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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD October22, 1913August23, 1983 BY ROBERT A. McCABE WHEN A CREATIVE, innovative, talented, and intelligent colleague cries, we mourn his loss and honor his accom- plishments in print, and doing so honor him no less than clid the ancient Egyptians who carver! pictures of their noble dead on the walls of tombs. Such a colleague was A. Starker Leopold, who died of a heart attack in his home in Berkeley, California, on August 23, 1983. A. Starker Leopold was born in Burlington, Iowa, on October 22, 19 ~ 3, the oldest son of Aldo Leopold and EstelIa Bergere Leopold. Both his father and grandfather were out- doorsmen in the tradition of the early Midwest, and Starker in his turn was schooled in natural history and imbued with a sense of responsibility for the wild and free. While he was still a young boy, the family moved to Madison, Wisconsin, where Starker grew up. In 1936 he graduated from the University of Wisconsin with a B.S. de- gree in agriculture and went on to Yale, then to the University of California at Berkeley for graduate study. In 1944 he re- ceived his Ph.D. from Berkeley, where the eminent ornithol- ogist Alden H. Miller guided his zoological studies. His doc- toral thesis, The Nature of Heritable Witness in Turkeys, was perhaps the first attempt to acIdress the subject of wildness in birds. 237

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238 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS "The objectives of the study have been to determine insofar as possible the fundamental, heritable differences between wild and domestic turkeys and to compare the ecological relationships and general productivity of exist- ing turkey populations which differ in degree of 'wildness.' The problem is of practical importance in wild turkey management because the inter- mixing of the domestic strain with wild populations has had certain ad- verse effects upon the hardiness of the native turkeys of Missouri. It is of theoretical importance in offering an opportunity better to understand the nature of wildness in a locally adapted, indigenous race of birds." ( 1945,1, p. 133) Leopold's results were commensurate with these stated ob- jectives, and his paper, with its insights into the biology and behavior of turkeys, stands as a major contribution to the understanding of avian hilliness. Though Starker LeopoIc! functioned well as a lone scien- tist dealing with an ecological problem, he was also an excel- lent team worker. He listener! to and understood the opinions of others, appreciated skills he himself did not possess, and was tolerant of the shortcomings of his associates. In 1952 he teamed with an ecologist who had few (if any) shortcomings: F. Fraser (Frank) Darling, then of the University of Edin- burgh. The two undertook an ecological reconnaissance of Alaska to assess the current and potential impact of economic growth and technology on the natural resources of that ter- ritory, with particular reference to big game. Together they spent four months traveling, observing, and conducting in- terviews sponsored by the New York Zoological Society and the Conservation Foundation. Their efforts resulted in a clear, concise book unencumbered! by jargon: "At the outset we stated that ideally a program of conservation and of land use should be devised before a new country is developed. Unfortunately the motive for conservation usually is impending shortage, which leads us to trim the resource boat after it is half full of water. But in Alaska, despite some buffeting about, the land resources are still largely intact, and what is more, they are still in government rather than private hands. The prob-

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD 239 lem of planning and executing the best possible development of the Territory is therefore squarely up to the government. " . . . fif] mechanical and administrative difficulties can be overcome, we visualize an unusual opportunity for application of the principles of conservation to a fascinating and magnificent stretch of country." (1953,7, pp. 1 14-1 15) It is difficult to evaluate the impact of that report on a state that has had more reports on its welfare and its resources than any other, but what could be said was perhaps best stated by Fairfield Osborn: "We could not have been more fortunate in the selection of the reconnais- sance team for this study. Two eminent naturalists, one from the Old World and one from the New, have pooled their knowledge and experience to produce this report. On behalf of the two sponsoring organizations, it is a deep pleasure to commend and thank Dr. A. Starker Leopold and Dr. F. Fraser Darling for their accomplishment." (1953,7, Foreword) Realizing the plight of our natural resources, S. Udall sought to achieve adequate stewardship of the land through science ant! education. He called on Starker Leopold to chair the Department of Interior Advisory Board on Wildlife Man- agement.i LeopoIct's Boars! first addressed the problem of wilcIlife management in the national parks, examining goals, policies, and methods of national wildlife management: "The goal of managing the national parks and monuments should be to preserve, or where necessary to recreate, the ecological scene as viewed by the first European visitors. As part of this scene, native species of wild animals should be present in maximum variety and reasonable abundance. Protection alone, which has been the core of Park Service wildlife policy, is not adequate to achieve this goal. Habitat manipulation is helpful and often essential to restore or maintain animal numbers. Likewise, popula- tions of the animals themselves must sometimes be regulated to prevent habitat damage; this is especially true of ungulates." (1963,1, p. 43) ' Stewart L. Udall, The Quiet Crisis (New York: Halt, Rinehart and Winston, 1953), p. 209.

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240 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Ungulate excess within the National Parks became a core issue, exciting the hunting public, but the Committee con- cluclec! that: "Direct removal by killing is the most economical and elective way of regulating ungulates within a park. Game removal by shooting should be conducted under the complete jurisdiction of qualified park personnel and solely for the purpose of reducing animals to preserve park values. Rec- reational hunting is an inappropriate and nonconforming use of the na- tional parks and monuments." (1963,1, p. 43) This forthright position in the face of opposition was a cor- nerstone in National Park programs for wildlife manage- ment. The Advisory Board then investigated unnecessary cle- struction of animals by the Branch of Predator and Rodent Control of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service ~c. . . augmented by state, county, and inclivid~ual endeavor," ant! recommended: ". . . a complete reassessment of the goals, policies, and field operations of the Branch of Predator and Rodent Control with a view to limiting the killing program strictly to cases of proven need, as determined by rigidly prescribed criteria." (1964,1, p. 47) The Board's report was and still is- the most penetrating assessment of Unitecl States government control of animals, and it put the responsibility for correcting the unwarranted destruction of animals on the Fish and Wildlife Service. Its appearance was followed by a series of rebuttals and expla- nations in defense of existing programs, but changes also resulted. Finally, the Board LeopoIc! chaired evaluated the National WilcIlife Refuge System to "appraise the significance of the national refuges in migratory biro} conservation, with em- phasis on waterfowl." Their report recommended the estab- lishment of eleven more refuges, better financial support for

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD 241 existing refuges, and detailed long-range and multiple-use planning. Perhaps the most significant recommendation was that: "National wildlife refuges should be extensively used for research and teaching by qualified scientists and naturalists. In many localities refuges are the only land units devoted solely to wildlife preservation, and thus offer unique possibilities for continuous research and ecologic education." (1968,4, p. 52) The Advisory Board's evaluations of wildlife manage- mentor, as they are universally known, the "Leopold Re- ports" are outstanding for their concision and depth of understanding. Though not everything they recommended came to fruition, the reports themselves are benchmarks in national conservation. Written with Riney, McCain, and Tevis, Leopold's ecological evaluation of the California jaw- bone deer herd (1951,2) was another significant contribution to the assessment of our natural resources. Though now nearly forty years old, both the data and narrative portions of this bulletin could serve as patterns for modern big game Investigations. In 196 ~ Leopold produced a book on the desert for TIME- 1~IFE'S Fife Nature Library series (196l,1), a testimony to his intellectual versatility. In keeping with the format of that se- ries he traced the work of wind and water as well as the ecol- ogy of men and animals living in the arid environments of the world. His chapters six, "Life Patterns in Arid Lands," and seven, "Man Against Desert," are particularly enlight- en~ng. But Starker Leopold's magnum opus was his survey, Wildlife of Mexico: The Game Birds and Mammals (1959,31. A skilled and astute field scientist, he began fieldwork for this impressive work in 1944 and ended it only with the book's publication in 1959. He followed up an initial two years in the field with

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242 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a variety of short trips, and in the summer of 1948 ~ accom- panied him on one of these expeditions. Little escaped Starker's attention, as he recorded all facets of the ecology and natural history of his fifty-one camp study sites extend- ing from the northern Sonoran border to the Yucatan. His fluent Spanish helped him in getting both official sanction from comasarios (officials) and guidance and information from landowners ant! campesinos (farmers). Well written, easy to understand, and vital to Latin Amer- . scan conservationists, Wildlife of Mexico won the WilcIlife So- ciety's 1959 publication of the year award. As one reviewer aptly put it: "This publication is not only indispensable to any serious student of Mexican game birds and mammals, but it is also a guide to all thirsting Mexican citizens who are interested in managing a valuable resource through wise use. It sets a pattern that other Latin American countries might well strive to emulate."2 In order that it could be used in Latin America, Leopold's book was translated into Spanish in 1965 by Luis Macias ArelIano and Ambrosio Gonzales Cortes. It is a landmark publication for conservation in Mexico and Latin America. In 1979, Leopold again won the Wildlife Society's publi- cation award for his book on the California quad! (1977,1~. One of the finest monographs on single species in the field of wildlife ecology, it contains not only insights into the ecol- ogy and life history of the species but also exemplary sug- gestions for the management of western quails. On his last hart/cover book, Leopold collaborated with Gutierrez and Bronson to provide information on the life histories of 135 game species of the Uniter! States, Canada, and northern Mexico. An encyclopedic assessment of species 2 William B. Davis, review of Wildlife in Mexico, journal of Wildlife Management 24,4(1960):446.

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD 243 that are hunted or trapped, North American Game Birds and Mammals (1981,1) is a valuable and accessible source of in- formation for wildlife students and administrators. Choosing the right hypothesis to test and the too! most likely to solve a problem is an art. Starker Leopold's investi- gative choices were inspired, and he applied himself untir- ingly to follow them through to make worthy contributions to science. Excelling as a field ecologist, he was not parochial and in the field often found time to collect and prepare mu- seum specimens for colleagues interested in classification and evolution. Nor did he limit himself to any particular species or group, as his many and varied Published naners amolv testify. 1 1 1 1 ~ Though dedicated, he did not sacrifice everything to his science. Throughout his life he divided his time among work, family, and hobbies (particularly hunting and fishing) and managed to do justice to all. Starker was a quiet and dignified man who was always neat and well groomed. He was jovial and fun loving without being boisterous. He was at ease among friends, with stran- gers, or on a lecture platform. Polite and well mannered, he gave special consideration to others. He had friends in all walks of life from a member of the President's cabinet to a Mexican farmer eking out a living on the mountain slopes of Hidaigo and a sheepherder in the Australian outback. He also came from a remarkable family, and both his brother, I.una, and his sister, EstelIa, were elected to mem- bership in the Academy a unique occurrence in the Acad- emy's history. Although his father, AIdo Leopold, was a leader of considerable prominence in the field of wildlife ecology, Starker did not seek to trade on his father's name. Earning his own achievements and honors, he yet benefitted considerably from the education he received from his father,

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244 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and both men held to the credo that "good land use is good wildlife management." Today we know that good land use is imperative for the salvation of civilization itself. Starker's wife, Elizabeth Weiskotten Leopold, and his chil- dren, Frederic S. and Sarah Leopold, survive him. Ecologists anct wildlife scientists universally and partic- ularly his fellow members of the National Academy hon- orec} Starker LeopoIcI, the kind of scientist who enhances the credibility of science. We all share in the loss of this outstand- ing colleague.

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD PROFESSIONAL AND PUBLIC SERVICE 245 1972-1975 Marine Mammal Commission, appointed by the Pres- ident 1970 1970 Board of Ecology Team Consultant for U.S. Plywood- Champion Papers, Inc. Consultant on Research Policy, Tanzania National Parks 1969-1970 Chairman, Committee to Appraise the Program of the Missouri Conservation Commission 1969 Advisory Committee, Lawrence Hall of Science 1968-1972 Chief Scientist and Chairman, Advisory Committee, National Park Service 1968 Knapp Professorship, University of Wisconsin 1967-1983 Board of Advisors, National Wildlife Federation 1965-1969 Consultant, California Water Quality Control Board 1964 President, Board of Governors, Cooper Ornithologi- cal Society 1964 Advisory Trustee, Alta Bates Hospital Association 1962-1968 Chairman, Wildlife Management Advisory Commit- tee, appointed by Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall 1960 President, Northern Division, Cooper Ornithological Society 1959-1966 President, California Academy of Sciences 1957-1958 President, Wildlife Society 1956-1983 Member of Science Council and Board of Trustees, California Academy of Sciences 1955-1960 Vice President and Member of the Board of Direc- tors, Sierra Club 1955 -1959 Editorial Board, Sierra Club Bulletin 1954-1957 Council Member, Wilderness Society 1954-1956 Board of Governors, Nature Conservancy 1948-1966 Editorial Board, Pacific Discovery

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246 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS 1947 Guggenheim Fellow 1959 Fellow, American Ornithologists' Union 1959 Wildlife Society Publication Award 1964 Department of Interior Conservation Award 1965 Aldo Leopold Medal of the Wildlife Society 1966 Audubon Society Medal 1969 1970 1970 1974 Honorary Member, the Wildlife Society Member, National Academy of Sciences California Academy of Sciences Fellows Medal Winchester Award for Outstanding Accomplishment in Professional Wildlife Management 1978 Berkeley Citation, University of California 1979 Wildlife Society Publication Award 1980 American Institute of Biological Sciences, Distinguished Service Award 1980 Occidental College, Honorary Doctoral Degree 1980 Edward W. Browning Award for Conserving the Environ- ment, Smithsonian Institution and the New York Com- munity Trust

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1939 Age determination in quail. I. Wildl. Manage., 3:261-65. 1941 247 Woven wire and the wild turkey. Missouri Conserv., 3:5. Report on the management of the Caney Mountain Turkey Ref- uge. Jefferson City: Missouri Conserv. Commiss. (mimeo- graphed report). 19 pp. 1943 Results of wild turkey management at Caney Mountain Refuge, 1940 to 1943. Jefferson City: Missouri Conserv. Commiss. (mimeographed report). 13 pp. With P. D. Dalke. The 1942 status of wild turkeys in Missouri. Forest., 41:428-35. The molts of young wild and domestic turkeys. Condor, 45: 133- 45. Conservation of game. Address to Symposium on Science in Con- servation During War Times. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 31 :63- 67. Autumn feeding and flocking habits of the mourning dove in southern Missouri. Wilson Bull., 55:151-54. 1944 Cooper's hawk observed catching a bat. Wilson Bull., 56: 116. The nature of heritable wildness in turkeys. Condor, 46: 133-97. With M. Leopoldo Hernandez. Los recursos biologicos de guerrero con referencia especial a los mamiferos y aves de caza. Anuario comision impulsora y coordinadora de la investigation cientifica (ano 1944), Mexico, D.F., pp. 361-90. 1945 Sex and age ratios among bobwhite quail in southern Missouri. J. Wildl. Manage., 9:30-34. With E. R. Hall. Some mammals of Ozark County, Missouri. I. Mammal., 26:142~5.

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248 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1946 Clark's Nutcracker in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Condor, 48:278. 1947 With David L. Spencer and Paul D. Dalke. The ecology and man- agement of the wild turkey in Missouri. Tech. Bull. 1 (1946~. Jefferson City: Conservation Commission, Federal Aid to Wild- life Program, State of Missouri, pp. 1-86. Status of Mexican big-game herds. Trans. 12th N. Am. Wildl. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 437-48. 1948 The threat to our western ranges. Pac. Discovery, 1 :28-29. With William Longhurst. Deer damage in the Capay Valley. Report to the California Fish and Game Commission (mimeographed). 4 pp. Clear Water. Pac. Discovery, 1 :21-23. Reviews of William H. Carr, Desert Parade: A Guide to South-Western Desert Plants and Wildlife; and E. F. Adolph et al., Physiology of Man in the Desert. Living Wilderness, 26:21-22. The wild turkeys of Mexico. Trans. 13th N. Am. Wildl. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 393-400. With Randal McCain and William M. Longhurst. Preliminary re- port on the problems of deer management in California. Rep. to the Calif. Fish and Game Commission (mimeographed). 16 PP Of time and survival. Pac. Discovery, 1 :28-29. 1949 Adios, Gavilan. Pac. Discovery, 2:4-13. Review of Trippensee, Wildlife Management of Upland Game and Gen- eral Principles. Calif. Fish Game, 35:205-6. 1950 The pheasant kill on the Conaway Ranch 1947-48, Univ. of Calif. Berkeley Mus. Vert. Zool. (mimeographed), 14 pp. Reviews of Henry E. Davis, The American Wild Turkey; and Robert I. Wheeler, The Wild Turkey in Alabama. Bird-Banding, 21:83- 84.

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD 249 Deer in relation to plant succession. Trans. 15th N. Am. Wildl. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 571-80. Vegetation zones in Mexico. I. Ecol. Soc. Am., 31:507-18. 1951 Review of Richard H. Pough, Audubon Water Bird Guide. Pac. Dis- covery, 4:32. With T. Riney, R. McCain, and L. Tevis, tr. The jawbone deer herd. California Division of Fish and Game, Dept. of Natl. Res. and Mus. Vert. Zool., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley. Game Bull. 4, 139 PP Game Birds and Mammals of California: A Laboratory Syllabus. Berkeley: California Book Co., 125 pp. Review of Helmut K. Buechner, Life History, Ecology, and Range Use of the Pronghorn Antelope in Trans-Pecos, Texas. ]. Wildl. Manage., 15:322-23. With R. A. McCabe. Breeding season of the Sonora white-tailed deer. I. Wildl. Manage., 15:433 -34. Review of Ira N. Gabrielson, Wildlife Management. ]. Wildl. Man- age., 15:422-23. 1952 With W. M. Longhurst and R. F. Dasmann. A Survey of California Deer Herds, Their Ranges and Management Problems. State of Cali- fornia, Division of Fish and Game. Game Bull. 6, 136 pp. Ecological aspects of deer production on forest lands. In: Proc. 1949 U.N. Sci. Conf. Conserv. and Utiliza. Resour. U.N. Dept. Economic Affairs, Wildlife and Fish Resources, 7:205-7. With F. F. Darling. What's happening in Alaska. Anim. Kingdom, 55: 170-74. 1953 With R. H. Smith. Numbers and winter distribution of Pacific black brant in North America. Calif. Fish and Game, 29:95-101. Intestinal morphology of gallinaceous birds in relation to food habits. i. Wildl. Manage., 17:197-203. Zonas de vegetation en Mexico. Boll Soc. Mex. Geog. Estadist., 78:55-74. Report of the Committee on Research Needs. I. Wildl. Manage., 17:361-65.

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250 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With F. F. Darling. Effects of land use on moose and caribou in Alaska. Trans. 18th N. Am. Wildl. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 553-62. Too many deer. Sierra Club Bull., 38:51-57. With F. F. Darling. Wildlife in Alaska: An Ecological Reconnaissance. New York: Ronald Press Co. 129 pp. What does conservation mean today? Pac. Discovery, 7: 1-2. 1954 Review of Durward L. Allen, Our Wildlife Legacy. Sat. Rev., 23:55- 56. Can we keep our outdoor areas? Audubon, 56:148-51, 179. Review of William F. Schulz, Jr., Conservation Law and Administration Pac. Discovery, 7:29. The predator in wildlife management. Sierra Club. Bull., 39:34- 38. Dichotomous forking in the antlers of white-tailed deer. I. Mam- mal., 35:599-600. Natural resourceswhose responsibility? Trans. 19th N. Am. Wildl. Conf., pp. 589-98. Preserving the qualitative aspects of hunting and fishing. Conserv. News, 19: 1-5. 1955 The conservation of wildlife. In: A Century of Progress in the Natural Sciences, San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. Cen- tennial volume, pp. 795-806. 1956 Foreword. In: Arctic Wilderness, by Robert Marshall. Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press. 171 pp. 1957 Public and private game management we need both. Calif. Farmer, 206: 12-13. With R. A. McCabe. Natural history of the Montezuma quail in Mexico. Condor, 59:3-26. Deer management or deer politics? Cent. Calif. Sportsman,17:24- 26. Arctic spring. Sierra Club Bull., 42:17-18.

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD Wilderness and culture. Sierra Club Bull., 42:33-37. 1958 251 Review, ed. W. L. Thomas, fir., Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Calif. Vector Views, 5:48-49. Situacion del oso plateado en Chihuahua. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 19:1-4. 1959 The range of the jaguar in Mexico. Excavation at La yenta Tabasco. Appendix 5, pp. 290-91. Big game management. Survey of Fish and Game Problems in Nevada, Bull. 36, pp. 85-99. Wildlife of Mexico: The Game Birds and Mammals. Berkeley: University of California Press. 568 pp. 1960 Save our remaining wilderness. Pac. Discovery, 13: 1-2. Lois Crisler, chasseur damages en Alaska. Flammes, 95: 10-12. Biogeography. In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technol- ogy. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., pp. 204-7. 1961 The Desert. New York: TIME, Inc. 192 pp. 1963 With S. A. Cain, C. Cottam, I. N. Gabrielson, and T. L. Kimball. Wildlife management in the national parks. Report of the Ad- visory Board on Wildlife Management. Trans. 28th N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 28-45. 1964 With S. A. Cain, C. M. Cottam, I. N. Gabrielson, and T. L. Kimball. Predator and rodent control in the United States. Trans. 29th N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 27-49. Mexico and migratory waterfowl conservation. In: Waterfowl Tomorrow, ed. Joseph P. Linduska. (Translated from Spanish

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252 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS through the courtesy of the Mexican Embassy, Washington, D. C.) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Int., pp. 729-36. 1965 Harrier observed catching a fairy tern in Tahiti. Condor, 67:91. Wildlands in our civilization. In: Wilderness and Culture. San Fran- cisco: Sierra Club Publ., pp. 81-85. Fauna Silvestre de Mexico. Mexico City: Ediciones del Instituto Mex- icano de Recursos Naturales Renovables. 608 pp. 1966 Effects of Rampart Dam on wildlife resources. In: Rampart Dam and the Economic Development of Alaska, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan School of Natural Resources, p. 12. With I. W. Leonard. Alaska Dam would be resources disaster. Au- dubon, 68:176-79. With I. W. Leonard. Effects of the proposed Rampart Dam on wild- life and fisheries (Alaska's economic Rampart). Trans. 31st N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 454 - 59. Adaptability of animals to habitat change. In: Future Environments of North America, eds. F. F. Darling and I. P. Milton, Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press, pp. 65-75. 1967 With R. E. Jones. Nesting interference in a dense population of wood ducks. l. Wildl. Manage., 31:221-28. Quantitative and qualitative values in wildlife management. In: Natural Resources: Quality and Quantity, eds. S. V. Ciriacy- Wantrup and l. I. Parsons, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 127-36. Grizzlies of the Sierra del Nido. Pac. Discovery, 20:30-32. 1968 Electric power for Alaska A problem in land-use planning. East Afr. Agric. For. I., 33 :23-26. Ecologic objectives in park management. East Afr. Agric. For. I., 33: 168-72. Optimum utilization of East African range resources. In: Report of a Symposium on East African Range Problems, eds. W. M. Long-

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD 253 burst and H. F. Heady, Villa Serbelloni, Lake Como, Italy. (Leo- pold Abstract, p. 81.) With C. C. Cottam, I. M. Cowan, I. N. Gabrielson, and T. L. Kim- ball. The National Wildlife Refuge System. Trans. 33rd N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 30-54. The National Wildlife Refuge System. Natl. Wildl., 6:4-9. 1970 Weaning grizzly bears: A report on Ursus arctos horribilis. Nat. Hist., 79:94-101. With I. K. Fox and C. H. Callison. Missouri Conservation Program: An appraisal and some suggestions. Mo. Conserv., 31:3-31. With Herbert L. Mason, et al. The Scenic, Scientific and Educational Values of the Natural Landscape of California. Sacramento: Cali- fornia Department of Parks and Recreation. 36 pp. With T. O. Wolfe. Food habits of wedge-tailed eagles, Aquila audox, in south-eastern Australia. CSIRO Wildl. Res., 15:1-17. Research policy in the Tanzania National Parks. Arusha: Tanzania Na- tional Parks, 15 pp. What lies ahead in wildlife conservation. Ed. l. Yoakum, Trans. Calif.-N.W. Sect. Wildl. Soc., Fresno, Jan. 30-31, 1970, pp. 156-60. 1971 Editor's foreword. In: Environmental: Essays on the Planet as a Home, P. Shepard and D. McKinley. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.308 PP Introduction. In: The Environment, the Establishment, and the Law, H. Henkin, M. Merta, and l. Staples. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 223 pp. Biogeography. In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technol- ogy, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., pp. 213-16. Sagehen Creek Field Station: The First Twenty Years. Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Press. 27 pp. 1972 Symposium on predator control: Remarks by A. Starker Leopold. Trans. 37th N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt Inst., pp. 200-2.

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254 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With S. A. Cain, J. A. Kadlec, D. L. Allen, R. A. Cooley, M. G. Hornocker, and F. H. Wagner. Predator Control 1971. Report of Adv?sory Committee on Predator Control to Secretary of Interior and Council on Environmental Quality. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Institute for Environmental Quality. 207 pp. The essence of hunting. Nat. Wild., 10:38-40. With R. H. Barrett. Implications for Wildlife of the 1968 Juneau Unit Timber Sale. Berkeley: University of California Press, Depart- ment of Forestry and Conservation. 109 pp. 1973 The hunter's role in wildlife conservation.4th Int. Big Game Hunt- ers' and Fishermen's Conf., San Antonio, Texas, pp. 5-6. Re- printed in Penn. Game News, 45~4~:16-21. 1974 Needed A broader base for wildlife administration. Ed., I. Yoa- kum, Monterey: Trans. Calif.-Nevada Sec., Wildl. Soc., pp. 90- 95. Hunting versus protectionism The current dilemma. Address to the 1974 National Wildlife Federation Annual Meeting in Den- ver, pp. 5-10. Reprinted in: Gun World, 14~61:50-53. 1975 Ecosystem Deterioration Under Multiple Use. Wild Trout Management Symposium, Yellowstone National Park. Denver, Colorado: Trout Unlimited. 103 pp. 1976 With M. Erwin, l. Oh, B. Browning. Phytoestrogens: Adverse ef- fects on reproduction in California quail. Science, 191:98-100. 1977 The California Quail. Berkeley: University of California Press. 281 PP Meditations in a duck blind. Gray's Sporting l., 2:6-10. 1978 Wildlife in a prodigal society. Trans. 43rd N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Re- sour. Conf., Washington, D.C.: Wildl. Mngmt. Inst., pp. 5-10.

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ALDO STARKER LEOPOLD 255 Wildlife and forest practice. In: Wildlife and America, ed. H. P. Bro- kaw, Washington, D.C.: Council on Environmental Quality. 532 pp. 1979 Search for an environmental ethic. Review of Robert Cahn, Foot- prints on the Planet. Sierra Club Bull., 64:58. 1981 With R. ]. Gutierrez and M. T. Bronson. North American Game Birds and Mammals. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.