abundances of some isotopes and atomic species among the accelerated particles provides an indirect but detailed view of the physics operating within one of the flare particle-acceleration processes. These high energy emissions are the best tools for studying acceleration processes in astrophysics. Solar flares are one of the very few astrophysical sites where it has been possible to study simultaneously the acceleration of electrons and protons, and only for solar flares can the escaping accelerated particles be directly detected and correlated with the electromagnetic radiations produced by the interaction particles. In addition, lower-energy emissions (soft X-ray, EUV, UV, and radio emissions), which are also observed from flares, reveal much of the detailed properties of the ambient plasma (e.g., temperature, density, and magnetic configuration) before, during, and after the flare.
This is the broad view of the mystery of the Sun and the stars. The specifics are complex, but it is essential, if we are to grasp the scope of the problem posed by the Sun, to spell out these complexities in somewhat more detail. The next section, then, details some of the specific problems, measurements, observations, and theoretical studies that are necessary along the way to probe the mystery.
By the year 2000 we hope to have a fairly detailed picture of the structure and dynamics of the solar interior, a better understanding of how the Sun generates magnetic fields, considerable measurements of how magnetic fields modulate the smooth outward flow of energy, a better description of the morphology of flaring plasmas, and some predictive capability for the flow of non-radiative energy through the heliosphere to Earth. These and other advances will be achieved by observational improvements in spatial resolution, temporal coverage, and new exploitation of radio, infrared, EUV, and X-ray spectral regions. Up to the present moment, the Sun has become increasingly mysterious the more we have studied it; by 2000 AD, we may reasonably hope to begin closing in on some of the more important mysteries.
As in any subfield of astronomy, there are more solar problems ripe for attack, and hence more projects in this report, than can be accomplished in a decade. Uncompleted tasks will form the basis of a program for 2000 and beyond. There is no likelihood that access to space will become rapid, cheap, frequent, or reliable enough to replace the need for a strong ground-based program. Hence, both space-based and ground-based components will be required in solar physics for several decades into the future.
In this section we focus on the principal specific goals for solar research which we believe are most important and also realizable in the decade of the '90s or shortly thereafter. This list will then determine the specific initiatives we will recommend in Sections 2 through 5. For convenience, we deal with the three principal components of the Sun - interior, surface layers, and outer layers - in sequence.
Two powerful and complementary techniques are available for probing the solar interior: neutrino spectroscopy and helioseismology. The flux of high energy neutrinos has been measured since the late 1960's. A discrepancy of about a factor of three between observations and model predictions gives rise to the well-known solar neutrino problem. Significant progress toward solving this problem can be made by a new generation of detectors that will allow the spectrum of solar neutrinos to be measured. An appropriate goal is to measure, by the end of the decade, the flux of solar neutrinos and its possible time variation as a function of energy, from the low energies associated with the neutrinos resulting from the main p-p reactions up through the energies of the 8B neutrinos long-studied by the chlorine experiment. In addition, the fluxes (and their possible time variations) should be understood in terms of the structure of the interior (and its possible time variations), as well as the particle physics of the neutrino.
Helioseismology uses the frequencies of millions of normal modes of oscillation of the Sun as probes of the structure and dynamics of the interior. Since 1975, exploration of much of the solar interior has been done using this technique. Better measurements are required to explore both the deep and shallow interior regions as well as to refine the present fairly crude picture of the middle regions. A major goal is to discover why the theory of stellar structure and evolution fails to correctly yield either the structure or the dynamic picture now emerging from helioseismology. Some of the required measurements can be done only from space but others can be done from the-ground more effectively. A newly emerging technique is seismic imaging of local regions on the Sun. This promises to give us the first subsurface views of solar activity, which should revolutionize our understanding of enigmatic features such as sunspots. A realistic goal is, by the end of the decade, to have made accurate measurements of the entire spectrum of p-modes; to have developed a