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Materials for High-Density Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Report of the Committee on Materials for High-Density Electronic Packaging NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NMAB-449 National Academy Press 1990

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsiblity for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative' to identify issues of medical care' research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted under Contract No. MDA 903- 89-K-0078 with the U.S. Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 90-60385. International Standard Book Number 0-309-04233X This report is available from the Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22304-6145. SO116 Cover: Schematic cross section of a molded plastic leaded chip carrier (Courtesy of AT&T Bell Laboratories) Printed in the United States of America First Printing, April 1990 Second Printing, November 1990

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ABSTRACT Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production. . . . 111

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PREFACE What is packaging? The subject of this report is commonly referred to as electronic packaging, but the term '"packaging" carries connotations that tend to trivialize the highly technical and critically important electronic context. Electronic packaging now goes well beyond physical protection and includes electric power distribution, signal transmission between integrated circuits, and, of growing importance, the removal of heat associated with the very high densities of circuit elements that are being achieved. Modern system performance is as much limited by these functions as by the operation of the integrated circuits. Thus, electronic packaging and interconnection are essential enabling technologies that underlie vital computer and other electronic applications. Success in integrating these enabling technologies into the nation's microelectronics efforts is directly related to how well the United States will succeed as a major competitive force. The specific subject of this report is the materials employed in high- density electronic packaging and interconnection. Materials issues are closely coupled to other systems design factors, and all materials advances must be coordinated as the field progresses. A successful competitive position cannot be maintained without leading-edge materials engineering and science. Coordination of physical design, materials properties, and materials processing is essential. The competitive position of the United States in an area of the highest leverage is at stake. This report focuses on first- and second-level packaging--i.e., the integrated circuit chip package and the printed circuit to which the chips are attached. The connectors, backplanes, cables, and other higher-level interconnect structures have been omitted because it was perceived that materials problems in these areas were less urgent. In addition, the higher interconnection levels are, at present, undergoing some degree of conversion from electrical to optical, and optical interconnections are outside the scope of this study. The committee believes that optical interconnection is a very important technology and will certainly spread to the board level and beyond in the course of time. Optical technology has many advantages and could depart radically from the geometries required of "wire"-based systems. An additional study of optical interconnection is strongly recommended). The literature on electronic packaging has recently been unified through publication of an authoritative monographs. This handbook gives a coherent, balanced discussion of all aspects of electronic packaging and interconnection, with materials considerations appropriately integrated into physical design. In addition, the ASM INTERNATIONAL has published a v

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comprehensive document on packaging, its first that is directed specifically to electrical and electronic materials3. Concurrently with the preparation of the present report, a group has been working on a related project sponsored by the National Security Industrial Association (NSIA). Dr. Bruce E. Kurtz, chairman of the NSIA Electronics Packaging/Interconnection Task Force, has kindly provided the committee a draft of this material which was found to be highly valuable. The materials and processing interaction in packaging is effectively covered in a recent McGraw-Hill publications. Anticipating that further advancements in IC technologies would be hampered by limitations of currently available materials and processes, the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration requested the National Materials Advisory Board to examine the situation. A committee was appointed that included representation from industry, university, and research institutions and provided a balance of experience and knowledge in chemistry, polymer science, ceramics, materials science, electronics, and physics. A biographical sketch for each committee member is found in Appendix G. A major objective of this study was to assess the current state of the art in packaging and to anticipate the requirements for new materials and processes for packaging highly integrated semiconductor chips and future designs, particularly for military and space applications. The committee was asked to assess the existing capability for packaging electronic components and existing limitations, identify probable needs in new materials and processing techniques to accommodate new package designs, determine where superconductor breakthroughs may be properly employed, identify the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of materials needed for the newly designed chips and interconnects, recommend where R&D efforts should be directed toward developing the needed materials and systems for future electronic packages, and, to the extent possible, assess the U.S. position relative to that of world competition--i.e., Japan, Europe, and others. Although the report is directed primarily to the sponsoring agencies, it is presented in a broad-based manner for a wider readership, to help them understand the current situation and gain a perspective on what actions are needed to enhance the domestic capability to compete in a global market. A discussion of nontechnical issues was not in the scope of the committee's task, however, thoughts on such issues were included to explain why certain actions are advised to help improve the ir~dustry's competitive position. lPhotonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era. Panel on Science and Technology Assessment. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press , 1988 . Microelectronics Packaging Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 3Electronic Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Park, Ohio: ASM INTERNATIONAL, 1989. 4Principles of Electronic Packaging Che-Yu Li, editors. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. Rao R. Tu~nala and E. J. Rymaszawski, editors . New York: . Packaging, M. L. Minges, technical chairman. Materials , Design and Materials Science. D. P. Seraphim, C. Lasky, and Hi

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee is grateful to a number of individuals who provided extensive background materials for committee use. Experts were invited to committee meetings to present current data on specific topics of concern. The following are thanked for their generous participation: Meeting 1 Meeting 2 R. A. Boudelaise of Westinghouse Defense and Electronics Center discussed Phase I of MANTECH packaging needs. J. L. Heaton of Sanders Microelectronics Center discussed MMIC packaging needs. M. B. Ketchen of IBM's, T. J. Watson Research Center discussed Josephson packaging technology. P. V. McEnroe of Digital Equipment Corporation discussed wafer- scale integration . M. C. Peckerar of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory presented an overview of VHSIC packaging needs. R. Smolley of TRW's, Electronics and Technology Division discussed MUSIC Phase II, advanced development of packaging needs. R. J. Willis of Floating Point Systems, Inc., discussed packaging of massive passive parallel systems. L. E. Cross of Pennsylvania State University discussed inorganic packaging materials and interconnects. D. C. Hofer of IBM's, Almaden Research Center discussed organic packaging materials from a customer's viewpoint. R. Jensen of Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory discussed copper-polyimide thin film interconnection technology for T' p ackaging . J. Kim of IBM's, T. J. Watson Research Center discussed IBM's thermal conduction module. V11

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J. A. Nelson of Unisys Corporation was unable to attend but submitted comments on packaging materials needs and challenges for large computers. R. M. Rivett of Edison Welding Institute discussed microelectronics metals joining. R. M. Rosenberg and J. F. Strange of DuPont discussed materials for packaging and interconnects from a vendor's viewpoint. Meeting 3 J. E. Anderson of Ford Motor Company discussed materials for electronic packaging in automotive applications. J. S. Browning of Sandia National Laboratory discussed radiation effects in microelectronics. A. Christou of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory discussed gallium arsenide interconnects. A. Huang of AT&T Bell Laboratories discussed optical digital computers, the devices and architecture. A. Husain of Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory discussed trends in optical interconnect technology. W. B. Jones of Sandia National Laboratories discussed performance and metallurgy of aluminum metallization interconnects. L. M. Levenson of General Electric Company presented the highlights of the Santa Barbara Engineering Foundation Conference of 1988. The government liaison representatives are thanked for participating in committee discussions and providing valuable support materials and data for committee use. D. R. Franck (President of Empire Planning Group, Ltd.) is thanked for undertaking an assignment for the committee to provide data on systems technology proj ections through lS94 . In addition, some specific industry data in Appendix B are taken from a report, Chip Carriers and Other Integrated Circus ~ Packages: A Review and Update. 1988, (copyright 1988), with the kind permission of James D. Welterlen, President of Welterlen, Inc. These tables illustrate the complexity of the chip encapsulation picture, but they cover only a fraction of the field covered in Welterlen's annual reports. The committee is indebted to committee member J. C. Logue, whose years of packaging experience at IBM was invaluable in its deliberations by providing technical insight and details for the report. The chairman acknowledges with thanks the extra efforts of Mr. Logue for his assistance in coordinating various inputs to the report. The committee members are thanked for their dedication and for their patience during the lengthy task of . . .

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preparing and revising the report to ensure its accuracy and currency. Particular thanks go to the members of the committee who served as chapter or section coordinators for assembling pertinent facts for various parts of the report and presenting the data in a timely, open-minded, and professional manner. Specifically, Paul Penfield and J. C. Logue coordinated Chapter 3, C. A. Neugebauer coordinated Chapter 4, and Jack Hilibrand contributed heavily to Chapter 7. Discussions in the report are based on data compiled through Spring, 1989. Special thanks are owed to colleagues at AT&T Bell Laboratories in connection with Chapter 4. D. W. Johnson, L. T. Manzione, and J. M. Segelken contributed important sections and provided expert advice on packaging issues generally, and L. L. Blyler, Jr., and L. D. Loan consulted extensively on this material. M. John Drobny provided the professional renderings for the report figures. Special thanks go to Shiro Matsuoka for his invaluable assistance as technical advisor to the committee. Ms. Irene M. Fedun greatly assisted in coordinating and assembling the preliminary report draft, efforts which are appreciated by all concerned. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the untiring support of George Economos, senior program officer of the National Materials Advisory Board, and his secretary Ms. Aida Neel, in all stages of report preparation. David W. McCall Chairman 1X

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COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRONIC PACKAGING Chairman DAVID W. McCALL, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey Members GENE M. AMDAHL, Andor Systems, Inc., Cupertino, California DEBORAH D.L. CHUNG, State University of New York, Buffalo BARRY K. GILBERT, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota JACK HILIBRAND, G. E. Aerospace Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania DONALD C . HOPER, IBM Corporation, San Jose, Cal if ornia JOSEPH C. LOGUE, Consultant, Poughkeepsie, New York CONSTANTINE A. NEUGEBAUER, General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York R. FABIAN W. PEASE, Stanford University, Stanford, California PAUL PENFIELD, JR., Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, RICHARD L. SCHWOEBEL, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico BARRY H. WHALEN, Microelectronics & Computer Technology Corporation, Austin, Texas Report Coordinator JOSEPH C. LOGUE' Consultant, Poughkeepsie, New York Technical Advisor SHIRO MATSUOKA, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey

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Liaison Representatives ROBERT L. DENISON, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio MARTIN C. PECKERAR, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. OWEN P. LAYDEN, Department of the Artery, Ft. Monmouth, New Jersey MICHAEL A. STROSCIO, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina GEORGE G. HARMAN, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland JAMES D. MURPHY, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Virginia JEROME PERSH, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C. NMAB STAFF GEORGE ECONOMOS, Senior Program Officer AIDA NEEL, Senior Secretary e ~ X11

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CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 9 Chapter 2 MICROELECTRONIC SYSTEM TRENDS AND PACKAGING NEEDS 21 Scaling Theory 22 Gallium, Arsenide Technology 28 Rent's Rule 29 Chip Technologies 31 Some Package Design Considerations 36 References 38 Chapter 3 PACKAGING STRATEGIES AND ASSOCIATED MATERIALS AND PROCESS REQUIREMENTS 41 Future Packaging Strategies 45 Packaging Materials, Requirements Summary of Future Packaging Materials and Processes Needs Chapter 4 MATERIALS ISSUES 59 Dissipation of High Thermal Loads Dielectrical Properties 62 Interconnect Voiding 64 Thermal Fatigue 64 Interfacial Processes High Temperature Stability and Chemical Reactions Trace Radionuclides in Packaging Materials 65 Electromagnetic Interference 66 Encapsulants and Hermeticity 66 Materials-Related Reliability Issues 67 Military Packaging 68 References 69 51 60 56 Chapter 5 SOME SPECIFIC MATERIALS 71 The Evolution of Epoxy Materials in Plastic Packaging Future Trends in Plastic Packaging Materials 73 Organic Printed Circuit Board Materials 76 Processing Technology for Ceramic Packages, Board, and Substrates 77 . . . x~t

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Other Ceramic Materials 7 9 Polyimides in High-Density Packaging Tape Automated Bonding 8 7 Diamond 88 Superconductors Composites 89 Materials for Very-High-Freguency Digital Systems 91 Materials for Connector Applications 92 The Thermal Conduction Module 92 References 94 88 84 Chapter 6 ORGANIZATIONAL, FUNDING, AND POLICY ISSUES 95 Integration 95 Systems Versus Materials Approaches 97 Programs and Consortia 98 Sematech 99 The Univers ity Role 100 Emigration of Technology 102 Private Funding and Public Funding Conclus ion 104 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 103 GLOSSARY OF SOME TERMS AND ACRONYMS USED IN THE REPORT 105 SOME INDUSTRY COMPONENT DATA 109 MICROPROCESSOR OPERATING AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS 115 EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS IN BOARD TECHNOLOGIES 119 MATERIALS PROPERTIES 123 EXAMPLES OF lIULTICHIP MODULES 127 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 135 xiv