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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE J Tune 15, 1886-September 12, 1959 BY ISAAC STARR FEW INVESTIGATORS have been so consistently productive as William Stadie. His life work can be most easily pre- sentec] by divicling it into three parts. In the first, his attention was focused on the cyanosis so conspicuous in patients with influenza; he was the father of oxygen therapy. In the sec- ond responding to the needs of Worict War Il. he was chiefly concerned with oxygen toxicity. In the third, Stadie made major contributions to our knowleclge of the abnor- malities of carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes. For many years, Bill Staclie and ~ had adjacent laborato- ries on the eighth floor of the Maloney Builcting of the Uni- versity Hospital and we usually lunched together. He was one of my oiliest mectical friends. Bill hac! an unusually ctifficult time completing his medical education. Believed to have pulmonary tuberculosis as an adolescent, he was taken out of school anct sent to work on a farm for a year. When this episode was evaluated later by experts in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, using both his old and more recent chest X-rays, all agreed that Staclie had never, in all probability, had TB at all. But the episode cost him a year of his working life. In addition, he had to earn money by teaching school for several years before he was able to finish college at New York University, from which he.took his (legree in ~ 907. 513

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514 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Staclie likect to boast, with a twinkle in his eye, that he had put himself through medical school at the College of Physi- cians ant] Surgeons (which granted him the M.D. degree in 1916) by writing a textbook of pathology. If listeners ex- pressec! suprise at so major an accomplishment by so young a man, they soon learner! that Bill hacl helped finance his education while a medical school undergraduate by typing the manuscript of McCallum's well-known pathology text. After a stint in the Army Medical Corps during World War I, Staclie's successful internship at the Presbyterian Hos- pital won him a research job at the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute, where a group was being organized to study the newer treatments of syphillis. But before this study couIcT get off the ground, the great influenza epidemic paralyzed the country. In many influenza cases, cyanosis of bronchial pneumonia was a conspicuous symptom. After learning the new tech- niques of blood-gas analysis from Van Slyke (who had just originates} them), he worked to perfect techniques of arterial puncture experimenting first with animals, then on himself and other volunteers, and finally on his patients proving to the satisfaction of everyone that arterial puncture, long thought by clinicians to be a dangerous procedure, was harm- less in skilled hands. Many give Stactie the credit for the first arterial puncture on a patient, but ~ often heart! him cleny, with characteristic modesty, that he tract been first, insisting rather that Hurter, a German researcher, tract prececled him. Having introduced the arterial puncture in clinical mecl- icine, Staclie was able to make pioneering studies of lung function in his patients by comparing the oxygen content of the air inhaled with that of arterial bloocI. This technique allowed} him to demonstrate that the cyanosis was due to ar- terial anoxemia of a dangerous severity. Studies on the eflSec- tiveness of various methods of treating cyanosis followecl,

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 515 and Stadie soon found that anoxemia could be overcome by breathing air enriched with oxygen. He then supervised the construction of a small, gas-tight room in the Rockefeller Hospital with controls for oxygen, carbon clioxide, moisture, and air temperature that permitted bee! patients to breathe the desired concentrations over long periods without the dis- comfort of masks and nose-pieces. The principles of Stadie's chamber formed the basis for the oxygen chambers anct tents that have since become routine hospital equipment. After four productive years with the Rockefeller Hospital, Bill Staclie moved to Yale, where Francis Blake was putting new life into the Department of Medicine. He served on Yale's medical faculty from 1921 to 1924, then came to the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania. He was appointed John Herr Musser Professor of Research Medicine in 1941. In 1944 he served with the Office of Scientific Research and Development of the United States Public Health Service. Though he had re- tired from teaching in 1956, Stadie continued as the Musser Professor Emeritus and was actively engaged in research at the time of his death, at the age of seventy-three, in 1959. After his grouncibreaking discoveries in oxygen therapy ant! his introduction of the arterial puncture into clinical medicine, Stadie mover! on to investigate oxygen toxicity a concern of the military during World War Il. He extended his researches to the combination of oxygen and carbon mon- oxicle with hemoglobin and assisted in clarifying the roles of the carbamino compounds ant! of carbonic anhyctrase in ac- celerating the shifts of carbon dioxide to and from the blood. Stable contributes! refinements of methods for bloocI-gas analyses, determinations of hemoglobin, methomogIobin, fixecI-base cations in bloocI, anc! an electron-tube potentiom- eter for blooc! pH measurements. During his researches he cJiscoverecI a discrepancy in the data then available on the supposedly well-understood pro-

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516 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS cess of oxygen and CO2 exchange in blood. According to his findings, much more CO2 emerged from the blood during its passage through the lungs than the views of physical chemistry of blood then current could account for. To inter- pret this unexpected finding, new techniques were needed: those of enzyme chemistry to measure enzyme activity and those of radioactivity to locate the enzymes in tissues and identify the sources of their metabolic byproducts. Stadie not only mastered these new techniques, he added considerably to our knowledge of abnormalities in carbohydrate metabo- lism work for which he was particularly suited by his un- usual facility with mathematics. He was the first to label insulin with radioactive tracers and to demonstrate that a high-affinity binding of the hor- mone to its target tissue was required for its biological effects. More than two decades later, quantitative studies of insulin- binding have fully confirmed Stadie's observation. He further demonstrated that the hyperketonemia of an- imals with acute experimental diabetes results primarily from hepatic overproduction of ketone bodies rather than from a defect in their utilization. Stadie adduced an important part of the evidence on which presently accepted views regarding diabetes are based: that the liver splits fats almost quantita- tively into acetoacetic and hydroxybutyric acid, which are cir- culated to the other tissues for combustion; that the muscles of a diabetic can burn acetoacetic acid at a normal rate; and that excretion of acetoacetic and hydroxybutyric acids occurs in diabetes when carbohydrate is not available for combus- tion because these acids are formed faster than the tissues can burn them. Any tribute to Bill Stadie as a scientist would be incom- plete without a tribute to him as a man. His talents were not limited to research. He ran a happy and successful labora- toryas his many associates, graduate students, and techni-

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 517 clans are glad to attest. Those ot us made welcome in his home often paused to admire the beautiful mahogany fur- niture and were surprised to learn that he hac! macle the pieces himself. He playoc! both the cello ancI the clarinet if not well, well enough to enjoy it and great music always delightect him. Outside his house was his carefully tended garden, borderect by a row of beehives. The quality of the man and his work have been recognized everywhere. He was an editor of the fournal of Biological Chem- ~stry for many years anc! was eclitor-in-chief of the American Diabetes Association journal, Diabetes, for the last three years of his life. Electect to the National Academy of Sciences in 1945, Sta- die received the Alverenga Award of the Philadelphia Col- lege of Physicians in ~ 957, the Phillips Medal of the American College of Physicians in 1941, the Kober Medal of the Asso- ciation of American Physicians in 1955, and the Banting Medal of the American Diabetes Association in 1956. He acted as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health's Division of Metabolic Diseases. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Biological Chemists, and the Association of American Physicians and received the honorary degree of cloctor of science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1959. He married Amanda Brugger, who was working in the library at Yale while he was on the faculty there. Their daugh- ter was a constant source of delight to them both. The death of his first wife from a brain tumor was so devastating to him that his friends fearer! he might not recover, but he eventu- ally clid, and his second marriage to Catherine Tyler was also a happy one. Throughout his active years and even after his retirement he never showed signs of the mental rigidity that so often

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518 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS comes with age. During his later years despite consiclerable ill health his minct remainec! as fertile for new ideas as in his younger clays. He also took an interest in his fellow man anct poor himself in his youth was greatly concerned with social problems of the poor. Suffering from mild angina pectoris occasionally for sev- eral years, he cried of a heart attack. His refined experiments, which so much advanced his fielcis of interest, will live long after him.

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 519 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1919 The oxygen of the arterial and venous blood in pneumonia and its relation to cyanosis. I. Exp. Med., 30:215. 1920 With D. D. Van Slyke. Studies of acidosis. XV. Carbon dioxide con- tent and capacity in arterial and venous blood plasma. I. Biol. Chem., 41:191. A method for the determination of methemoglobin in blood. l. Biol. Chem., 41:237. With D. D. Van Slyke. The effect of acute yellow atrophy on me- tabolism and on the composition of the liver. Arch. Int. Med., 25:693. 1921 Studies on blood changes in pneumococcus infections. An experi- mental study of the formation and fate of methemoglobin in the blood. l. Exp. Med., 33:627. With D. D. Van Slyke. The determination of the gases of the blood. i. Biol. Chem., 49: 1. A mechanical shaker and other devices for use with the Van Slyke blood gas apparatus. l. Biol. Chem., 49:43. 1922 Construction of an oxygen chamber for the treatment of pneu- monia. I. Exp. Med., 35:323. The treatment of anoxemia in pneumonia in an oxygen chamber. I Exp. Med., 35 337. 1924 With K. A. Martin. Thermodynamic relations of oxygen- and base- combining properties of blood. J. Biol. Chem., 60: 191. 1925 With K. A. Martin. Elimination of carbon monoxide from blood, theoretical and experimental study. I. Clin. Invest., 2:77. With E. C. Ross. A micro-method for the determination of base in

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520 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS blood and serum and other biological materials. I. Biol. Chem., 65:735. With l. H. Austin and H. W. Robinson. The relation between col- orimetric reading and true pH of serum or plasma. }. Biol. Chem., 66:505. With I. M. Austin and H. W. Robinson. The effect of temperature on the acid-base-protein equilibrium and its influence on the CO2 absorption curve of whole blood, true and separated serum. i. Biol. Chem., 66:901. 1926 With I. H. Austin and H. W. Robinson. The influence of change in temperature on the location of the CO2 absorption curve of blood and serum. Am. l. Med. Sci., 171:310. With E. C. Ross. Studies on the oxygen-, acid-, and base-combining properties of blood. II. A rapid method for the preparation of crystalline isoelectric hemoglobin by the electrodialysis of red blood cells. I. Biol. Chem., 68: 229, and Am. I. Med. Sci., 171:620. 1927 With E. C. Ross. The first dissociation constant of carbonic acid in red blood cells. Am. i. Med. Sci., 173: 154. With E. R. Hawes. The extension of the Debye-Huckel theory to hemoglobin solutions. Am. J. Med. Sci., 173: 896. 1928 With E. R. Hawes. Studies on the oxygen-, acid-, and base- combining properties of blood. III. The validity of hydrogen ion activity determinations by the hydrogen electrode in sys- tems containing carbonic acid, carbonates, hemoglobin, carbon monoxide hemoglobin, and me/hemoglobin. J. Biol. Chem., 77:241, 1928. With E. R. Hawes. Studies on the oxygen-, acid-, and base- combining properties of blood. IV. The apparent first dissocia- tion constant, pK,', of carbonic acid and the activity coefficient of the bicarbonate ion in solutions of hemoglobin, methemo- globin, cyanhemoglobin, and nitric oxide hemoglobin at vary- ing ionic strengths. }. Biol. Chem., 77:265.

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 521 Studies on the oxygen-, acid-, and base-combining properties of blood. V. Extension of the Debye-Huckel theory of ionic inter- action to hemoglobin, bicarbonate-sodium chloride systems. I. Biol. Chem., 77:303. With F. W. Sunderman. A new method for the determination of the freezing point of solutions. Am. i. Med. Sci., 175: 152. With E. R. Hawes. The activity coefficients of the carbonate and bicarbonate ions. Am. I. Med. Sci., 175:578. With E. R. Hawes. The role of the liquid junction potential in the electrometric determination of single ion activity coefficients. J. Biol. Chem., 78:29. 1929 An electron tube potentiometer for the determination of pH with the glass electrode. I. Biol. Chem., 83:477. With E. R. Hawes. The glass electrode. Am. i. Med. Sci., 177:306. With F. W. Sunderman. The osmotic activity coefficients of ions in hemoglobin solutions. Am. I. Phys., 90:526. 1930 . With H. O'Brien. Comparison of the hydrogen and the glass elec- trode in the determination of the pH of serum. Am. I. Med. Sci., 180:142. 1931 With H. O'Brien. Uber die Zustandsformen des Kohlendioxyds im Blut. Z. Biochem., 237:290. With H. O'Brien and E. P. Laug. Determination of the pH of serum at 38 with the glass electrode and an improved electron tube potentiometer. J. Biol. Chem., 91:243. With F. W. Sunderman. A method for the determination of the freezing point depression of aqueous solutions particularly those containing protein. l. Biol. Chem., 91:217. With F. W. Sunderman. The osmotic coefficient of sodium in so- dium hemoglobinate and of sodium chloride in hemoglobin so- lution. }. Biol. Chem., 91 :227. With H. O'Brien. Does any CO2 in the blood exist as carbohemo- globin? J. Biol. Chem., 92:27, and Am. J. Med. Sci., 181:742.

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522 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1932 With F. W. Sunderman, H. O'Brien, and P. Williams. Further stud- ies on the occurrence of carbohemoglobin in the blood. I. Biol. Chem., 97:97. 1933 With H. O'Brien. The kinetics of carbon dioxide reactions in buffer systems and blood. I. Biol. Chem., 100:88. With H. O'Brien. The catalysis of the hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid by an enzyme isolated from red blood cells. J. Biol. Chem., 103:521. With H. O'Brien. The kinetics of CO2 reactions in buffer systems. Am. I. Med. Sci., 185 :599. With S. L. Wright, fir. An inexpensive pyrometer for temperatures up to 1000C. Science, 77:172. 1934 Blood gases. Introduction. Cyclopedia Med., 6:577. 1935 The role of the carbamino compounds in the transport of CO2 by the blood. Science, 81:207. 1936 With H. O'Brien. The carbamate equilibrium. I. The equilibrium of amino acids, carbon dioxide, and carbamates in aqueous so- lutions, with a note on the Ferguson-Roughton carbamate method. I. Biol. Chem., 112: 723. 1937 With H. O'Brien. Carbamate equilibrium. II. The equilibrium of oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin. J. Biol. Chem., 117:439. 1938 With N. R. Joseph. The simultaneous determination of total base and chloride on the same sample of serum by electrodialysis. I. Biol. Chem., 127:795.

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 523 1939 With M. {ones. The choline esterase content of the muscle of myas- thenia gravis and of the serum of four other groups of clinical conditions. Q. J. Exp. Physiol., 29:63. With F. D. W. Lukens and I. A. Zapp, {r. The action of insulin upon urea formation and carbohydrate synthesis by liver slices of normal and diabetic animals. I. Biol. Chem., 98:128. With F. D. W. Lukens and J. A. Zapp, Jr. Ketone formation and utilization in normal and diabetic animals. Am. I. Med. Sci., 198:145. Blood gases (VIII). Cyclopedia Med., 2:608. With F. D. W. Lukens and J. A. Zapp, Jr. The action of insulin upon protein and carbohydrate metabolism of surviving liver slices of normal and diabetic animals. Am. I. Med. Sci., 197: 139. 1940 With W. C. Lukens, F. D. W. Francis, and J. A. Zapp, fir. The effect of insulin upon urea formation, carbohydrate synthesis, and respiration of liver of normal and diabetic animals. I. Biol. Chem., 132:393. With I. A. Zapp, fir., and F. D. W. Lukens. The effect of insulin upon oxidations of isolated minced muscle tissue. I. Biol. Chem., 132:411. With I. A. Zapp, fir., and F. D. W. Lukens. The effect of insulin upon the ketone metabolism of normal and diabetic cats. J. Biol. Chem., 132:423. Fat metabolism in diabetes mellitus. I. Clin. Invest., 19:843. With I. A. Zapp, fir., and F. D. W. Lukens. Fat metabolism in dia- betes mellitus. Science, 92:458. With I. A. Zapp, fir., and F. D. W. Lukens. Experimental studies on ketone metabolism in the diabetic animal. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 55:247. The chemical action of insulin upon the intermediary metabolism of isolated surviving tissue of normal and pathological animals. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc., 254. 1941 With J. A. Zapp, Jr., and F. D. W. Lukens. Intermediary metabolism in diabetes mellitus. The nonformation of acetic acid and the

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524 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ratio of ketone body increase to fatty acid decrease in livers of diabetic animals. I. Biol. Chem., 137:75. With I. A. Zapp, fir., and F. D. W. Lukens. Intermediary metabolism in diabetes mellitus. On the synthesis of carbohydrate from fat in the liver and from acetoacetate in the kidney. I. Biol. Chem., 137:63. 1941 Fat metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Ann. Int. Med., 15:783. Book review of The Glass Electrode, by Malcolm Dole. Science, 94:393. 1942 Intermediary metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Harvey Lect. 37:129. 1943 With I. A. Zapp, fir. The aerobic carbohydrate and lactic acid me- tabolism of muscle preparations in vitro. J. Biol. Chem., 148:669. With I. A. Zapp, fir. The equilibrium relations of d-amino acid ox- idase, flavin adenine dinucleotide and amino acids from kinetic data. I. Biol. Chem., 150: 165. With B. C. Riggs. A photoelectric method for the determination of peptic activity in gastric juice. J. Biol. Chem., 150:463. Intermediary metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 778. 1944 With B. C. Riggs and N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. Am. J. Med. Sci., 207:84. The relation of insulin to phosphate metabolism. Yale I. Biol. Med., 16:539. With B. C. Riggs. An apparatus for the determination of the gas- eous metabolism of surviving tissues in vitro at high pressures of oxygen. J. Biol. Chem., 154:669. With B. C. Riggs. Microtome for the preparation of tissue slices for metabolic studies of surviving tissues in vitro. I. Biol. Chem., 154:687.

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 525 Memoir of William Osler Abbott. Trans. Coll. Physicians Philadel- phia, 12. 1945 The intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. Physiol. Rev., 25:395. With B. C. Riggs and N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. III. The effect of high oxygen pressures upon the metabolism of brain. |- Biol. Chem., 1 60: 1 9 1-208. With B. C. Riggs and N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. IV. The effect of high oxygen pressure upon the metabolism of liver, kidney, lung, and muscle tissue. I. Biol. Chem., 160:209-16. With N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. V. The effect of high oxy- gen pressure upon enzymes: succinic dehydrogenase and cy- tochrome oxidase. i. Biol. Chem., 1 6 1: 1 53 -74. With B. C. Riggs and N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. VI. The effect of high oxygen pressure upon enzymes: pepsin, catalase, choline, esterase, and carbonic anhydrase. l. Biol. Chem., 161:175-80. With N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. VII. The effect of high oxygen pressure upon enzymes: uricase, xanthine oxidase, and d-amino acid oxidase. I. Biol. Chem., 1 6 1: 1 8 1-88. With B. C. Riggs and N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. VIII. The effect of high oxygen pressure on enzymes: the system synthe- sizing acetyl choline. J. Biol. Chem., 161: 189-96. 1946 With N. Haugaard. Oxygen poisoning. X. The effect of oxygen at eight atmospheres upon the oxygen consumption of the intact mouse. i. Biol. Chem., 164:257. Fat metabolism. Annul Rev. Biochem., 15:219. 1947 With M. Perlmutter. The tyrosinase inhibiting action of serum from normal and cancerous patients. Am. I. Med. Sci., 213:655. With I. D. Zapp, fir. The effect of insulin upon the synthesis of glycogen by rat diaphragm in vitro. J. Biol. Chem., 170:55. With J. B. Marsh. The effect of cytochrome C upon the metabolism of rat tissues. J. Clin. Invest., 26:899.

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526 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With N. Haugaard and M. Perlmutter. The synthesis of glycogen by rat heart slices. I Biol. Chem., 171 :419. 1948 The reducing properties of serum from subjects with malignant disease. Science, 108:211. With N. Haugaard and M. Perlmutter. The effect of insulin upon pyruvate utilization by pigeon muscle. J. Biol. Chem., 172:567. 1949 With N. Haugaard. The hexokinase reaction in tissue extracts from normal and diabetic rats. I. Biol. Chem., 177:311. With N. Haugaard, I. B. Marsh, and A. G. Hills. The chemical combination of insulin with muscle (diaphragm) of normal rats. Am. I. Med. Sci., 218:265. With N. Haugaard, l. B. Marsh, and A. G. Hills. Hormonal influ- ences on the chemical combination of insulin with rat muscle (diaphragm). Am. J. Med. Sci., 218:275. 1950 The chemical combination of insulin with muscle and its hormonal regulation. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 94:171. With N. Haugaard and A. G. Hills. The effect of insulin and ad- renal cortical extract on the hexokinase reaction in extracts of muscle from depancreatized cats. I. Biol. Chem., 184:617. With N. Haugaard, i. B. Marsh, and A. G. Hills. The chemical combination of insulin with muscle and its hormonal regula- tion. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 63:196. 1951 With N. Haugaard and J. B. Marsh. Combination of epinephrine and 2,4-dinitrophenol with muscle of the normal rat. J. Biol. Chem., 188:173. With N. Haugaard and i. B. Marsh. Combination of insulin with muscle of the hypophysectomized rat. J. Biol. Chem., 188: 167. With N. Haugaard and l. B. Marsh. Factors influencing the com- bination of insulin with muscle from normal rats. J. Biol. Chem., 189:53. With N. Haugaard and J. B. Marsh. Phosphate metabolism of the isolated rat diaphragm. J. Biol. Chem., 189:59.

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WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE 527 The combination of insulin with tissue. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 54:531. 1952 With A. G. Hills. The effect of combined insulin upon the metab- olism of the lactating mammary gland of the rat. I. Biol. Chem., 194:25. With N. Haugaard and I. B. Marsh. The effect of growth hormone and cortisone on the action of bound insulin. I. Biol. Chem., 198:785. With N. Haugaard and M. Vaughan. Studies of insulin binding with isotonically labeled insulin. I. Biol. Chem., 199:729. With E. S. Haugaard. Relation between glycogen content and syn- thesis of fatty acids by rat liver. I. Biol. Chem., 199:741. With N. Haugaard and M. Vaughan. The action of isotopic insulin bound to tissues. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 65:230. fames Harold Austin. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 65:7. 1953 With E. S. Haugaard. The effect of hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor and epinephrine on fatty acid synthesis. i. Biol. Chem., 200:753. With N. Haugaard and M. Vaughan. The quantitative relation be- tween insulin and its biological activity. I. Biol. Chem., 200:745. 1954 Current concepts of the action of insulin. Physiol. Rev., 34:52. With N. Haugaard, M. Vaughan, and E. S. Haugaard. Studies of radioactive injected labeled insulin. l. Biol. Chem., 208:549. With N. Haugaard and E. S. Haugaard. Combination of insulin with cells. i. Biol. Chem., 211:289. 1955 The problem of the action of insulin. Am. I. Med. Sci., 229:233. Current views on the mechanisms of insulin action. Am. l. Med., 19:257. Acceptance of the Kober Medal for 1955. Trans. Assoc. Am: Phy- sicians, 68:29.

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528 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1956 Recent advances in insulin research. Diabetes, 5:263. 1957 Newer concepts of the action of insulin. Am. I. Clin. Nutr., 5:393. The "permeability" hypothesis of the action of insulin. (Editorial.) Diabetes, 6:446. With J. W. Vester. Studies of oxidative phosphorylation by hepatic mitochondria from the diabetic cat. I. Biol. Chem., 227:669. With W. N. Shawl Coexistence of insulin-responsive and insulin- nonresponsive glycolytic systems in rat diaphragm. J. Biol. Chem., 227:115. 1958 Aspects of carbohydrate and phosphate metabolism in diabetes. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 34:5. Current views on insulin action. Trans. Stud. Coll. Physicians Phil- adelphia, 25: 133. Is the metabolism of peripheral tissues affected by the arylsulfon- ylureas? (Editorial.) Diabetes, 7:61. Henry Rawle Geyelin. Diabetes, 6:291. Ketogenesis. Diabetes, 7:173. 1959 With A. I. Winegrad, W. N. Shaw, F. D. W. Lukens, and A. E. Ren- old. Effects of growth hormone in vitro on the metabolism of glucose in rat adipose tissue. I. Biol. Chem., 234:1922. With W. N. Shawl Two identical Embden-Meyerhof enzyme systems in normal rat diaphragms differing in cytological location and response to insulin. l. Biol. Chem., 234:2491. With A. I. Winegrad, W. N. Shaw, and F. D. W. Lukens. Effects of prolactin in vitro on fatty acid synthesis in rat adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem., 234:3111. 1960 With A. I. Winegrad, W. N. Shaw, and F. D. W. Lukens. Lipogenesis in adipose tissue. J. Clin. Nutr., 8:51.