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Index A Abstracting, 106 Accounting tasks, 63 Acquisition practices, 54, 57, 59, 74, 76-77, 93-95, 115, 117-120 Ada, 128 Administrative support, 133 Agency initiatives, 55-56 Air Force, 93-96 Air Force Computer Acquisition Center, 95 Alaska state government, 120 Alexander, John J., Jr., 101 114 Alice 's Ad ventures in Wonderland, 50 Amdahl, 110 Analytic tool packages, 107 Apollo, 25-26 Apple Inc. Lisa, 25, 29, 32-33, 63, 76 McIntosh, 24 Applications generators, 47 49 Applications software, 21-23, 120 shared, 118 141 Architectural issues, 24, 63, 129 Artificial intelligence, 24-27, 61 Assembly languages vs. higher-level languages, 29 Audio links, 64 Audit logs and procedures, 90 Auditors, role of, 77-78, 80, 113 Authorization procedures, 117-119 Automated data processing (ADP) planning, 22 Automated information processing, 105, 111 Automated programming aids, 48 Automation, 9, 101 -114 Automation professionals, 111 B Backbone systems, 121 Backlog in computer service departments, 46-48, 103- 104 Backup and recovery procedures, 75, 90, 118

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142 Backward compatibility, 93 Bair, James H., 6-7, 44, 60-66 Bank of America, 86 BASIC, 128 Batch processing, 23, 36, 92 Bennett, John H., 5-6, 44, 45- 51 Bit-maps, 26 Blank, Hannah I., 43-44 Boolean logic capabilities, 106 Bottom-up management, 136 Boxcentric computer development, 37 Branch information processing system terminals (BIPs), 131-132 Brickland, Dan, 31 Budgetary control procedures, 125 Bunker Ramo network, 131 Burroughs Corp. LINK, 48 Bush, Vannevar, 60 Business analysis, 105, 107- 108 Business graphics, 26 Business information management departments, 78 Business information systems, 14 Business systems analysis, 78 Buying and procedural guides, 57 C C, 128 California state government, 119 Canter, Rhoda W., 99-100 Capacity planning, 22-23, 25 Career training for microcomputer users, see end-user education Carroll, Lewis, 50 Centralization vs. INDEX decentralization, 93, 104- 105, 110-111, 119 Centralized electronic data processing (EDP), 110 Centralized maintenance, 117 Centralized management, 76, 118, 125, 127, 136, 139, see also decentralized management Charge-back systems, 90-92 Children's access to computers, 116 CIGNA's Systems Division, 135-146 COBOL, 128 Color graphics, 107 Communications issues, 5-6, 13, 64, 78, 87, 116, 121, see also networking Communications protocols, 129 for moving information between windows, 63 Computer centers, 23 Computer literacy, 11, 20-21, 44, 75-76, 126, 129, see also end-user education Computer life cycles, 134 Computer messaging, 64 Computer service organizations (CSOs), 47, 49-50 Computer stores, 118- 119, 139 Computer-to-programmer ratio, 126 Connectivity, 7 Conrad, Thomas D., 70, 93-96 Context, MBA software package, 32, 49 Contr actor-developed software, 121 Contractor support, post-sale, 95 Control, 62, 125, see also data security

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INDEX Control measures, management, 76, 134, 137 Control through persuasion, 135-140 Control vs. creativity, 9, 11- 12 Corporate databases, 63, 125, 127, 137 Cost-benefit analysis, 26, 117- 118 Cost-justified applications, 7, 46-47, 105, 107-108 Cost performance curve in logical devices, 126 CP/M, 26, 129 Creativity, 8-12, 83-84, 92 Culture of organizations, 111 Custom applications, 34-35, 103-104, 111,seealso software Customer access to data and files, 133-134, 136 Cynthia Peripherals, 26-27 D Dade County, Florida, 120 Data, portability of, 93 Data accessibility, 7, 48, 73, 78, 112 Data-analyzing capabilities, 86 DATA-COM D/B, 128 Data compatibility, 7, 64, 73 Data-crunching, 23 Data dictionary, 112 Data General Eclipse, 131 MV-4000s, 131 -132 Data integrity, 5, 43, 75, 78 79, 89-90, 123 Data inquiry, 105-106, 108 Data maintenance, 132 Data management, 7, 57, 73, 76, 78-79 Data ownership, 88, 90, 92, 113, 125, 128, 132 143 Data processing/management information systems (DP/ MIS) organization, 61-62 Data processing planning, 119 Data processing professional standards, 82-83, 89-90 Data processing (DP) professionals, role of, 11, 13, 16, 43-44, 121, 128, see also information processing Data security, 6-7, 43, 47-48, 73, 75, 78-79, 82, 87-89, 92, 112-113 Data sharing, 32, see also integrated software Databases, 39-40, 131 corporate, 63, 125, 127, 137 Database administration, 128 Database management systems (DBMs), 93, 127- 128 dBase, 28-29 dBase II, multiaccess, 39-40 Decentralized management, 83, 110, 125, 136, see also centralized management Decision quality, 82-83, 85- 86, 89 Decision support systems, 6, 121, 133 Defense Data Network (DDN) protocols, 129 Department of Agriculture's graduate school program, 57 Department-level computing, 63, 72-73, 79, 112, 121 Desktop personal filing, 62 Diebold, John, 3, 7, 11 - 14 Diebold Research Program, 13 Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11, 46 Distributed creativity, 8- 12, 83-84, 92 Distributed processing, 110

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144 Documentation, 116 Domain operating system, 26 Dual-port CPU, 129 Dugger, Fred, 115- 123 E Education, see end-user education E.F. Hutton Group, 130- 134 Electronic j anitor, 133 Electronic mail, 38-39, 64, 105-108, 133 Employees changing skills of, 113, 136, see also end-user education salaried, 101-114 Employment Security Department (ESD) (Washington), 121 Encryption, 88 End-user computing, iii, 3, 8, 52-59, 75, 81-92 End-user education, 13-14, 54-55, 58, 79, 92, 115, 117, 119-120, 139 End-user purchase of microcomputers, 13, 24, 46-47, 72 End-user skill level, 11, 20-21, 44, 75-76, 126, 129 End-user support groups, 54, 58, 117, 136, 140 End-users, role of, 124- 129 End-users, see also user- developed software; user- friendly software Epstein, Norman M., 8, 130- 134 Error detection, 75 Essex Group Headquarters, 48 Ethernet, 37, 129, see also networking INDEX Executive Personal Computing Workshop, 49 Expansion stage, 124- 125 Expert systems, 61 Expert users, 35 F Floppy disks data security, 6, 88, 92 elimination of through networks, 39 Form processors, universal, 107 Forms-base messaging, 39 FORTRAN, 128 Fourth- and fifth-generation language systems, 85 Fourth-generation software, 128 Free marketplace philosophy, 137 G Gateways, 132 General ledgers, 63 General Motors, 78 General Services Administration (GSAl, 52-59 Generic software, 139 Gibson and Nolan's stages of growth curve, 8 Government organizations, recommendations for, 122-123 Governmentwide initiatives, 55-57 Grace Commission report, 52 Graphics business, 26 capabilities of internal systems, 137 color, 107 Graphics integration, 26

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INDEX H Hardware acquisition, standardized guidelines for, 118, see also acquisition practices centralization vs. decentralization, 110 developmental stages, 21, 124 increased power of, 25-26 portability of, 93 Hardware peripheral vendors, 23-24 Head-end computers, 131 Health and Welfare Department (California), 119 Hewlett-Packard HP-747 5A plotters, 26 High-level languages, 48 High-resolution bit-map displays, 26 High-speed dual mode printers, 132 Homework, microcomputer- related issues, 44 Honeywell, 26 Horizontal corporate database systems, 127 Human Resource Development (HRD) search activity, 106 "Hutton Line, " 133-134 I IBM business systems planning (BSP) technology, 102 Displaywriter, 102, 110 Information Systems Planning (ISP), 127 PCs, 24, 37-38, 49, 76, 102, 110 System/38s, 102, 106, 110 145 Illinois state government, 119-120 Implementation of productivity improvements, 112 Industrial Renaissance, 85 In-house maintenance, 94 In-house programming, 126 In-house technical support, 59 In Search of Excellence, 83 Inexpensive on-line computer resources, 85 Inflexible systems, 75 Information center computer stores, 139 Information centers, 3, 48, 85, 92, 120, 128, 138-139 Information Clearinghouse, 122 Information flow to top management, 115 Information-handling requirements, 104 Information management, 111-112 Information processing, 11- 12, 106, see also data processing Information system analysts, 104 Information systems (IS) managers, role of, 5 Initiation stage, 124 INQUIRE, 106 Integrated circuit technology, 22-25, 27 Integrated software, 4-5, 21, 32-35, 54 Integration stage, 125 Intel Corporation microprocessors, 24 INTELLECT, 106 Intelligent workstations, 64, see also workstations Interdepartmental interfaces, 78

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146 Internal computer stores, 118-119, 139 Internal marketing, 136-137 International Data Corporation, 19-27 International Organization for Standardization, 129 International Word Processing Association, 61 J Job definitions, changing, 43 44, 108 Job Placement Training Act (JPTA) activities, 121 K Kapor, Mitchell, 4, 17, 28-35, 37 Kentucky state government, 118-119 Kline, Ray, 6, 44, 52-59 Knowledge systems, 61 L Language-processing systems, 106 Language proliferation, 89, 91-92, 128 Language systems, fourth and fifth generation, 85 Languages, assembly vs. higher-level, 29 Large-scale computing services, 72 Learning support systems, 6 Leary, William H., III, 17-18 Letter quality printers, 132 License restrictions on software, 7-8, 74 INDEX Lisa, 25, 29, 32-33, 63, 76 Lisacalc, 33 LISP, 128 Local area networks, 36-40, 105, 111-112, 115, 121, 129, 131, see also networking Local governments, 115- 123 Logic chips, 27 Log-on passwords, 88, 92, 132 Loren, Allan Z., 135- 140 Lotus Development Corporation 1-2-3, 28-29, 35, 40 M McDonough, Francis A., iii-iv Macrolanguage, 35 Main files, update of, 88, 92, see also data ownership Mainframes vs. microcomputers, 25-26, 86-87, 120 Maintenance centralized, 115, 117, 119, 139 contract, 57, 94 in-house, 94 Managed Innovation Program, 55-57 Management, centralized vs. decentralized, 110, 136, see also centralized management; decentralized management Management education, 49, 121-123 Management information systems (MIS) departments, role of, 10, 14, 60-61, 71, 74-77, 79, 112 Management research, 85-86

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INDEX Management support systems, 3, 6, 122-123 Managing Erld-User Computing in the Federal Government, 53 Manufacturing systems, 13 Market data system, 131 Market need, software development independent of, 29 Marketing tactics, 72, 104 Master data processing plan, 119 Maturity stage, 125 Meeting scheduling, 133 Metcalfe, Robert M., 5, 17-18, 36-40 Microcomputer Support Unit (MSU) (Kentucky), 118- 119 Microcomputers future of, 19-27, see also personal computers guidelines for selecting, 119 Micro-mainframe communication, 12, 22, 30, 34, 38, 63, 87, 99, 119, 121, 123 Micro-micro communication, 38, 121 Minicomputers, 3 MIS departments, see management information systems departments MIS Quarterly, 85 Model template application, 35 Modem chips, 25 Motorola 68000, 24 Mouse, 25 MS DOS, 129 Multiaccess networked software, 39-40, 127, see also databases, corporate Multiple concurrent processes, 26 147 Multiple functions and responsibilities of management, 113 Multiple windows, 22, 25 N National Association of State Information Systems (NASIS), 121-122 National contracts on software, 139 Nationwide cluster maintenance contracts, 57 Network-delivered software, 39-40 Network design, 13 Networking, 23, 55, 128 local area, 36-40, 64, 105, . 111-112, 115, 121, 129, 131, see also communications issues Nevada state government, 121 Nolan, Richard, 8, 74, 124- 125, 127 o Object-oriented architecture, 24 Obsolescence, 24, 74-75 Office automation, 13, 60-66 Off-the-shelf software, 35, 117, 120-121 Omand, Alastair I., 7-8, 70, 71-80 On-line computer resources, inexpensive, 85 Open-ended software systems, 33-35 Operating systems, 129 user isolation from, 92 Organizational issues, 9, 108- 109, 127, 135-140 Operating systems, 129

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148 p Parsing programs, 106 PASCAL, 128 Passwords, 88, 92 Payroll processing, 72 Peripheral chips, 22, 24-25 Peripheral sharing, 20, 37-38 Peripheral vendors, role of in microcomputer development, 19-20 Personal computer networks, 36-40, see also networks Personal computer purchases by end-users, 13, 24, 46- 47, 72 Personal computer software, trends in, 28-35 Personal computers in business, proliferation of, 3, 12, 20, 62, 73-74, see also microcomputers Personal computing, 72-73, 84 Personnel departments, 63 Personnel education, 79 Piaget, Jean, 21 Planning cycle for automation, 102 Plotters (2- or 3-pin), 26 Policy development, 122 Portability of hardware and data, 93 Postsale contractor support, 95 Printers, 132 Privacy, 112 Private sector organizations, recommendations for, 122-123 Procedure development, 122 Procurement procedures, 54, 57, 59, 74, 76-77, 93-95, 115, 117-120, 139, see also purchasing departments Product warranty systems, 72 Productivity, as cost justification, 55, 105 INDEX Productivity, individual, 72, 132-133 Productivity, measurement of, 7, 62, 113, 116-117 Productivity improvements, implementation of, 112 Productivity improvements planning, 101-114, 122 Productivity vs. creativity, 10 Program generators, 48 Programmer productivity, 48, 117 Programs, see software Proliferation of hardware and software, 74, 76, 89, 110, 135 Proliferation of languages, 89, 91-92, 128 Purchase of computers by end users, 13, 24, 46-47, 72, 94 Purchasing departments, role of, 79-80, 118 Q Quality of decisions, 82-83, 85-96, 89 Quantity discounts, 119 Query-language facilities, 106 QUEST I and II, 137 R Raytheon Readi-Code, 48 Records management, 63 Recovery procedures, 75, 90, 118 Remote data, 22 Remote job entry, 110 Report writers, 48 Request for a proposal (RFPl, 94-95 Research and Education Committee of NASIS, 122 Research librarians, 106

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INDEX Resource use, 90-91 Response time, 86-87 Retraining, 113, 136 Return on investment (ROI} calculations, 117 Review procedures, 75 Reynolds Metals Company, 101-114 Robotics, 61 Rolling resources, 20 Rosser, William C., 69-70 Rotation policies, 93 S Sales support, 133 Security, see data security Self-documenting tools, 47 Semiconductor technology, 22-25, 27 Sign-on codes, 88, 92, 132 SIMSCRIPT, 128 Single-user operating systems, 20 Sisson, Roger L., 8, 70, 81-92 Skill sets, 7, 75-76 Software basic applications, 32 custom applications, 34-35, 103-104, 111 integrated, 4-5, 21, 32-35, 54 licensing restrictions on, 7- 8, 74 most successful, 28-29 off-the-shelf, 35, 117, 120- 121 user-friendly, 86-87, 120- 121, 129 Software acquisition policies, 115, 118, 120 Software development centralized vs. decentralized, 110, 126-127 end-user, 89-90, 92, 125, 128-129 149 focusof, 19-21, 37 hardware controlled, 30-31 individual geniuses vs. formal development teams, 28-30 Software library, 139 Software piracy, 74 Software proliferation, 120- 121, 126, 139 Software vendors, 28-35 Spreadsheets, 28-29, 31, 39, 104, 107, 133 Stages of evolution of computers and information systems, 124 125 Stand-alone computing, 54 Standardization, see centralization vs. decentralization; management; maintenance Standardized maintenance, 117 Standards, establishment of, 128 Stanford Research Institute, 60 State government policies, 115-123 Synapse, 26 Systems development, 75, 79, 104, 122, 125 Systems generators, 47 T Technical computation, 105, 107-108 Technical excellence, 95-96 Technologists, role of, 127 128 Teleconferencing, 64 Telephone access, illegal, 88 Telephone management, 62 Telephony, 64

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150 Terminals multipurpose use of, 131 proliferation of, 45-46, 48, 131 Text integration, 26 Text-processing language, 106 The Source, 63 Thompson, John M., 3- 10 3Com's local network, 39 Timesharing, 3, 37, 87, 107, 110, 137,seealso networking Toffler, Alvin, 61 Top-down planning, 129 Training of end-users, see end- user education Transaction processing, 105- 108 Transparently networked software, 39 U United States Army, 124- 129 United Technologies Corporation (UTCl, 45-51 Universal form processors, 107 UNIX, 76, 129 Unplanned systems, 116 Update of main files, 92 Use, actual vs. justified, 108 109 User-developed software, 89 90, 92, 125, 128-129 User-friendly operating systems, 85 User-friendly software, 86-87, 120-121, 129 User literacy, 11, 20-21, 44, 75-76, 126, 129 User networks, see . ~ communications Issues; networking Users, see end-users INDEX V VAX, 46 Vendor interface, 74 Vendor proliferation, 117, 120-121 Vendor role in technical support and maintenance, 76 Vendors, qualified, 118 Videotex, 63 Video teleconferencing technology, 127 Visicalc, 28-29, 31, 39, 104, 107 Visicorp, 32 Vision, 29, 40 Visiword, network delivered, 39 Visual information sharing, 64 Voice integration, 39 W Wafer technology, 27 Wang, 26 Washington state government, 121 Wasted resources, invisibility of, 91 Willmott, Thomas H., 4, 17, 19-27 Winchester disk technology, 26-27 Windows, 33-34, 63 Window-mouse systems, 33- 34 Word processing, 105, 107- 108, 133, 138 effect of peripheral chip technology on, 25 introduction of, 61 Word processing capabilities, 131 Wordstar, 28-29 Workstations, 6, 20, 46, 49, 64, 87

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INDEX X Xerox Star 8010, 64 y Yale Artificial Intelligence Labs, 25-26 151 z Z 80 software developers, 23 24 Zenith Data Systems microprocessors, 96 Zimmerman, Martin B., 124- 129

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