lack of goals for, 15 prior efforts of, 7-10 strategies to improve, 69-71 Finland, 182 Fire-fighting equipment. See also Emergency equipment; Survival equipment availability of, 51, 80 requirements regarding, 10, 88 Fires on fish processing vessels, 47, 51 fishing industry perspectives on, 84 vessel-related causes of, 79-80 Fish processing industry, 21 Fish processing vessels explanation of, 4, 222 fires aboard, 47, 51 operation of, 18-19, 237 Fish tender vessels explanation of, 4, 222 load-line requirements for, 94 operation of, 18, 137 Fisheries management halibut, 243-249 influence on safety of, 131-135 recommendations for, 154 sablefish, 249-250 Fishermen. See also Human factors; Population at risk cultural and social organization of, 23-25, 105 definition of, 2 employment estimates regarding, 40, 41 human factors research applied to, 108-109 language spoken by, 23, 24 medical costs to, 137 as participants in labor market, 25-26 perceptions regarding survival equipment, 121-122, 124, 127 perspectives of, 106-107 professional registration for, 70-71 qualification standards for, 152 role in accidents, 23, 99-101 safety strategies for, 108-118 survival equipment use by, 123 Fishermen's Fund (Alaska), 5 Fishery management councils (FMCs) management difficulties of, 131-133

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program role of, 27-29 voting position for marine safety organization on, xvii, 134, 154 Fishery management plans (FMPs), 28 expansion of safety emphasis on, 134-135 safety considerations in, 133 Fishing accidents. See also Human factors; Vessel safety human factors in, 23, 99-100, 150-153, 180, 185, See also Human factors personal injuries in, 5, 40, 67-69, 138-139 population at risk and responsibility for, 5-7 public awareness of, v vessels and lives lost in, 3, 5 weather as cause of, 140-141 Fishing fleet size, 18-20, 29, 39-41 Fishing industry. See also individual countries; International safety programs; Regional fishing industry; U.S. fishing industry building safety awareness in, 110-112, 151 Canadian. See Canada fleet and work force data of, 18-20, 29, 39-41 legislation affecting U.S.. See Federal legislation management of, 26-28 onboard conditions in, 106 overview of, 18-21, 142 perspectives of, 106-107 safety data in. See CASMAIN data; Safety data; SAR data safety problems associated with, v, xv-xvi, 1, 3, 6-7 safety programs conducted by, 10-12 Fishing vessel insurance. See Insurance; Insurance underwriting Fishing vessel safety. See Vessel safety Fishing vessels, 4. See also various listings under vessels classification of, 4-5, 73-74, 94-95 design and construction of. See Vessel design, construction, and maintenance documented, 4, 18-20, 221-222 foreign, 33-34 inspection of. See Vessel inspection as integrated system, 74-75 longline, 243-250 number of U.S., 18-20, 29, 40, See also Regional fishing industry as operating unit or workplace, 82 removal from service of, 96-97, 150 safety performance of, 75-85, 235-237 safety standards for, 5-7, 149 strategies to improve safety on, 90-97 technological aspects of, 22-23 uninspected, 4, 74-85, 90-97, 101, See also Uninspected vessels Float coats. See Survival equipment Flooding fishing industry perspectives on, 84 vessel-related causes of, 76-77 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 13, 179 Foreign fishing vessels, off Alaska, 33-34 Foundering as cause of vessel-casualty-related fatalities, 59, 60 fishing industry perspectives on, 84-85 vessel-related causes of, 76-77 G Grandfathering as basis for issuing licenses, 117 for training programs, 116 Gravity drainage, 77 Great Britain, xvi, 178, 184, 186, 187. See United Kingdom Great Lakes and inland regions overview of, 32 vessel casualties in, 45 Groundings fishing industry perspectives on, 84 human factors involved in, 102, 103, 104 vessel-related causes of, 80 Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region casualty data for, 45-46 overview of, 30-32 safety data for, 196 H Halibut fishery, 243-249 Harvesting capacity reduction, 96, 97

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program Hawaii, 197 Human factors. See also Fishermen in Canadian accidents, 180, 185 categories of, 101-102 collisions due to, 102-105 data regarding, 69, 100-102. See also CASMAIN data; Safety data definition of, 39 as element in total safety concept, 13-15 falls overboard or disappearances due to, 103-104 of fatalities, 59, 61 groundings due to, 80, 102, 103, 105 industry issues and, 105-108 material failures due to, 103 recommendations to increase awareness of safety to avoid accidents related to, 150-153 role in accidents, 23, 99-100 strategies for addressing, 108-118 of vessel casualties, 3, 47-51, 100-104 Human factors engineering, 92, 100 Human factors research findings of, 108-110 nature of, 104-105 Hypothermia, 120, 120-121 I Immersion suits, 121, 252, 257, 259. See also Survival equipment IMO Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (1978), 13 IMO Subcommittee on Stability, Load Lines, and Safety of Fishing Vessels, 180 Imports, percentage of seafood, 21 Individual transferable quota (ITQ) systems, 133 Injuries. See Personal injuries Injury compensation in Alaska, xv, 5, 68 Jones Act and, 28 Inshore accidents, 101. See also Fatalities; Fishing accidents; Vessel casualties Inspection. See Vessel inspection Instructor certification, 115-116 Insurance availability and affordability of, 136-137 compulsory, 139 loss-prevention role of, 137-138 overview of, 135 recommendations for, 154 role in safety improvement, 240-241 self-, 137, 140-141 Insurance claims data collected from, 17, 194 injury data from, 67 Insurance underwriting requirements of, 6 unresolved problems of, 138-139 International Labor Organization (ILO), 13, 179 International Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), 179-180.See also International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Maritime Organization (IMO) codes and guidelines issued by, 13, 91 overview of, 179-180 training recommendations of, 112 International safety programs Canadian, 14, 107-108, 128-129, 180, 185-186 effectiveness of, 186-187 and International Maritime Organization, 13, 91, 112, 179-180 overview of, 12-14, 178-179 table of various, 182-184 J Japan, xvi, 182 Joint ventures, U.S.-foreign off Alaska coast, 34 Jones Act, 28, 137 L Labor Canada committee, 185-186 Labor Department, U.S., data collected by, 43 Labor market, 25-26 Language of fishermen, 23, 24 Legal liability. Jones Act and, 28 Legislation. See Federal legislation Liability claims, 137

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program License explanation of, 2 renewal, 117 Licensing programs administration of, 117, 152, 153 distrust of fishermen for, 107 federal, 7 international, 178-179, 181-184 required, 116-117 skill and knowledge required for, 112, 113 state, 95 Life rafts, 251, 252, 254 Lifesaving equipment. See Emergency equipment; Survival equipment Limited-entry programs, 133 Load-line regulations, 12-13, 94 Longline vessels halibut, 243-249 sablefish, 249-250 M Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (MFCMA) of 1976 , 22, 132, 154 amendment to provide for safety considerations due to environmental conditions, 134 requirements of, 27-28, 133 upgrade of safety to national standards through, 135 Maintenance. See also Vessel design, construction, and maintenance methods to improve, 92-96 regulations governing, 88-89 Manning standards, 117-118 Marine Accident Report Form (Coast Guard), 146 Marine Index Bureau data maintained by, 194 maintenance of claims by, 17, 195 Marine Safety Information System (MSIS) data, 47, 146, 192 Marine Safety Manual, Volume II (Coast Guard), 224 Marine Safety Network (MSN), 192 Marine surveys explanation of, 89 federal requirements for, 93-94 Marine weather services, 140-141, 155 Maritime Administration (Department of Transportation), 8, 151 Master, 2 Material failures explanation of, 81-82 fishing industry perspectives on, 85 human factors involved in, 103 regional variations in, 237 Maximum sustainable yield (MSY), 132 Mayaguez, 32 Medical costs, subsidized, 137 Menhaden fishery, 23 Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), 229 Moral hazard, 138 Mortality data. See Proportional mortality rates Motivation measures, to improve vessel safety, 92, 93 MSIS data, 47, 146, 192, 221 Mutual associations, 137 N National Council of Fishing Vessel Safety and Insurance (NCFVSI) attempt to mobilize constituent support by, 16 goals of, 136 introduction of computer software to monitor vessel performance, 17 training programs conducted by, 11-12 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) compliance programs of, 10, 193 role in fishing vessel safety, 7, 131, 197 role in removing vessels from service, 150 safety handbook funded by, 9 study of safety and loss-prevention alternatives by, 8-9 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data coordination with, 146 federal funds for programs conducted by, 9 safety role of, 7, 8, 144, 151 National Research Council (NRC), 140, 141

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program National Safety Council (NSC), data collected by, 43 National Sea Grant College Program role in fishing vessel safety, 7, 8 training programs by, 11 National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), 8, 76, 120, 193 National Weather Service, 8 Navigation and Vessel Inspection Safety Circular 5-86 (Coast Guard), 9 Navigation skills, 112 Netherlands, The, 186 New Zealand, xvi, 183 NMFS Enforcement Management Information System, 193 Non-vessel-casualty-related fatalities, 39 Nonfatal injuries. See also Personal injuries recording of, 5 North Atlantic region material failures in, 82, 237 overview of, 29-30 safety data for, 45-46, 196 Norway, xvi, 178, 183, 186 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), 87, 88, 122, 257 Notices to Mariners (Coast Guard), 111 O Occupational illness data, 195 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance programs of, 10 data maintained by, 146, 103 inspections by, 226-227 safety and research role of, 8, 144, 150, 151 safety equipment development role of, 129 Office of Marine Safety, Security and Environmental Protection, 191 Offshore accidents, 101. See also Fatalities; Fishing accidents; Vessel casualties Openings establishment of flexible season, 134 risk-taking and, 133 Operating procedures, establishment of standard, 114 Operational Law Enforcement Division (Coast Guard), 191 Optimum yield (OY), 132 Outfitting requirements proposed regulations to expand, 90 of self-insurance pools, 137 vessel safety and, 87-88 Overfishing, foreign fishing activity and, 27 Owners/operators. See Vessel owners/operators P PACFIN data, 196, 197 Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, 16 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate, 232 Personal flotation devices (PFDs). See also Survival equipment Coast-Guard approved inflatable, 256-257 explanation and types of, 254-256 fatalities and use of, 67 fishermen's knowledge regarding, 124 instructions for use of, 259 nonapproved, 124 requirements for, 251, 253 Personal injuries data regarding, 5, 40, 67-69 definition of, 39 insurance claim analysis and, 138-139 nonfatal, 5 population at risk and responsibility for, 5-7 workplace-related, 82-83 Personal locator beacons (PLBs), 259 PFD lights, 257 Ponce, 32 Population at risk. See also Fishermen communication to, 85, 109 data for, 65 defining, 5-7 strategies for influencing, 108, 109 Presail inspection requirement, 214 Processing-line workers, 3, 23 Professional registration, 70-71 Proportional mortality rates (PMR), 43, 65-67, 195

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program Protective clothing, xvi. See also Emergency equipment; Survival equipment Protective deckwear, 127 Puerto Rico, 31-32 R Recertification, 231 Recreational boating safety data, 192-193 Regional fishing industry. See also Fishing industry; U.S. fishing industry Alaska. See Alaska distant-water, 33-35 Great Lakes and inland, 32, 45 Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, 30-32, 45-46, 196 North Atlantic. safety data for, 45-46, 59, 60, 195-197, 237 South Atlantic, 30, 196 West Coast, 32-33, 45, 82, 84-85, 196, 237 Reinspection, 231. See also Inspection Research. See Human factors research Risk perceptions, 110 S Sablefish longline fishery, 249-250 Sac roe herring fishery, 217-218 Safety influence of fisheries management on, 131-135 insurance issues and, 135-140 marine weather services and, 140-141 need for federal leadership role in, 144 strategies for building awareness of, 110-112 total-concept approach to, 13-17, 143 Safety data. See also CASMAIN data; SAR data Coast Guard, 188-193 development of new sources of, 195 Marine Index Bureau, 194 National Marine Fisheries Service, 193, 222 National Transportation Safety Board, 193 OSHA, 146, 193 recommendations to update, 146-147 recreational boating, 192-193 regional, 195-197 strategies to improve, 69-71 vital statistics, 194-195 Safety equipment. See Emergency equipment Safety-improvement options. See also Vessel safety strategies for addressing human factors, 108-118 for building safety awareness, 110-112 in fishery management, 134-135 improved weather information access as, 141 for improving owner and operator accountability, 92-96 for improving professional competency, 112-117 for improving safety data, 70-71 for improving vessel fitness, 90-92 insurance issues and, 139-140 for survival problems, 128-130 vessel removal/retirement as, 96-97 Safety manuals, 9, 83, 111-112, 224 Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, 12, 232 Safety programs. See Federal safety programs; International safety programs; Vessel safety programs Safety recommendations enhancement of education and training infrastructure as, 152 establishment of basic professional qualification standards as, 152 establishment of federal leadership as, 144 establishment of vessel and equipment standards as, 149 expansion of safety awareness as, 151, 154 implementation of integrated safety strategy by stages as, 144-145 implementation timing for, 148 improvement of emergency prepardness as, 151 improvement of instructions for survival equipment as, 153 improvement of survival equipment as, 153-154

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program improvement of weather services as, 155 improvement of workplace safety as, 150 inspection requirements as, 149-150 removal of unfit vessels as, 150 requirement of professional competency as, 152-153 summary of, 155-156 upgrading safety administration as, 145-146 upgrading safety data as, 146-147 utilization of regulatory enforcement activities as, 149 SAR data CASMAIN vs., 52, 190, 191 casualty causes and, 53-58, 140 distribution of, 54-56 documentation of, 3, 5, 7, 42 explanation of, 42, 190-191 for maintenance deficiencies, 75, 101 for material failure, 82, 101 recommendations for upgrading, 146 vessel size and, 52, 53 Scuttling, 97 Search and rescue (SAR) data.See SAR data Seaworthy vessels, 85-86 SEER data, 42, 146, 191-192, 215-216 Self-help assistance programs, local, 12 Self-inspection programs, 6, 93, 186, 242 Self-insurance pools, 137, 140-141 Sinking. See Foundering Sitka sac roe herring fishery compliance examination program, 217-218 Software. See Computer software South Atlantic region overview of, 30 safety data for, 196 Southwest Pacific region, 197 Spain, 186 Stability capsizing related to, 77-79 data regarding, 75 IMCO panel on, 179 Standardized mortality rates (SMRs), 65 State government, role in vessel inspection, 95-96, 241 State-numbered fishing vessels explanation of, 5, 221 inspection of, 95 number of, 20 State of Alaska Fish and Game Processor Detail List, 36 Strategies. See Vessel safety strategies Stress, 105 Summary Enforcement Event Report (SEER) data, 42, 146, 191-192 Surveyors, 89-90, 240 Survival equipment. See also Emergency equipment; specific types of equipment availability of, 254-259 data relating to, 119-120 fishermen's perceptions regarding, 121-122, 124, 127 gaps in, 127-128 instructions for using, 259 proficiency with, 122-124 recommendations for, 153-154 relationship of fatalities to, 67 requirements for, 120-121, 251-254 strategies for addressing inadequacies in, 128-129 technical issues related to, 124, 126-127 use and failure of, 123 Survival platforms, 127-128 Survival training, 120, 123 Sweden, 183-184 T Technology impact on survival equipment, 126-127 as safety factor, 83-84 Tonnages, 223 Torremolinos International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessels (1977), 9, 13, 179-180 Tort system, 138, 139 Towing vessels, 233-234 Trade associations, 16 Training Canadian emergency, 186 explanation of, 2 prerequisites prior to licensing, 116 survival, 120, 123 Training programs. See also Education industry, 11-12 international, 181-184 leading to certification, 115-116, 152 recommendations for, 115, 152 Transportation, U.S. Department of role in fishing vessel safety, 8, 9

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program safety leadership recommendations for, 144 Trim and Stability Book, 230 Tuna industry fishing operations in distant waters of, 34-35 island processing and canning operations of, 32 U Underwater body inspections, 231-232 Underwriting. See Insurance; Insurance underwriting Uninspected vessels. See also Fishing vessels Coast Guard compliance examinations for, 92-93 design, construction, and maintenance of, 75-74, 85-90 explanation of, 4 inspection programs for, 95 as integrated system, 74-75 performanace standards for, 101 safety problems of, 75-85 strategies to improve safety on, 90-97 United Kingdom, xvi, 178, 184, 186, 187 United Nations. See also International Maritime Consultative Organization international safety program started by, 179 role in fishing vessel safety guidelines, 13 U.S. fishing industry. See also Fishing industry; Regional fishing industry number of vessels operating in, 18-20, 29, 40. See also Fishing industry; Regional fishing industry overview of, 18-21 size of vessels operating in, 22 U.S. Virgin Islands, 31-32 V Vessel casualties causes of, 47-52, 76-82 definition of, 39 effectiveness of international measures to reduce, 186-187 nature of, 44-45 perspectives on vessel-related, 84-85 regional distribution of, 45-46 by vessel size, 46-47, 52-54 by vessel type and usage, 47 weather as cause of, 140-141 Vessel casualty data CASMAIN. See CASMAIN data insurance claim analysis and, 138-139 overview of, 43-44 SAR. See SAR data SEER. See SEER data Vessel casualty rates distribution of SAR cases and, 54-56 importance of developing, 53 overview of, 52-54 variations in, 56, 59 Vessel-casualty-related fatalities capsizing and foundering as causes of, 59, 60 data regarding, 43-44, 48, 50 definition of, 39 vessel size and, 46, 47 Vessel damage, 44 Vessel design, construction, and maintenance. See also Maintenance by designer or surveyor, 89-90, 240 international standards for, 7 outfitting issues and, 87-88 in seaworthy vessel, 85-86 state of practice of, 86 strategies to improve, 90-91 technical guidelines for, 238 of uninspected vessels, 75-74, 85-90 Vessel identification system (VIDS), 70 Vessel inspection, 4 administration of, 227-232 applied to fishing industry vessels, 232-238 benefits of, 220 Coast Guard, 87, 95-96, 149-150 implementation of, 239-242 policy for, 224 self-, 6, 93, 186, 242 statuatory and regulatory requirements of, 221-227 Vessel length.See Vessel size Vessel owners/operators competence standards for, 114, 152-153 improving vessel safety and accountability of, 92-96

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FISHING VESSEL SAFETY: Blueprint for a National Program licensing requirements for, 152 responsibility for safety, 6, 241-242 view of regulations, 109 Vessel registration explanation of, 221-223 international, 181-184 as method of improving safety data, 70 Vessel removal programs, 96-97, 150 Vessel safety data for assessing, 3, 5, 38-43 effectiveness of inspections in, 232-235 English-language fluency of fishermen and, 23, 24 fatality rate and, 59-67 human factors in, 3, 13-15, 69 improvement vessel-related, xv, xvii, 7-14, 70-71, 91-98 labor market behavior and, 25 monitoring and evaluating, 16-17 personal injury and, 67-69 recommendations for annual report on, 146-147 strategies to improve, 69-71 technology as factor in, 83-84 as total concept, 14-17, 143 vessel casualties and, 43-59 Vessel Safety Handbook (Noah Pacific Fishing Vessel Owners' Association), 9 Vessel safety manuals, 83. See also Safety manuals Vessel safety problems.See also Vessel casualties capsizing as, 77-79 collisions as, 80-81 fires as, 79-80 flooding and foundering as, 76-77 groundings as, 80 material failures as, 81-82, 237 overview of, xv-xvi, 75-76 workplace-related, 82-83 Vessel safety programs industry, 10-12 infrastructure of, 15-16 international and foreign government, 12-14 prior federal, 7-10 Vessel safety strategies. See also Safety-improvement options for improving owner and operator accountability, 92-96 for improving safety data, 70-71 for improving vessel fitness, 90-92 and vessel removal or retirement, 96-97, 150 Vessel size apsizing related to, 78 casualties and, 46-47, 52-54, 56 crew size and, 237-238 fatalities and, xvi, 62-64, 238 regulatory requirements and, 87 safety problems and, xvi in U.S. fleet, 22 Vessel total losses casualty data regarding, 44-46, 50 definition of, 39 vessel size and, 46 Vital statistics data, 194-195 Voluntary Guidelines for the Design, Construction and Equipment of Small Fishing Vessels (IMO), 13 Voluntary self-regulation, governing maintenance, 88 Voluntary Standards for U.S. Uninspected Commercial Fishing Vessels (Coast Guard), 260 W Washington State fatality data for, 62. See Proportional mortality rates population-at-risk studies in, 65-66 Watchkeeper, 3 Watchkeeping, criteria for, 117-118 Weather conditions, 140-141. See Environmental conditions Weather services need to improve, 140-141 recommendations for, 154 West Coast region foundering in, 84-85 material failures in, 82, 237 overview of, 32-33 safety data for, 196 vessel casualties in, 45 Wholesale industry, 21 Working conditions, 26 Workmen's compensation, 43 Workplace accidents in, 82-83 fishing vessel as, 82 recommendations to improve safety in, 150