Click for next page ( 124


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 123
Appendix E MATERIALS PROPERTIES In the course of preparation of this report, information on packaging and interconnection structures and the materials employed has been compiled. Some materials properties are listed in the accompanying tables E-1 through E-3. Sources of these data ranged from original literature to review articles, monographs, and handbooks, too numerous to be listed here. The reader is reminded that property data found in these reports vary widely, so the values listed should be regarded as representative and indicative of what properties are available for packaging design and manufacture. A recommended source of data for important packaging materials is the "American Institute of Physics Handbook, " McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, an annual publication. 123

OCR for page 123

OCR for page 123
125 TABLE E-1 Interconnection and Packaging Materials: Metals . . M. P. p 0 Material ( C) (grtcm3) (n-cm) TCE ~ (ppm/ C) (W/cm C) Uses aluminum 660 2.72.6xlO-6 23 2.1 Chip conductor and wire bonds Gold 1063 19.32.4xlO 6 14 3.4 Hybrid conductor and wire bonds Copper 1083 8.91.7x10-6 17 3.8 Lead frame and hybrid, Pea, and conductor Lead 327 112x10-5 29 0.3 Solder attach Nolybdenum 2610 104.8xlO-6 4 1.3 Co-fired on ceramic conductor Tungsten 3380 195.5x10-6 4 1.5 Co-fired on ceramic conductor TABLE E-2 Interconnect i on and Packag i ng Mater i a l s: Organ i c max use temp p a' a" a TCE He ~ C) (gr/cm3) - - (SI-cm) (pprn/ C] (~/cm C) Uses Epoxy (70% SiO2) 170 1.8 3.8 0.034X1016 20 0.002 Packaging Epoxy glass (FR-4} 120 1.9 4-5 0.05loll 15 0.02 Multilayer Board Substrate Adv. epoxy (resin only) 180 1.2 3.7 0.02told 55 0.02 Multilayer Board Substrate Triazine 250 1.26 3.1 0.001>1013 50 0.002 Hybrid dielectric '3T resin (laminate) 290 1.28 4.0 0.01lol5 15 0.005 Flexible Substrate Polyimide 400 1.42 3.6 0.011ol6 50 0.0007 Flexible Substrate Polyimide 310 1.4 3.5-5 0.011ol6 50 0.0007 Interlayer Dielectric

OCR for page 123
126 TABLE E-3 Interconnection and Packag sing Materials: Inorganics max use temp p a' e" o TCE Material ~ C) (gr/cm3) - - (~-cm C) (ppm/ C] (W/cm C) Uses Alumina (ceramic) 1,600 4.0 9.5 0.003 1014 6.5 0.3 Hybrid substrates/chip carriers Silica (fused) 1,100 2.2 3.8 <10-4 ,1ol7 0.6 0.02 Filler for molding epoxies Si licon nitride 2,000 3 6 NM 1016 0.8 0.3 Candidate substrates Aluminum nitride 1,800 3.3 8.9 0.004 lo13 4.5 3.2 Candidate substrates Silicon carbide 2,100 3.2 40 0.2 1013 3 7 2.7 Candidate substrates Silicon 1,400 2.3 12 NM V 2.6 1.5 Candidate substrates Diamond >3,500 3.5 5.7 NM >102 0.9 20 Candidate encapsulation Glass-ceramic >1,000 >4 7-10 NM V >3 0.05 Candidate substrates Beryllia 1,500 3 7 10-3 lol4 6 2.6 Chip carriers _ .. NM = not meaningful V = varies with composition and impurity level