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PERCIVAL BAILEY May 9, 1892August 10, 1973 BY PAUL C. BUCY THE BARREN CLAY HILLS of southern Illinois did not pro- duce gooc! corn or hogs, but they proclucect superb men. This southernmost section of Illinois is formecT by the Ohio River on the southeast, by the Mississippi River on the south- west, and by an indefinite, irregular line running from a few miles north of St. Louis, Missouri, east to the Wabash River. This triangle has long been known as "Little Egypt" anc! ap- propriately has Cairo, located at the apex of the triangle and the junction of the Ohio ant! Mississippi rivers, as its capital. The unproductiveness of Little Egypt lee] to poverty. It seems very likely that this poverty was the force that cirove many intelligent young people to head North (generally to Chicago) to become (listinguished judges, lawyers, scientists, and doctors. The direction of this migration was cletermined in considerable measure by the existence of the Illinois Cen- tral RailroacI, which ran from Little Egypt directly to Chi- cago. In other parts of the United States, notably in New En- gland, similar developments have been attributer! to parents' erudition and the excellence of educational opportunities. Certainly this explanation cloes not apply to skittle Egypt. The fathers of these young men, for the most part, ekect out a bare existence from the poor soil or otherwise worked daily 3

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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS with their hands and were often drunk. Their harcI-working mothers hac! little time for anything but bearing children and caring for their large families. The people of L`ittIe Egypt had migrated into southern Illinois by way of Kentucky from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Tennessee. Percival Bailey's forebears only partly fit the pattern. His great-grandfather, Gebhard BoehIer, emigrated as a young man from Hinterstad] in Baden, Germany. He was a journeyman miller. Marrying upon his arrival in Illi- nois, BoehIer (later changed to Bailey) aclded a German strain to the English, Scots, and Irish stock common to south- ern Illinois. Percival Bailey's father, John Henry Bailey, never attracted his son's admiration or affection. A laborer seldom steadily employed, he cirank to excess and was irresponsible. Install- ing his family in a one-room log hut, he took oh for Cuba and the Spanish-American War. Bailey's mother- a kindly, uneducated, hard-working woman devoted her life to the rearing of her family. Born Mattie Orr, she married John Henry Bailey when she was seventeen years old. Percival Sylvester, her first chilct, was born on her eighteenth birthday, May 9, 1892. Percival had great affection for his mother, ant! her death in 1912, when he was nineteen years old, was a hard blow. Dr. Bailey was never happy with either of his given names. During his early years he went by the nickname "Ves." In later life he dropped the name Sylvester and the nickname Ves altogether and preferred to be callecl Percy. In 1906, when he was fourteen years old, Bailey left home after a violent quarrel with his father and went to live with his uncle, Gaphart Bailey, a farmer. His early schooling took place in a one-room country schoolhouse anct was something of a "hit and miss" proposition. The school year was short, confined largely to the winter months, because children were

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 5 needed to help with planting in the spring, tilling in the sum- mer, and harvesting in the fall. Yet many apparently unrelated developments worked to shape Bailey for the future. Hard work on his uncle's farm turned the spindly boy into a sturdy, vigorous man. It also convinced Bailey that he would not earn his livelihood with his hands. At this same time he met a remarkable character, Dr. Arsen Artin Sissakian, a country doctor he describes in a paper entitled, "01' Doc Artin." This philosophical Armenian and another general practitioner, Dr. George W. Barrows, who cared for Bailey's mother in her final illness, did much to turn Percy's interest toward medicine. After completing the local country school, Bailey won a scholarship to the nearby normal school, Southern Illinois State Teachers College, now Southern Illinois University, in Carbondale. He proposed to become a country school- teacher, a goal that was never achieved, but his experience at Carbondale was the beginning of a long series of varied in- fluences that were to mold his future. Throughout his life various women appeared at the ap- propriate time to help ant! guide him. First it was his mother, then Martha Buck, an Englishwoman who taught grammar and etymology at Southern Illinois. Later Ethel Terry would help him to obtain a scholarship to The University of Chi- cago, while Sisters Leonardo and EtheIrita at the Mercy Hos- pital in Chicago would protect him and teach him much about life among charity patients. Most important of all was Yevnige Bashian, the beautiful Armenian air! that he would marry. Martha Buck was the first person to create in Bailey the realization that he was capable of being something more than a country teacher. She stimulated and fed his ambition, and, together with another teacher, Carlos Eben Allen, guided his footsteps to The University of Chicago, which he entered on

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6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS graduating from Southern Illinois Normal University in 1912. He went on to obtain a B.S. in 1914 and a Ph.D. in 1918 from The University of Chicago and an M.D. degree from Northwestern University, also in 1918. At The University of Chicago Bailey's future began to un- foict. He found himself in an academic worm of which he hacl been totally ignorant. At The University, he came under the influence of such giants as Harvey Carr, professor of exper- imental psychology, who fostered! in him an inquiring mind and taught him to ask, "What is wrong with this argument?" George W. Bartelmez taught him scientific method. C. ~ucI- son Herrick opened the florid of neurology to him. Anton ("Ajax") J. CarIson taught him to ask, as Bailey expressed it, "Vat iss (lee efficlence?" Julius Grinker, not on the faculty, stimulated his interest in clinical neurology. Later, others, in- clucling Harvey Cushing, Pierre Marie, George Boris Hassin, Pierre Janet, and Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault, were also to be important in his development and training. But it was his mentors at The University of Chicago who molded Bailey into the scientist and clinician, anatomist, neurophysiologist, neuropathologist, clinical neurologist, neurological surgeon, and psychiatrist that he was to be. He became the outstanding catholic neurologist, recognized throughout the world as "Mister Neurology," a man without peer. Bailey's Ph.D. thesis dealt with the anatomy of the brain, and he later earned money to complete his medical education teaching anatomy at Northwestern University, in Evanston. He obtainer] his preclinical medical education at The Uni- versity of Chicago and his clinical education at Rush Medical College and at Northwestern University Medical School. Dur- ing these last two clinical years, his studying was done largely on the Chicago elevated trains running between Evan- ston, on the north, Rush Meclical College, on the west, and Northwestern University Medical School, on South Dearborn Street.

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 7 The faculties of Rush Medical College and Northwestern Medical School made little impression upon Bailey, and he never mentioned them in later years. But he often spoke with great admiration and affection of Julius Grinker, of the Post- graduate Hospital in Chicago, from whom he first learned clinical neurology. Grinker was a very able neurologist, who wrote the section on neurology in Tice's Practice of Medicine, a popular encyclopedic work of that time. Caustic and hy- percritical, he was anything but cliplomatic in his clearings with others. Yet Grinker recognizect in Bailey an intelligent, inquiring young man whom he clelighted to teach. Bailey in turn liked Julius Grinker anct lover! to learn. After he graduatect from Northwestern University in June HIS, he began his internship at the Mercy Hospital in Chi- cago, completed nine months later. His impressions of Mercy Hospital ant! its staff were for the most part unfavorable, except for two nuns Sister Leonardo anct Sister EtheIrita, for whom he retained great affection and admiration. (Bailey related his experiences at the Mercy Hospital in a delightful chapter, "Sister EtheIrita," in Up From Little Egyptian As he was approaching the en(1 of his internship, Bailey wrote two letters, one to the surgeon Harvey Cushing, in Boston, and one to the psychiatrist Adolf Meyer, at Johns Hopkins. This has led to speculation that Bailey was a man who tract difficulty making up his mind and coul(1 not decide whether he wanted to be a neurosurgeon or a psychiatrist. Anyone who knew Bailey well would reject this interpreta- tion, foreven at this early date his interest was in the ner- vous system rather than in any one of its clisciplines. He wisher! to study the neurosciences and at the same time to be a clinician. He cared little whether his clinical activities were as a neurologist, a surgeon, or a psychiatrist, as was true for ' Percival Bailey, Up From Little Egypt (Chicago: The Buckskin Press, 1969) 265 PP

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8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the rest of his life. Cushing replier! immediately, Meyer, in three months. Both accepted Bailey for training in their in- stitutions, but Bailey tract aIreacly accepted Cushing's over and was at work in Boston when he received Meyer's letter. 0~ and on, from April 1919 until July 192S, Bailey worked with Harvey Cushing at the Peter Bent Brigham Hos- pital in Boston. These were trying years. Bailey admired Cushing's ability as a surgeon ant! as a teacher of neurosur- geons. He recognized Cushing's unequaled contribution in salvaging brain surgery from a premature (leash, in devel- oping that specialty, and in showing how surgical lesions of the nervous system could be diagnosed ant! successfully treated. Yet he hacl nothing but contempt for Cushing as a man. In Up From Little Egypt (p. 209), Bailey wrote of Cush- ~ng: (1) he was very artistic and had a tendency to prettify his data, (2) he had a tart tongue, (3) he had a tendency to believe anything which he imagined was true and was not too careful about the conclusiveness of his proof, (4) he had never learned to spell or write English correctly, (5) his scholarship left much to be desired. Yet it was during his years with Cushing that Bailey be- came a neurosurgeon anti made what was probably his great- est single contribution to neurology his book Tumors of the Glioma Group, which he published with Cushing (Philaclel- phia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1925, 175 pp., 108 illus.~. It rep- resents many years of hard work in which Bailey applied his knowlecige of neuroanatomy and neuropathology to the def- inition of the microscopic nature of gliomas, their relation to the normal glial cells of the developing and aclult nervous system, the clinical correlation of these tumors, and the pre- diction of their prognosis bases! on their microscopic ap- pearance. This book completely revolutionized the under- standing and diagnosis of these tumors anal still influences

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 9 neurological anct neurosurgical thought. Its excellence and thoroughness are attested by the fact that the classification of gliomas that it proposed has changed but little over the ensuing fifty years. Nine months after arriving in Boston, Baileyunhappy with Cushing's behavior returned to Chicago to work with George Boris Hassin in neuropathology at the Cook County Hospital. Hassin was one of the pioneers in neuropathology ant! was largely self-educatec3. He, too, was a clifficult person, but one whose keen sense of integrity Bailey acimirect. In October 1920, Bailey returnee! to Cushing ant! Boston, only to leave the following year for Paris. This year in France was undoubtedly one of the happiest in Bailey's life. He always recalled it with great pleasure ant! frequently regaled his lis- teners with lively tales of his life there. At La Salpetriere, he came under the influence of Pierre Marie, one of the greatest clinical neurologists of this century. Bailey also learned to speak French perfectly, without a trace of foreign accent, my French friends inform me. In 1922 Bailey returned from Paris to Boston and re- sume(1 his work with Cushing for the longest continuous pe- rioc! he was to spend with him. While he was still a student at The University of Chicago, Bailey had developed a friend- ship with an Armenian theological student, Antranig Becti- kian, who married Marie Bashian. At their Betiding Bailey met Marie's sister, Yevnige, who soon entrapped his heart. Cushing learned of their plans to marry. This was in those days of long ago when medical students, interns, residents, and even young associates ctid not marry. Cushing feared that marriage would so divert Bailey's inter- ests and efforts from the laboratory as to be catastrophic for his research. Learning that Yevnige Bashian's father was cleact and her two uncles, Armenian rug merchants in New York City, were the influential members of the family, he went to

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10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS New York to call on the uncles. They assumed that this dis- tinguished surgeon from Boston had come to buy rugs. Cof- fee was served, ant! after suitable courtesies were exchanged, they got down to business. Cushing toicI them of the out- standing young man whose career was about to be ruined by his marriage to their niece. He could not have chosen a more disastrous means of achieving his goal. Insteac] of convincing the uncles to prevent the marriage, Cushing had, by his ef- fusive description of Bailey's outstanding intelligence anct great future, convinced them that here was the ideal husbanc! for Yevnige. He returnee! to Boston empty-handec! no rugs, no agreement. Bailey's marriage further strengthened his contacts with ant} interests in things Armenian, begun early in life with his admiration for the southern Illinois cloctor, Arsen Sissakian. Yevnige's brother, Antranig, was to become one of his closest friends. In 1925 the book on gliomas came off the press and Bailey hac! already begun work on another monograph, Blood Vessel Tumors of the Brain. This clinicopathological study was far ahead of its time and, as a result, never attracted great atten- tion. In 1928 surgical techniques for treating vascular mal- formations were still many years away. In 1925 Bailey returne(1 to Paris, again following up his interest in psychiatry. On his first trip, Bailey had become acquainted with Pierre Janet, who worked at La Salpetriere. On this second trip he worked at L'Hospice de la Ste. Anne with Gaetan Gatian cle Clerambault. Janet had been influ- ential in the development of the career of Sigmund Freud when Freud workoct in Paris, but had later taken great ex- ception to Freucl's ideas, based more and more on- what pa- tients told him. Janet, wrote Bailey (Up From Little Egypt, p. 2 ~ 3), "(listrustecl memory and had no use for accounts of the sayings of patients unless recor(lecl at the time." De Cleram-

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 11 bault, on the other hanct, was a firm believer in the organic nature of psychiatric clisorclers: "These phenomena Cler- ambault believer! to be clue to intracellular changes in the neurones of the cerebral cortex." (p. 214) Bailey had given evidence of his interest in psychiatry when he wrote Adolf Meyer requesting an opportunity to study uncler him. His work with Clerambault was a seconct manifestation of this interest, but it was not until many years laterwhen he accepted an appointment as director of the Illinois State Psychopathic Institute in 1951- that this inter- est was to come to the fore. In 1928 Bailey was selected by Dallas B. Phemister, pro- fessor of surgery at The University of Chicago, to develop neurological surgery at that institution. Bailey was thrilled with this opportunity. His earlier experiences at The Univer- sity, when he tract associated with such outstanding neuro- scientists as Charles Hudson Herrick, George W. Bartelmez, and Anton I. CarIson, hac! demonstratect that institution's cleclication to neurology. Franklin C. McLean, who tract close affiliations with the Rockefeller Institute, had been recruited by The University to organize this new medical school. McLean envisioned a new type of medical school in which clinical fields wouIcI have a close relationship, not only to basic medical sciences, but also to biological and physical sciences represented elsewhere in The University. Uncler such a system, both clinical and preclinical departments would engage in research. It was also McLean's plan that all members of the mecTical faculty be employed full time, supported entirely by salary. Phemister entertained similar views ant! had recruitedin acicTition to Bailey Lester R. Dragsteclt, heart of the Department of Physiology at Northwestern University, and George Curtis, heac! of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Louisville, as professors of surgery.

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12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Knowing this, Bailey was encouraged to hope that he would be able to develop an integrated department of neu- rosciences at Chicago and not just a division of neurological surgery. He might have had misgivings about his ability to handle the clinical side of his new position, for much of his time in Boston had been spent in the laboratory and his years in France had not trained him to perform neurosurgical op- erations. Ever helpful, Cushing, on learning that Bailey was going to Chicago, remarked "l don't know what is going to become of you. You will never be a neurosurgeon," (Up From Little Egypt, p. ~ 264.Even Max Peet,professorofneurological surgery at the University of Michigan and later Bailey's close friend and admirer, exclaimed to this author on learning of the appointment, "WhY. Bailev is not a neurosurgeon: he's a pathologist!" ~ , ~ ~ ~ If Bailey was forced to rely on his own evaluation of his surgical abilities, in the end, he was proven correct. He be- came a superb neurosurgeon, though he lacked the enthu- siasm for operating that characterizes most surgeons. Once he had demonstrated he could perform an operation well, he lost interest in repeating it and would turn successive op- erations of the same type over to me. Bailey arrived at The University of Chicago in the sum- mer of 1928 and immediately began organizing a depart- ment of neurosciences. As his neurosurgical assistant he re- cruited this author, Paul C. Bucy, then a young man. Trained in neuropathology by Samuel T. Orton, ~ had developed an interest in the pathology of brain tumors. He also brought in Roy R. Grinker, the son of Bailey's old teacher of neurology, Julius Grinker, as medical neurologist. Stephen Polyak was induced to come to Chicago from the University of Califor- nia, where he had recently completed the research that re- sulted in his publication Afferent Fiber Systems of the Cerebral Cortex (Berkeley: University of California Press,.1932, 370 pp.~. Bailey intended to recruit into his new department men

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 37 The pineal body. In: Special Cytology, vol. 2, pp. 791-96. N.Y.: Hoe- ber. With Eisenhardt. Spongioblastomas of the brain. I. Comp. Neurol., 56:391-430. Headrest for exposure of the cerebellum. l. Am. Med. Assoc. 98:1643. 1933 Intracranial Tumors. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 475 pp. 1934 Tumors of the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. In: Neu- rology, ed. I. Grinker, pp. 229-54. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Instrument for hemostasis in craniotomies. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 103:562-63. The training of the neurologist. l. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 80:377-85. With Ley. Estudio anatomo-cl~nico de un cave de occurencia si- multanea de dos tumores (glioma y sarcoma) en el hemisferio cerebral de un nino. Arch. Neurobiol., 14: 1-18. Simultaneous occurrences of two tumors (glioma and sarcoma) in the cerebral hemisphere of a child. Trans. Pathol. Soc. Chicago, 14: 182-83. 1935 With Cid. Sobre el origen y estructura del glioblastoma multi- forme. Prensa Med. Argent., 22:215-30. Concerning diffuse pontine gliomas in childhood. Acta Neuro- pathol. Estoniana, 60:199-214. Osteoma of the frontal sinus. Trans. Pathol. Soc. Chicago, 14:249- 50. 1936 Variation in shape of the lateral cerebral ventricles due to differ- ences in the shape of the head. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 35:932. Die Hirngeschwiilste. Stuttgart: Enke. 415 pp. The relationship of the pathologist to the clinic. (Presidential ad- dress.) Trans. Pathol. Soc. Chicago, 14:289-93.

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38 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Tumors of the nervous system in infancy and childhood. In: Brenneman's Pediatrics, vol. 4, pp. 28. Hagerstown, Md.: Prior. With Foerster. A contribution to the study of gliomas of the spinal cord with special reference to their operability ~ Jubilee Volume of Dawidenkow), pp. 9-67. Leningrad: State Institute for the Publication of Biological and Medical Literature. 1937 Un nouveau precede d'exerese des tumeurs de l'acoustique. I. Chir. Ann. Soc. Beige Chir., 8:563-65. 1938 With Brunschwig. Erfahrungen mit der Roentgenbehandlung der Hirngliome. Z. Gesamte Neurol. Psychiatr., 161:214-17. With Hermann. The role of the cells of Schwann in the formation of tumors of the peripheral nerves. Am. I. Pathol., 41: 1-38. With Marie-Louise Ectors. Particularites des tumeurs intracran- iennes chez ltenfant. Bruxelles-Med., 38:1-13. With Bremer. A sensory cortical representation of the vagus nerve. With a note on the effects of low blood pressure on the cortical electrogram. J. Neurophysiol., 1 :405-12. With Leon Ectors. Les indications operatoires dans la chirurgie des tumeurs cerebrates. Rev. Neurol, 2:459-70. A review of modern conceptions of the structure and classification of tumors derived from the medullary epithelium. I. Beige Neurol. Psychiatr., 38:759-82. 1939 With Buchanan and P. Bucy. Ueber die Behandlung intrakranieller tumoren im Kindesalter. Nervenarzt., 12: 1-9. Concerning the technic of operation for acoustic neurinoma. Zen- tralbl. Neurochir., 4: 1-5. With Buchanan and P. Bucy. Intracranial Tumors of Infancy and Child- hood. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 598 pp. With P. Bucy and Tanaka. Concerning the treatment of intracranial tumors in infancy and childhood. Arch. Jpn. Chir., 16:378- 413.

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 39 1940 Tumors involving the hypothalamus and their clinical manifesta- tions. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 20:713-24. With Dusser de Barenne, Garol, and McCulloch. Sensory cortex of the chimpanzee. Am. J. Physiol., 129:303 -4. With W. H. Sweet. Effects on respiration, blood-pressure and gas- tric motility of stimulation of the orbital surface of the frontal lobe. J. Neurophysiol., 3:276-81. Indications for the surgical treatment of intracranial tumor. South. Surgeon, 9:539-52. With Haynes. Location of the respiratory inhibitory center in the cerebral cortex of the dog. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 45:686- 87. With Dusser de Barenne, Garol, and McCulloch. Sensory cortex of the chimpanzee. I. Neurophysiol., 3 :469-85. 1941 With Sweet. Experimental production of intracranial tumors in the white rat. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 45:1(~47-49. With Garol and McCulloch. Cortical origin and distribution of cor- pus callosum and anterior commissure in the chimpanzee (Pan satyrus). J. Neurophysiol., 4:564-71. With Garol and McCulloch. Functional organization and inter- relation of cerebral hemispheres in the chimpanzee. Am. i. Physiol., 133:200. 1942 With McCulloch, Garol, and Bonin. The functional organization of the temporal lobe. Anat. Rec., 82:38-39. Differential diagnosis and treatment of pains about the head. Fort- night. Rev., 3: 13-18. The present state of American neurology. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1: 111-17. Reflections aroused by an unusual tumor of the cerebellum. l. Mt. Sinai Hosp. NY, 9:299-311. Differential diagnosis of pontine tumors. I. Pediatr., 20:386-90. Sarcoma of the temporal lobe associated with abscess and invading

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40 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the subcutaneous extracranial tissues. l. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1:442-44. 1943 With Davis. Effects of lesions of the periaqueductal gray matter in the cat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 51:305-7. With Davis. The syndrome of obstinate progression in the cat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 51:307-9. With Bonin and McCulloch. Long association fibers in the cerebral hemispheres of the monkey and chimpanzee. I. Neurophysiol., 6: 129-34. With Bonin, Garol, and McCulloch. The functional organizations of the temporal lobe of the monkey (Macaca mulatto) and chim- panzee (Pan satyrus). ]. Neurophysiol., 6: 121-28. With Davis. A modification of the Horsley-Clarke stereotaxic ap- paratus. I. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 2:99-101. With Bonin, David, et al. Functional organization of the medial aspect of the primate cortex. Anat. Rec., 85:296. 1944 The relationship of the motor cortex to the cerebellum. In: The Precentral Motor Cortex, pp. 279 - 91. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Ill~- nois Press. Psychiatry: Its relation to general surgery. In: Psychiatry and the War, pp. 38-50. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. With Davis. Effects of lesions of the periaqueductal gray matter on the Macaca mulatto. ]. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 3:69-72. With Davis and Shimizu. Effects of implantation of methylcholan- threne in the brain of the dog. J. Neuropathol., 3: 184-88. With Bonin, Garol, McCulloch, Roseman, and Silveira. Functional organization of the medial aspect of the primate brain. }. Neu- rophysiol., 7:51-57. With Bonin, Davis, Garol, and McCulloch. Further observations on associational pathways in the brain of Macaca mulatto. ]. Neu- ropathol. Exp. Neurol., 3:413-15. 1945 With Sanchez. Neurinoma del nervio vago derecho en forma de reloj de arena. Arch. Mex. Neurol. Psiquiatr., 7:125-33.

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 41 With Shimizu. Chronic leptomeningeal thickening following treat- ment of meningitis with sulfa drugs. Ann. Surg., 122:917-22. With Bonin. The cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex in the chimpanzee. Anat. Rec., 91:3-4. 1946 The practice of neurology in the United States of America. I. As- soc. Am. Med. Coll., 21:281-92. With Bonin. Concerning cytoarchitectonics. Proc. Am. Neurol. As- soc., 71 :89-93. 1947 With Bonin. The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press. The training of the neurosurgeon. }. Int. Coll. Surg., 10:510-12. With Beiser. Concerning gagliogliomas of the brain. I. Neuro- pathol. Exp. Neurol., 6:24-34. 1948 Concerning the organization of the cerebral cortex. fames Green- wood Lecture, Univ. of Texas. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med., 6:34-57. Intracranial Tumors. 2d ed. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Disturbances of behavior produced in cats by lesions of the brain- stem. l. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 107:336-39. Organization of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Inst. Med. Chicago, 1 7:82-88. With Bonin and McCulloch. Associational fibers of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Am. Anat. Assoc., 100:5. Concerning the cytoarchitectonics of the frontal lobe of the chim- panzee (Pan satyrus) and man (Homo sapiens). Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 27:84-95. 1949 Recent developmentsinneurology.BrainNerve(Tokyo), 1:78-91. Concerning the functions of the cerebral cortex. I. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 110:369-78. Therapeutische ergebnisse nach hirnrindenexstirpation. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 74:1517-21.

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42 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1950 Considerations sur la structure et les fonctions du cortex cerebral. Rev. Neurol., 82:1-20. On the organization and functions of the cerebral cortex. Brain Nerve (Tokyo), 2: 1 1 5-33. The therapeutic results of cortical extirpations. Brain Nerve (To- kyo),2:303-17. With Bonin and McCulloch. The Isocortex of the Chimpanzee. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press. The place of neurology in undergraduate medical education. In: Proc. Forty-sixth Annual Congress on Medical Education and Licensure, pp. 29-31. Chicago: American Medical Assn. 1951 With F. A. Gibbs. The surgical treatment of psychomotor epilepsy. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 145:365-70. With Bonin. The Isocortex of Man. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press. With Stein. A Stereotaxic Instrument for Man ~ Jubilee Volume for Rob't. Keeton), pp.40-49. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Die Hirngeschwiilste. 2 Aufl., Stuttgart: Enke. Considerazioni sull'organizzazioni e le funzioni delta corteccia ce- rebrale. Arch. Psicol. Neurol. Psichiatr. 12:91-107. 1952 Relation of structure to function in cortex. In: Symposium on the Biological Aspects of Mental Health and Disease, pp. 257-59. N.Y.: Paul B. Hoeber. L'acromegalie et son histoire. Rev. Neurol., 86:741-45. The history of the Illinois State Psychopathic Institute. The Wel- fare Bull., 43:17-20. 1953 Cortex and mind. In: Midcentury Psychiatry, ed. R. Grinker, pp. 8- 22. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. (Reprinted in: Theories of the Mind, ed. i. Scher, pp. 3-14. Glencoe, N.Y.: Free Press, 1962.)

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PERCIVAL BAILEY 43 Pierre Marie (1853-1940~. In: Founders of Neurology, ed. Haymaker, pp. 329-32. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 1954 Illinois Psychiatric Research Council. Welfare Bull., 45:5-14. With Arnold, Harvey, Haas, and Laughlin. Changes in the central nervous system following irradiation with 23 mev X-rays from the betatron. Radiology, 62:37-44. Betrachtungen uber die chirurgische Behandlung der psychomo- torischen Epilepsie. Zentralbl. Neurochir., 14:195-206. With Arnold and Laughlin. Effects of betatron radiation on the brain of primates. Neurology, 4: 165-79. With Arnold and Harvey. Intolerance of the primate brainstem and hypothalamus to conventional and high energy radiations. Neurology, 4:575-85. With Arnold. Alterations in the glial cells following irradiation of the brain in primates. Arch. Pathol., 57:383-91. 1955 With Arnold, Harvey, and Haas. The application of the betatron to the treatment of brain tumors. South. Med. I., 48:63-67. Concerning research in psychiatry. Welfare Bull., 462:3-6. 1956 Janet and Freud. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 76:76-89. Concerning the localization of consciousness. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 80:1. The great psychiatric revolution. Am. I. Psychiatry, 113 :387-406. (Reprinted in: Critical Essays on Psychoanalysis. London: Perga- mon Press, 1963.) Reply to the foregoing. Am. J. Psychiatry, 113:847. Review of Delay: Aspects de la psychiatric moderne. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 76: 565-66. Intracranial tumors. (Korean Translation.) Pusan: Kyali Publ., 430 PP 1957 With Bonin. Evolution of the cerebral cortex: Organ of the mind. What's New, 198: 13-19.

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