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Index A Academic research, industry and, 49, 53, 54 Administration, see Research management Advice to Congress, 67-69 to President, 6~67 Advisory groups, 36 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), 43 AIDS research Centers for Disease Control funding for, 41, 42 facilities for, 140, 152 GCRC program for, 107 grant applications for, 98 NIH allocations for, 81, 82 priority of, 28 Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 48 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration 245 (ADAMHA) allocations for, 82-83, 84 award rates at, 97 budgeting for, 76 extramural programs at, 81, 87-92 formation of, 37-38 functions of, 80 81 funding by, 34, 37~0 number of grants by, 2-3, 26-27 peer review at, 92-100 priority setting at, 69-72, 92-100 structure of, 79 80, 81 training sponsored by, 131, 132, 133 Allocations, see Resource allocations Amortization, 19, 197 Animals costs of, 111-112, 196 handling of, 28 Appropriations committees, congressional, 75-76 Authorizing committees, congressional, 73-74 Awards, see Granters)

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246 B Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act (1985), 62, 75, 76, 77 Behavioral science, degrees in, 125 Biomedical Research and Development Price Index (BRDPI), 100 Biomedical Research Support Grant (BRSG), 110-111 in NIH budget, 107 recommendation on funding of, 17-18, 177, 195 research allocation for, 9 Biomedical science, degrees in, 124 125 Biotechnology industry, 2~29, 5~53 Boards of Scientific Counselors, 71, 72, 98, 174 Bonds, tax-exempt, 155-156 Bromley, D. Allan, 66 Budget committees, congressional, 74-75 Budget cuts, 3 Budget cycle, 205 Budget process, 62, 72-77 Bush, Vannevar, 25, 33-34, 194 Business Week R&D scoreboard, 52 C Capital investment, 5 Career Development Awards, 107 Center(s), 106-109 resource allocation to, ~9, 176-177 Center Core Grants, 106, 107-109 Center grants, 166 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 40-42 Clinical investigators, recruitment of, 13-14, 186, 187 Clinical training, 128 Co-investigators, 104 College Construction Loan Insurance Corporation, 156 INDEX College(s), see Undergraduates; Universities Communication, improved, 20-22, 20~206 Competing awards, 91-92 Concurrent Resolution, 74-75 Conduct, 207 Conference Report, 75, 76 Congress advice to, 67-69 budget cycle of, 205 in budget process, 73-77 and federal construction programs, 151 NIH funding by, 37 and research funding, 163 on science education and training, 121-122, 129-130 on scientific advice to President, 64-65 scientific decisions by, 28 Congressional aides, 67-68 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 74 Congressional Research Service (CRS), 68 "Connie Lee," 156 Construction direct grant program for, 196 197 federal grant programs for, 151-154 indirect cost of, 1~19 investment in, 143-146 recommendations for, 175-182, 196-199 see also Facilities Cooperative agreements, 166 Cooperative Clinical Grants, 107 D Debt financing, 155-156 Decentralization, 35-36 Deficit Reduction Act (1985), 62, 75, 76, 77 Department of Defense (DOD), 47-48

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INDEX Department of Energy (DOE), 48 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) in budget process, 72, 73, 76 funding by, 34-35 in priority setting, 70 in stabilization policy, 166 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 37 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 43-44 Depreciation costs, 197 Direct operations, at NIH, 83-92 Directorate of Biological, Behavioral, and Social Sciences (BBSS Directorate), 45, 46 Directorate of Life Sciences, 48 Director's Advisory Committee, 70-71 Discretionary fund, 16-17, 192-193 Division of Research Grants (DRG), 93, 98 Division of Research Resources, 110 Doctoral training financial support of, 129-135 professional, 12~127 scientific, 122-126 Downward negotiation Congress and, 76 in federal budget process, 73 history of, 3, 27, 166 167 by NIH and ADAMHA, 89-90 E Economic Recovery Fix Act (1981), 53, 57 Education, see Training Emergency fund, 1~17, 192-193 Equipment adequacy and suitability of, 139-140, 14~148 cost of, 100 deteriorating condition of, 28 federal funds for, 153, 154 obsolescence of, 198 247 recommendations for, 18-19, 170-171, 196-199 sharing of, 22, 199, 205-206 sources of support for, 148-158 Ethical standards, 207 European Economic Community, 28 Expedited Awards for Novel Research, 16, 192 "Extended duration of awards" policy, 167-168 Extramural programs, 81 allocations for, 82 applicant trends for, 100 101 application time line for, 93 award rates for, 95-98 competing and noncompeting grants for, 91-92 costs of animal use in, 111-112 downward negotiation of, 89-90 duration of grants for, 91 grant size for, 99-100 indirect cost recovery for, 112-113 investigator turnover in, 101-103 multiple awards for, 90, 103-104 National Advisory Councils for, 9~99 priority scores for, So, 92-95 R&D centers, 106 108 R&D contracts, 104-106 R&D grants, 87-92 research administration, 109-111 stabilization policy for, 87-90 F Facilities adequacy and suitability of, 139, 141-146 decentralization of, 35-36 deteriorating condition of, 28 federal grant programs for, 151-154, 159, 19~197 indirect cost of, 18-19, 197-199 objectives of plan for, 159-160 obsolescence of, 198

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248 recommendations for, 170-171, 175-182, 196-199 renovation of, 143-146, 196 research projects vs., 3, 162-163 resource allocation for, 7-12 sharing of, 22, 199, 205-206 sources of support for, 148-158 Federal Advisory Committees Act (1981), 66 Federal construction programs, 151-154, 159, 196-197 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) as model for genome coordination panel, 48 structure of, 67 Subcommittee for Health Sciences, 2~21, 200 202 Federal Demonstration Project (FDP), 17, 10~110, 193-194 Federal research funding basic principles of, 25-26 by Centers for Disease Control, 4~42 by Department of Defense, 47-48 by Department of Energy, 48 by Department of Veterans Affairs, 43-44 by Health Care Financing Administration, 46 history of, 32-35 by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 46 by National Science Foundation, 44 16 by NIH and ADAMHA, 36-40 by Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, 42-43 research community perceptions of, 164-165 Federal Technology Transfer Act (P.L. 99-502) (1986), 39~0 INDEX Fellowships by National Science Scholars Program, 121-122 problems with, 129-135 recommendations on, 13, 185 First Concurrent Resolution, 74 First Independent Research Support and Transition (FIRST) award programs, 14, 103, 187-188 First-time applicants, 10~101, 102 Florida Demonstration Project (FDP), 17, 109-110, 193-194 Foreign nationals in graduate school, 123 as physicians, 126 Foundations facilities and equipment funding by, 157 funding of training by, 134-135 innovative projects funding by, 22 operating, see Voluntary health agencies recommendations for, 206 research funding by, 54, 55-57 Freedom of information, 54 Full-time training positions (L l lPs), 13~131, 132, 133, 176 Funding cycle, 205 G General Accounting Office (GAO), 68 General Clinical Research Centers (GCRCs), 106, 107 Gladstone Foundation, 58 Goals, and research funding, 30 Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable (GUIRR), 21-22, 110, 157, 202-204 Graduate training, see Doctoral training Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (GRH Act) (1985), 62, 75, 76, 77 Granters) award rates for, 95-98 duration of, 27, 91, 101-103, 165, 167-168

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INDEX improving system for, 1~18 length of continuous, 114 multiple, 90, 103-104, 193 new and competing, 91-92 number of, 2-3, 26-27, 165 size of, 99-100, 193 Grant applicants, trends in, 10~101, 102 Grant applications approval rate for, 165 number of, 114 recommendations on, 97-98 time line for, 93, 114 Grants management, 109-111 H Hazardous waste, 28 Health and Human Services (HHS), Steering Committee report of, 87-90 Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 46 Health Facilities Construction Authority, 196 Health Research Facilities Act (HRFA) (1956), 37, 151 Health Resources Service Administration (HRSA), 129 Health sciences research, boundaries and goals of, 3~31 Higher Education Amendments (1986), 156 High-risk projects, 16, 22, 192 High school, training in, 118-119 Honors Undergraduate Research Training Program, 122 House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 73 House Report, 75, 7~77 House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, 73 House Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, 75 249 Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), 55, 58-59, 13~135, 183 Human Genome Project, 28, 48 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), see AIDS research Human resource base postdoctorate training, 12~129 precollege, 118-119 professional doctorates, 126-127 scientific doctorates, 122-126 undergraduate, 119-122 see also Training Hygienic Laboratory, 3~37 I Indirect cost (IDC) recovery history of, 112-113 mechanisms of, 15~155 recommendations on, 18-19, 197-199 Industry funding of facilities by, 158 research funding by, 32-33, 49-54 support of postdoctoral fellows by, 135 Inflation, 38 Initial Review Group (IRG), 9~95 Innovative projects, 16, 22, 192 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 69, 85 86, 107 Institutional funds, 15~157, 19~195 Interdisciplinary projects, 22, 204 Intramural research, at NIH, 85-87 Investigator-initiated research project grants, see R01 grants J J. David Gladstone Foundation Laboratory for Cardiovascular Disease, 58 Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, 127, 135

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250 K Keyworth, George, 66 Kresge Foundation Science Initiative, 157 L Laboratory animals costs of, 111-112, 196 handling of, 28 Laboratory of Hygiene, 3~37 Leased facilities, 19, 199 Legislative Implementation Plan, 75 Library of Congress, 68 Life sciences degrees earned in, 120, 121 graduate student enrollment in, 122 Life Sciences Program Directorate, 48 Local government, funding of facilities by, 149-150 Long-term needs, 5 - , 172-173 M Magnuson Clinical Center, 85 Management, see Research management Matching funds, 37, 19~197 Mathematics, precollege training in, 118-119 M.D.(s), see Physician-scientists M.D./Ph.D. programs, 12~127, 133, 187 Medical research organizations (MROs), funding by, 55, 5~59 Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), 133, 187 Medical students financial support of, 129 training of, 12~127 Merit review panels, 36 Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT, 103 Minorities career opportunities for, 13, 18~185 in doctoral programs, 123-124 INDEX NIH support of, 134 undergraduate training for, 122 Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) Honors Program, 122, 134, 184 Misconduct, 207 Monsanto Corporation, 54 Multiple awards, 90, 10~104, 193 N National Academy of Engineering, 69 National Academy of Sciences, 6~69 National Advisory Councils, 71-72, 98-99, 174 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 46 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 118 National Cancer Act (1937), 37, 129 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center Core Grant program of, 107-109 construction by, 151, 152 intramural research by, 85, 98n National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (NCHSR), 42~3 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 42 National Center for Research Resources, 110 National Eye Institute (NEI), 151, 152 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 151,152 National Institute of Aging, 38 National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 37 National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), 37 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), 85 National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 85, 131, 133

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INDEX National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 37 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 41~2 National Institutes of Health (NIH) allocations for, 81-82 applicant trends at, 100 101, 102 award rates at, 95-98 budgeting for, 75-77 construction program of, 140, 151-152, 153-154 direct operations of, 8~92 Division of Research Grants of, 37 extramural programs at, 81, 87-92 funding by, 34, 36~ grant size for, 99-100 institute planning by, 71-72 intramural research at, 85~7 investigator turnover at, 101-103 multiple awards by, 103-104 National Advisory Councils and, 98-99 number of grants by, 2-3, 26-27, 92 Office of the Director of, 70 peer review at, 92-100 priority setting at, 69-72, 92-100 R&D centers supported by, 106-109 R&D contracts by, 10~106 R&D grants by, 87-92 structure of, 79, 80 structure of typical institute of, 71 training sponsored by, 13~134 National Libraty of Medicine (NLM), 37, 83, 85 National Research Council, 69 National Research Service Award (NRSA) Act (P.L. 93-348) (1974), 129-130, 136, 185 National Scholars Program, 183 National Science and Technology Policy, Organizations, and Priorities Act (1986), 67 National Science Foundation (NSF) construction program of, 140, 152-154 251 principles for establishing, 25-26 research funding by, ,14 46 undergraduate support by, 121, 129, 183 National Science Scholars Program, 121 Noncompeting awards, 91-92 Nonprofit organizations, funding by, 32-33, 5~59 Novel research proposals, 16, 22, 192 Nutrition research, 204 o Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in downward negotiation, 89 in facilities funding, 170-171 in federal budget process, 73 on indirect cost recovery, 155 in stabilization policy, 166 Office of Naval Research, 48 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 2~21, 64~66, 201 Office of Science Policy and Legislation, 70 Office of Science Policy and Planning, 75 Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), 34 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 68 Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH), 42-43, 72-73 Operating foundations, see Voluntary health agencies Overhead costs, see Indirect cost (IDC) recovery p Peer review, 36, 92-100, 168 Percentile ranking, 16, 95-97, 164 Personnel costs, 99-100

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252 Pharmaceutical industry, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association Foundation (PMAF), 50 "Phase-out" procedures, 190 Ph.D.s, 122-126 with M.D.s, 126-127, 133, 187 Philanthropies, construction funding by, 157 Physical infrastructure adequacy of equipment, 139-140, 14~148 adequacy of space, 139, 141-146 creative financing of, 199 debt financing of, 155-156 federal grant programs for, 151-154, 159, 196-197 foundation and voluntary health agency support for, 157 indirect costs for, 18-19, 154-155, 197-199 industrial participation in, 158 institutional funds for, 15~157 objectives of plan for, 159-160 obsolescence of, 198 recommendations on, 17~171, 175-182, 196-199 and research funding, 3, 162-163 resource allocation for, 7-12 sources of support for, 148-158 state and local government support for, 149-150 Physician -scientists financial support for training of, 133 increased demand for, 181-182 recruitment and training of, 13-14, 126 127, 18~187 Pork barreling, 18, 153-154, 196 Postdoctoral training, 128 129 financial support for, 133, 135 Precollege training, 118-119 Predoctoral fellowship program, 13, 185 President advice to, 64-67 in budget process, 72-73 INDEX President's Biomedical Research Panel, Report of, 87 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCASI), 21, 66-67, 201 President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), 64, 153 Prevention research, 204 Principal investigators age of, 104 multiple awards to, 103-104 turnover of, 101-103 Priority ranking, 95 Priority scores, 90, 92-95, 98 Priority setting, 62 and award rates, 95-98 congressional advice and, 67~9 among fields of discipline, 204-205 framework for, 6-7 levels of, 173 National Advisory Councils in, 9~99 within NIHIADAMHA, 69-72 by peer review, 92-100 presidential advice and, 64467 priority scores in, 92-95 recommendations for integration of, 199-200 schematic diagram of, 63 Professional doctorates, 126 127, 133, 187, see also Physician-scientists Program project grants, 99, 166 Proprietary information, 54 Public health careers, recruitment for, 13-14 Public Health Service (PHS), 34, 37, 69 Public Health Service Act (1944), 37, 129 Public opinion, 207 R R&D centers, 106 109 resource allocation to, ~9, 17~177

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INDEX R&D contracts, 104-106, 166 R&D grants, 87-92 R&D scoreboard, 52 Reconciliation Act (1986), 43 Recruitment, 170 of physicians, 13-14, 186, 187 of undergraduates, 182-184 Renovation, 143-146, 196 Rental arrangements, 19, 199 Replacement costs, 197 Report of the President's Biomedical Research Panel, 87 Requests for Proposals (RFPs), 104 Research assistantships, 133 Research at Undergraduate Institutions (RUI), 183 Research environment, 5, 171-172 Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), 183 Research funding by ADAMHA, 37-40 amount of health-related, 32, 33 broad-based system for, 162 by Centers for Disease Control, 40 42 conclusions on, 16~169, 174-182 Congress and, 163 by Department of Defense, 47-48 by Department of Energy, 48 by Department of Veterans Affairs, 43 44 general guideline for, 172-174 by Health Care Financing Administration, 46 history of, 32-35, 165-168 by industry, 49-54 by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 46 by National Science Foundation, 44 `16 by NIH, 36~0 by nonprofit organizations, 54-59 by Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, 42~3 2S3 patterns and policies of federal, 163-164 physical infrastructure and, 162-163 research community perception of, 164 165 sources of, 32, 33 Research institutions, 15~157, 19~195 Research management Biomedical Research Support Grant and, 17-18,110-111,177, 195 discretionary fund for, 1~17, 192-193 establishing ongoing process for, 20-22, 199-206 Federal Demonstration Project and, 17, 109-110, 193-194 FCCSET in, 2~21, 20~202 GUIRR in, 21-22, 110, 157, 202-204 shared resources in, 22, 199, 205-206 Research project grant (RPG) awards investigator-initiated, see RO1 grants recommendations for, 188 192 size of, 99-100 stabilization policy and, 113, 166 and training, 136, 175 Resource allocations capital investment and life expectancy related to, 5 for NIH and ADAMHA, 81-83, 84 past policy decisions for, 165-168 recommendations for, 7-12, 17~182 Responsibilities, of scientists, 2~24, 206 207 Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, 127, 135 Rollover funding, 15, 18~190 RO1 grants applicant trends for, 100-101, 102 multiple, 103-104 in NIH program, 87 size of, 99 sliding-scale funding of, 19~192 stabilization policy and, 113, 166

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254 S "Sallie Mae," 156 Scholarships, see Fellowships Science, precollege training in, 11~119 Science Advisory Act (P.L. 94-282) (1976), 64 65 Science Advisory Committee to the President, 64, 153 Science and Engineering Education (SEE) Directorate, 121, 129, 183 Science Development Grants Program, 153 Science Facilities Program, 152-153 Scientific doctorates, 122-126 Scientists, responsibilities of, 2~24, 206 207 Seaborg Report, 153 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, 73-74 Senate Report, 75 Senate Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, 75 Shared resources, 22, 199, 205-206 Short-term needs, 5-6, 172-173 Sliding-scale funding, 15-16, 190-192 Small Business Innovation Development Act (1982), 39 Small Business Patent and Procedure Act (P.L. 96-517) (1980), 39 Space, see Facilities Specialized Centers, 106 Special Science Development Awards, 153 Stabilization policy, 2, 26 27, 38, 88-90, 166 State government, funding of facilities by, 149-150 Step-down funding, 15, 189-190 Stevenson-Wydler Act (P.L. 96-480) (1980), 39 Stipends, 9 Student Loan Marketing Association, 156 INDEX Study sections, 9~95 Subspecialization, 128 Substance abuse, 28 T Talent renewal, 12-14, 28, 136, 182-188 Tax credit, 53 E x-exempt bonds, 155-156 Tax laws on corporate R&D, 53 on foundations, 56-57 Tax Reform Act (1976), 56-57 Teaching assistantships, 133 Technology Transfer Act (1986), 53 302b allocations, 75 Training budgeting for, 75 clinical, 128 financial support base for, 129-135 full-time positions for, 13~131, 132, 133, 176 need for, 3, 28 of physician-scientists, 13-14, 12~127, 18~187 postdoctorate, 128-129 precollege, 118-119 recommendations for, 169-170, 175-182 research project grant awards and, 13, 175 resource allocation for, 7-12 scientific doctorates, 122-126 undergraduate, 119-122 Transitional-year awards, 190 Turnover rate, of principal investigators, 101-103 U Undergraduates financial support for, 129 introduction to career opportunities for, 12-13, 182-184 precollege training for, 118-119

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INDEX training of, 11~122 U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC), 47-48 Universities earmarking funds for, 153-154 industry and research at, 49, 53, 54 University Sciences Development Program, 153 V Veterans Administration (VA), 43~4 Voluntary health agencies facilities and equipment funding by, 157 funding of training by, 135 255 innovative projects funding by, 22 recommendations for, 206 research funding by, 54-55, 57-58 W Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, 85 Washington University, 54 White House Science Council (~SC), Women career opportunities for, 13, 18~185 in doctoral programs, 123 as physicians, 126 undergraduate training of, 120

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