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Biographical 71'femoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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~ ~NationafAcad~my Press A, The National Academy Press was created by the National Academy of Sciences to publish the reports issued by the Academy and by the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, all operating under the charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences by the Congress of the United States.

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biograpl~ical Memoirs VOLUME 59 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1990

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-04198-8 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS J 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE FREDERIC C. BARTTER BY]EAN D. WILSON AND CATHERINE S. DELEA GEORGE WELLS BEADLE BY NORMAN H. HOROWITZ SOLOMON A. BERSON BY J. E. RALL RAYMOND THAYER BIRGE BY A. CARL HEMLHOLZ WILLIAM HENRY CHANDLER BY JACOB B. BIALE GERTRUDE MARY COX BY RICHARD L. ANDERSON CONRAD ARNOLD ELVEH]EM BY R. H. BURRIS, C. A. BAUMANN, AND VAN R. POTTER v . . V11 3 27 55 73 87 117 135

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V1 C O NTE N T S GOTTFRIED SAMUEL FRAENKEL BY C. LADD PROSSER, STANLEY FRIEDMAN AND JUDITH H. WILLIS HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE BY FLOYD RATLIFF MARK KAC BY H. P. MCKEAN ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD BY ROBERT A. MCCABE MANFRED MARTIN MAYER BY K. FRANK AUSTEN WALSH McDERMOTT BY PAUL B. BEESON THEOPHILUS SHICKEL PAINTER BY BENTLEY GLASS GEORGE P6LYA BY R. P. BOAS EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM BY JOSHUA LEDERBERG CORNELIS BERNARDUS VAN NIEL BY H. A. BARKER AND ROBERT E. HUNGATE ROBERT H. WHITTAKER BY WALTER E. WESTMAN, ROBERT K. PEET, AND GENE E. LIKENS MAXWELL MAYER WINTROBE BY WILLIA1M N. VALENTINE CUMULATIVE INDEX 169 197 215 237 257 283 309 339 357 389 425 447 473

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PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham LincoIn signed the Act of In- corporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected! for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an in- stitution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge ant! to further the use of that knowlecige for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories ant! selected bibliogra- phies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues fa- miliar with the discipline ant! the subjects' work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary ELIZABETH J. SHERMAN Editor . . V11

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