In this section we describe several initiatives important for solar physics, but also important to other disciplines, and whose funding would come from outside the normal solar physics sources. It is thus not within the capability or purview of the traditional funding sources for solar physics to make any of the initiatives described in this section happen. Our intent here is simply to recognize that each and every one of these projects will allow us to learn something interesting and important about the Sun. On the basis of their interest to solar physics, they can be placed in rough priority as follows:
Neutrinos produced in the solar core, as a result of the nuclear reactions that give stars their long, stable lifetime, are predicted to have a mixture of line and continuum energy distributions. There are now two experiments which are sensitive only to the relatively rare, but high energy, 8B neutrinos arising from a side-reaction of little energetic importance in the Sun; these experiments - the US Homestake mine experiment and the Japanese/US Kamiokande II collaboration - show consistent results, both at a level statistically significantly below that predicted by theory.
The next steps are to measure the energy spectrum of the electron-type 8B neutrinos (as will be done by the Sudbury Solar Neutrino Observatory deuterium experiment, a Canadian/US/Great Britain collaboration, and by the liquid argon detector being developed by CERN and Italy), to measure the time-dependence of the neutrino flux (as a function of solar cycle as well as on the much shorter time scales associated with solar flares), and to determine the solar neutrino flux from the p-p reactions which play the central role in the energetics of the solar core. Unfortunately, the US participation in the two 71Ga experiments now underway (the GALLEX experiment, principally funded by West Germany, Italy, France, and Israel, and the SAGE Soviet-American experiment) is relatively minor. Projects which are now under study will allow the energy spectrum of low-energy neutrinos to be mapped out (using, for example, low temperature detectors). Both the neutrino flux measurements and the neutrino spectroscopy are essential for progress in understanding the physics of the solar core (and hence the cores of other stars); indeed, it can be argued that such neutrino spectroscopy is as crucial to a thorough test and understanding of stellar structure and evolution as photon spectroscopy has been to fostering astrophysical developments over the last century. It is critical that these future developments be well supported.
Exciting opportunities exist for high spatial resolution solar mm-wave studies using the array envisaged by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. This wavelength domain is one of the last frontiers of radio astronomy. A key attribute of the MMA is that its spatial resolution is comparable to that now obtainable at other wavelengths, ranging from the optical to the X-ray domain - of order 1 second of arc; furthermore, at these short wavelengths, one can observe far deeper into the solar atmosphere than is possible at cm and longer wavelengths.
The science problems which can be attacked by the MMA are manifold. Consider, for example, mm-wave radiation from solar flares: At the lower chromospheric level, it likely to arise from thermal bremsstrahlung, allowing one to relate radio wave brightness to the density-temperature structure in the heated regions; relative timing of mm-wave vs. cm-wave bursts should then help distinguish among the possible causes of this heating. High time resolution studies of mm-wave flare continuum emission from 10-100 MeV electrons, and comparison with continuum and nuclear gamma-ray line observations, will constrain models for the as yet poorly understood near-simultaneous acceleration of electrons and protons to very high energies. Mapping of solar active regions, filaments and prominences which takes advantage of the partial polarization of mm-waves (resulting from the difference between x mode and o mode emissivities) will inform us about the magnetic field strength and topology at heights greater than the photosphere (where most magnetogram data apply). The arcsecond resolution of the MMA will help to understand why coronal holes are brighter than quiet regions in mm-waves, contrary to what is observed at almost all other wavelengths. Thus, there is wide recognition of the MMA's outstanding potential for solar research, but it is important that adequate time be devoted to solar studies, and that the technical challenge of providing the desired data be met, for significant progress will surely result from applications of this array to solar studies.
South Pole observations avoid two significant disadvantages of low-latitude networks, i.e., the need to merge observations from different instruments and effects of diurnal fluctuations in observing conditions at each site. Additionally, the South Pole offers better than arc second seeing and extraordinary infrared