C

California Institute of Technology, 56

Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), 60, 75

Canada, 70, 133

Canary Islands, 85

Carnegie Institution, 56

Charon, 10

Chemical processes, 122

evolutionary, 8, 9, 31–32

galactic, 39

interstellar media, 62, 75

Chicago Airshower Array, 111

Climate and weather, 8, 32–33, 126–127

Columbus telescope, 56

Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, 31

Comets, 31–32, 61

Computers and computer science, 6, 89, 91–99, 130

centimeter wavelength programs, 58

cost-effectiveness, 91–92, 96–97

databases, 26, 88, 89, 92

archiving, 95–97, 98–99

international collaboration, 92, 96

robotics, 27, 33, 106

simulations, 30, 42, 48, 91, 97–98, 127

Consortia, telescopes, 56–57, 96

Copernicus, N., 45, 121

Copernicus telescope, 65

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 38–39, 44, 46, 51, 66, 117

Cosmic Background Imager, 25, 68

Cosmic dust, 40, 75, 79

Cosmic rays, 22, 25, 38, 53, 68, 70, 71, 80, 90 see also

Fly's Eye telescope

Cosmology, 28–29, 44–45, 121–122

Big Bang, 8, 9, 28, 29, 44–47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 71

large-scale structure of universe, 9, 29, 47–49, 51–54, 73, 88

Cost-effectiveness, 119

computer technology, 91–92, 96–97

international efforts, 120

large missions, 15–16, 117

manned space programs, 103, 106

technology development, 68

D

Dark matter, 49–51, 54, 71

black holes, 9, 37, 41–42, 64, 66, 79

Databases, 26, 88, 89, 92

archiving, 95–97, 98–99

Defense,

see National security

Demographic factors, 150–152

Density of universe (omega), 49, 50, 52–54

Department of Defense, 16, 83, 113

Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 113

Department of Energy, 16, 69–70, 112–113

Department of the Navy, 58, 113

Naval Observatory, 132

Naval Research Laboratory, 113

Deuterium, 65

Digges, T., 45

E

Economic factors,

see Cost effectiveness;

Funding

Education, 7, 110, 113–115, 122–124, 150–152

grants and fellowships, individuals, 55, 63, 110, 114, 116, 156

university research, 56–57, 60–61, 88–89, 106, 114, 122–124

An Educational Initiative in Astronomy , 114

8-m telescopes,

see Infrared-optimized 8-m telescope;

Southern 8-m telescope

Einstein, A., 9, 45

Einstein Observatory (HEAO), 42, 50, 64, 91, 96, 117

Energy sources, 16, 69–70, 112, 133

Europe, 58, 63, 85, 112 see also

specific countries

European Southern Observatory (ESO), 88, 96, 133

European Space Agency (ESA), 61, 67, 118

Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), 67, 76, 78

Explorer program, 23, 38, 65–66, 67, 90, 118, 119

Advanced Composition Explorer, 38

COBE, 38–39, 44, 46, 51, 66, 117

EUVE, 38, 65, 89, 119

funding, 24, 112

FUSE, 5, 23, 38, 65, 89, 111–112, 119

IRAS, 4, 30, 35, 40, 66, 67, 75, 76, 78, 80, 93, 96, 117, 119, 131–132, 134

IUE, 96, 117, 119, 133, 156

SMEX, 25, 65, 90, 112, 118, 119



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