Click for next page ( 262


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 261
Index A Aircraft and airlines industries, innovations in, 34 imitators profiting hoary, 67 standardization of, 74 Antirust policies, affecting mtemational competitiveness of United States, 17~175 Apprenticeship system, 208 Appropliability of innovations, 67 68, 89-90 access to complementary assets affecting, 7~72, 77, 80, 89-90 industry differences in, 89-90 and profitability, 67~8, 72-76 in mtemational trade, 90 93 Assets required for colon of innovations, 21, 23, 26, 3940, 7~72, 7~88 continual strategies concerning, 73- 74, 77-79 combined wide legation strategies, 85 261 compared to integration strategies, 8~85 integration strategy for access to 7 77, 79-85; see also Integration strategy loose, 68, 74, 80, 81, 82, 90 91 parteniing strategy concerning, 3, 78 79, 90, 102, 103, 107, 115 and profitability, 67~8, 72-76 ~ intemabonal Made, 90 93 specialized, 71, 72, 7S-76, 84 strategies for access to, 76-88 AT&T breakup of, 132-133 worldwide affiliations of, 138 Automation in process innovations, 26 in services sector, 125, 133, 137 Automobile industry complementary assets in, 71 innovations in, 34, 38-39, 40 standardization of, 74

OCR for page 261
262 B Banking and financial services, see Financial and banking services Black & Decker Corporation, revital- mng product manufacture and design in, 3, 5~62 impact on new product development, 61-62 by increasing integration, 58-59 Brazil, interaction of government and corporate interests in, 250 C Capital availability of, for financing innovations, 202 and investments in human capital, 233 in Japan 215-216 in services sector, 123-124 Centralization of activities in consolidation phase of technological trajectory, 225, 227-228, 229-230 in integration strategy, see Integration strategy in Japan, 221, 229-230 in mission-onented technology policy, 193-194, 234 in research and development programs, 104 107 in seances sector, 132-137 Chemical industries appropnabilin,r of innovations in 72- 73, 77 in Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland, 206, 210 China, People's Republic of, Interaction of govem~nent and co~pcrate interests in, 248, 249-250 Cola beverages, imitators profiting from development of, 66 67 COMBAT (comm~,nibr in Education and Training for Technology), 254 Comroumcations INDEX alla AT&T breahlp of, 132-133 worldwide affliabons of, 138 and automation of data flow, 137-139 improvements in and economies of scope, 137-138 and glob~li7~tion of industries, 98- 99, 107, 161-162 interaction of corporate and govem- ment interests conceming, 254 and protectionist issues concerning intemationa~1 data flow, 111-113 transfer of technology in, see Transfer of technology Competitiveness, international, of United States, 9, 160166 antitrust policies affecting, 17~175 communication and transportation improvements affecting, 98-99, 107, 161-162 costs and benefits of changes in, 166 168 decline of, 160-166 education affecting, 17~172 management techniques anffecung, 164 165, 17~176 requirements for future grown of, 168-169 services sector affecting, ~7,144152, 157 tax policies affecting, 173, 177 made policies affs~ng, 162-163, 165 166, 177, 178-186 value of dollar affecting, 165 wages as measure of, 8, 9, 168, 178 Complementary assets, see Assets required for comm~ciali~ion of innovations Computer industry access to complementary assets in, 70, 76, 78-79, 85, 86 88, 90 in automanon of insurance industry, importance of flexible designs in, 137 imitators profiimg Tom innovations fin, 66 67, 86-87

OCR for page 261
INDEX interaction with government interests, 251, 252, 254 partnering strategy in, 78-79, 90 standmlizabon of ~ovadons in, 74, 87-88 worldwide affiliations in, 138 Computerized axial tomographic seer, imitators profiting from development of, 65 66, 85-86 Consolidation phase ~ technological trajectory, 225, 227-228 ~ Japan, 229-230 Containerized shipping, 71-72 Contractual strategies for access to complementary assets, 73, 7~79 combined with integration strategies, 85 compared to integration strategies, 79- 85 Cooperation interim; in Japan, 22~221 umversity-industry, 200 201, 208, 210 Cotporate strategies, mte~tion with government policies, 11-12, 245 256 cormnon interests in, 25~251 new approaches in, 253-256 sources of conflicts in, 251-253 D Data flow, see Communications Decen~aliza~on of technology policies, 205-206, 207, 233-234 Defense industries government expenditures on, 172-173, 193, 197, 198-199, 212 national differences in, 193 interaction of government and corporate interests in, 248-249 requirements for, 169-170 role of Ices sector in, 156 Diffusion~onented technology policy, 192, 205-214 decentralization of activities in, 205- 206, 207 263 defense expendin~res in, 212 economic and institutional framework of, 206 212 education and Gaining in, 206, 207- 208, 210 effectiveness of, 210, 212-214 ind~ial standards in, 209 research and development in, 209-212 socialization pattern in, 213 transfer of technology in, 210, 233 Diffusion of technology, see Transfer of technology Distribution systems, globalization trends in, US, 96 } 18; see also Globalization of industries Drug industry, appropriability of mrlovations in, 89 E Education in diffusion-oriented technology policy, 206, 207-208, 210 apprenticeship system in, 208 as investment in human capital, 215- 216, 233 in Japan, 216 in mission-onented technology policy, 200 201, 204 20S, 207, 208 national differences in, 217 quality of, affecting international competitiveness of United States, 170-172 and umiversity-industry links, 200 201, 208, 210 Emergence phase in technological trajectory, 225, 227, 228 Engineering industries, mechanical, 206 207, 209, 213 Entrepreneurs, role in organizational structure and manufactunag innovations, 27-33 Environmental differences in national technology policies, 200 203, 232

OCR for page 261
Equipment in manufacturing and process innovations, 23-26, 29 "d product innovations, 21, 22 ESPRIT (European Strategic Program for Rese rch and Development in Information Technology), 113, 254, 255 EUREKA projects, 113-114, 255 European Economic Comity, technology strategies of, 254 Evolution ~ m~ufac. - ing mdustnes, 2- 3, 1648 life cycle concept in, see He cycle concept, technological Exchange rate fluctuations affecting globalization of industnes, 101, 1 10-1 1 1 affecting international competitiveness of United States, 165 Expons of product innovations, 25, 42, 43 of UDied States decline in, 161 with military applications, restrictions on, 113 F Facial and banking seances automation of, 133 changes in scope of, 138-139 competition in, 142-143 complexity of, 140 intemational, 146147 Fluid phase of innovations, 19, 21, 23, 29, 69 org~ni7~iional structure in, 27, 31 in process innovations, 23, 29 in product innovations, 19, 21, 25 profits in, 7~75 Fragmentation of industnes, compared to globalization trend, 45, 9~118; see also Globalization of industries France, technology policy in, 192, 203- 204, 223, 224 INDEX and accessibility of scientific info~don, 200 and defense expendinlres, 193 and design of research and development programs, 198, 199 effectiveness of, 196 and funding of research and dleYelopment programs, 194, 198, 199 icon of corporam and national strategies in, 255 and labor force involved in rich and development programs, 200, 202 and labor mobility, 201 and shifting to new uses of resources, 224, 228, 229 and technological trajectory, 228-229 and Safer of technology, 232 G GATI (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 180, 181, 182, 183 Germany, Federal Republic of, technology policy in, 192, 207, 210, 211-212, 223, 224 and deepening uses of resources, 224, 229 and defense expenditures, 193 and education, 208 and funding of research and development programs, 194, 198, 211-212 and industrial standards, 209 and industry-university links, 210 and labor force involved in research and development programs, 200, 211 and technological trajectory, 229 Globalization of industries, 3-8, 9~118 compared to centralization of research and development activities, 104, 107 driving forces for, 100-102, 107 empirical evidence of, 102-104

OCR for page 261
INDEX enabling conditions for, 98-99, 107 historical development of, 9~97 limits to, 108-115 org~tiona1 structure of companies affecting, 99, 114~115 protectionist policies affecting, 111- 114 services sector changes affecting, 146- 152, 157 Government policies, 8-12, 191-245 cross-national comparison of 10-11 decentralization of, 205-206, 207, 233-234 diffusion - dented, 192, 205-214; see also Diffusion-onented technology policy diversity of, 232 environmental differences in, 200 203, 232 in France, see France, technology policy ~ in Germany, see Germany, Fed Republic of, technology policy in and globalization or *agmentation of industries, 97, 101, 103, 110 incentives provided in, 235 interaction with corporate strategies, 11-12, 246 256 common interests in, 25~251 new approaches in, 253-256 soumes of conflicts in, 251-2S3 and in~adonal competitiveness of United States, 162-163, 165-166 artiest practices affecting, 174 175 in education, 17~172 in research and development, 172 174 tax programs affecting, 173, 177 trade legislation affecting, 177, 178-183 on investment in human capital, 215 216, 233 in Japan, see Japan, technology policy in mission-oriened, 192, 193-205, 232; 265 see also Mission-oriented technology policy on shifting and deepening uses of resources, 222-231 supporting national industries, 104, 162-163, 216-217 in Sweden, 192, 193, 194, 210, 212 Switzerland, 192, 193, 198, 206, 207, 208, 210 and technological trajectones, 225-231 on trade, intemational, 177, 178-186 affecting profits Tom innovadons, 91-92 Genetal Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in, 180, 181, 182, 183 import restrictions in, 163, 178 179, 181-182, 184 liberalizing measures in, 183, 184, 185 protectionist, 97, 184 special interest groups affecting, 184, 185 voluntary export agreements and orderly marketing agreements in, 181-182 on transfer of technology, 200 201, 210, 232-233 in United Kingdom, see Uruted Kingdom, technology policy in in United States, 9-10, 192, 196 205, 223, 224 Gross nations product of United States components of, 122 nufactunag sector in, 6, 161 seances sector In, H Health services complexity of, 141-142 integration of, 133-137 I IBM Corporation access to complementary assets of, 78, 85, B~88

OCR for page 261
266 interaction with foreign governments, 251, 252, 254 parmenng strategy of, 78 worldwide affiliations of, 138 Imitation of ~ovabons, 3, 4, 65-95 access to complementary assets affecting, 7~72, 76-88 emergence of dominant design affecting, 68-70, 7~76, 87-88 in Tonal trade, 9~93 Imports of United States, government restnctions on, 163, 178-179, 181-182, 184 Incentives in national technology policies, 235 Innovations in manufacturing industries, 16~8, 52, 58-62 appropriability of, 67-68, 89-90; see also Appro~nabili~ of mnovabons assets required for comm~iali~tion of, 21, 39 40, 7~72, 7~88; see also Assets required for commerm~li~don of mnovabons comparative analysis of, 39~2 and competition between productive ~its, 17, 35-37 emergence of dominant design of, 68 70, 7~76, 87-88 fluid phase of, 19, 21, 23, 29, 69 organizational structure in, 27, 31 in process ~ovations, 23, 29 in product innovations, 19, 21, 25 profits in, 7~75 government policies shmula~g, 172 174 imitation of, see Citation of innovations and integration strategies, 29, 4~41 and international trade, 42 44, 9~93 legal protection of, 67-68, 72-73, 89 90 and organizational structure, 18, 27 33 relationship to international trade, 4244 II~DB in paradigmatic stage, 68-70, 75-76 in pre-paradigmatic stage, 68-70, 7= 75 process, 16, 17, 23-27; see also Process Bourbons in product, 16, 17, 18-23; see also Product ~ovadons productive Imt in analysis of, 17-18 profits from, 19, 25, 65-95; see also Profits from innovations radical and evolutionary patterns of, 33-35 rate of, affecting output and productivity levels, 18-22 research Ed development investment decisions concerning, 88 in small "d Lange fits, comparison of, 88-89 specific phase of, 21, 22-23, 25, 26, 29 competition in, 35-37 organizational structure in, 31, 32 33 in process innovations, 26, 29 in product innovations, 21, 22-23, 25 transitional phase of, 19-22, 23-26, 29 organi7~ona1 structure in, 27-32 in process innovations, 23-26, 29 in product innovations, 19-20, 25 uncertainty concerns in, 19, 22, 25 Insurance industry, changes in scope of, 137 Integration strategy, 7~77, 79-85 combined win contact strategies, 85 compared to contact strategies, 80-85 and globalization of industries, 96 118 limits to, 108-115 and innovations, 29, 40~1 and profits from innovations, 3, 79-85 in services sector, 133-137 Interest groups affecting governmcut trade policies, 184, 185 International complies, see Multinational companies International competitiveness of United

OCR for page 261
INDEX States, see Competitiveness, mtemational, of United States Intonational trade, see Trade, mtemational Ins, steam and dry, revitalizing manufacture and design of, 63~4 J Japan 267 L Labor force and investments in human capital, 215-216, 233 in manufactunog location advantages in cost of, 110 and process innovations, 26, 27, 29 into of government and corporate interests in, 249, 253 254 productivity of services sector in, 149 technology policy in, 192, 214-222, 223, 224225 and cen~iz~i programs, 221, 229 230 and competition, 219-220 and defense expenditures, 193 development strategy in, 215-218 and education, 216 effectiveness of, 218-222 and funding of research and development programs, 194 and intcr~ cooperation, 22~221 and investment ~ human capital, 215-216 and labor force involved in research and development programs, 200 and lifetime employment system, 216, 220 and promotion of certain industries, 21~217 and shifting and deepening uses of resources, 22~225, 2'29-230 and technological trajectory, 229 230 and transfer of technology, 217-218 trade relationship with United States, 180 masher of technology to, concerns about, 112 transfer of technology within, 217-218 mobility of, 201-202 in services sector, 123 and average wages, 152-153 and number of job opportunities, 152-153, 154 Legal protection of innovations, 67-68, 72-73, 89-90 Licensing agreements for access to complementary assets, 3, 72-73, 77 Life cycle concept, technological, 2-3 and competitiveness of productive units, 35-37 and distribution of profits from innovations, 68-70, 7~76 and international ~de, 4, 4244 and organizational structure, 27-33 and process innovations, 23-27, 29 and product ~ovations, 18-23, 25 and revitalizing manufacture and design of mature products, 49-64 and technological trajectones, 225-231 d~e-stage pattern of, 12-13 Lifetime employment system in Japan, 216, 220 M Management techniques affecting international competitiveness of United States, 164165, 17~176 Manufacturing ~ndustnes antitrust policies affecting, 17~175 changing role of, in United States, 148, 153, 160 166 com~nu~cation and ban~or~tion improvements affecting, 98-99, 107, 161-162

OCR for page 261
268 costs and benefits of changes in, 166 168 defense-related, see Defense industnes glob~i~tion of, 98-104, 107 limits to, 108-11 1 government policies aft, 162 163, 165-166, 172-174 innovations "d evolution in, 2-3, 1 48; see also Innovations ~ ufactunog industries management techniques affecting, 164 165, 17~176 orga~i7~tional structure of, 27-33; see also Organizadonal sty re of manufa~g indusmes productivity of, 170-177 rate of innovations affecting, 18-22 requirements for future grown of, 168-169 services sector changes affe~g, 147 148 standar~tion in, see Standardization ~ manufacturing Made policies affecting, 177, 178-186 met production costs in, compared to volume of production, 27 value of dollar affecting, 165 Market segments, 17 competition in, see Competition in product markets homogenization of, and globalization of industries, 98, 107 Marketing systems, globalization trends in, =5, 9~118; see also Globalization of industries Materials required for commercialization of me ovations, see Assets required for commerci21li?=ion of innovations Matrix oration of companies, 11= 115 Mature phase of technological trajectory, 225, 227, 228 in Federal Republic of Germany, 229 Mech~hon in services sector, 125, 133 INDEX Medical services complexity of, 141-142 integration of, 133-137 Mergers antirust policies concenung, 174-175 in services sector, 132, 13~135 Military power, see Defense industries Mission-onented technology policy, 192, 193-205, 232 accessibility of scientific inforrn~tion in, 200 201 competition in, 201-203 concentration of activities in, 193- 194, 234 design of research and development programs in, 198-199 education and Gaining in, 200 201, 204 205, 207, 208 effectiveness of, 195-198, 203-205 direct, 195-197 secondary, 197-198 environmental differences in, 200 203 labor mobility in, 201-202 transfer of technology in, 200 201, 232 Multinational companies antirust policies affecting, 175 communication "d transportation improvements affecting, 161-162 in globalization of indusmes, 96- 118, 162 historical development of, 9~98 interaction with government policies, 24~256 common interests in, 250-251 new strategies in, 253-256 sources of conflicts in, 25~251 N National policies, see Govemment , . . policies National security, see Defense industries Norway, research and development progr~uns in, 200, 210

OCR for page 261
INDE:X o Organizational stn~cn~re of manufactunag industries, 27-33 entrepreneurial roles in, 27-32 and globalization trend, 99, 11~115 and innovative capacity, 18, 27-33 relationship to international trade, 42 44 matrix, 1 1~1 15 mechanistic, 32 organic, 27 p Paradigmatic stage of innovations, 68- 70, 75-76 P~enag strategy, 3, 78-79, 90, 102, 103, 107, 115 Patents protecting innovations, 67-68 affecting distribution of profits, 72-73 industry differences in, 89 Performance criteria ~ product innovations, 19, 25 Petroleum industry, appropriability of innovations in, 72-73, 77 Polarization, economic, in United States, 166 168, 172 reduction of, 17~178 Power tool industry, revitalizing manufacture and design of mature products in, 50~2 Pre-pamdigmatic stage of innovations, 6%-70, 71, 7~75 Price of product, innovations affecting, 19, 22, 25, 57-58, 62 Process innovations' 16, 17, 23-27, 29 cost of, 26, 29 revitalizing mature products, 49 64, 5~62, 63 64 trade secrets protecting, 68 affecting distribution of profits, 72- 73 transitional phase of, 23-26, 29 Product innovations, 16, 17, 18-24 and emergence of dominant design, 68-70, 7~76 269 revitalizing mature products, 49-64, 50-62, 63-64 uncertainty concerns in, 19, 22, 25 Product(s) interchangeable with services, 131, 144 Production systems globalization trends in, =5, 9~118; see also Globalization of industries process innovations in, 16, 17, 23-27; see also Process innovations unit costs in, compared to volume of production, 27 Productive units in manufacturing, 17-18 competition between, 17, 35-37 hierarchical arrangement of, 17 Productivity factors enhancing, 17~177 education, 170-172 innovations, 172-174 management techniques, 17~176 rate of innovations affecting, 18-22 of services sector, 149 increases in, 125-128 problems in measurement of, 130 Profits from globalization of industnes, 100 limits to, 108-111 from innovations, 3-4, 19, 25 access to complementary assets affecting, 3, 7~72, 76-88, 90-93 appropriability affecting, 67-68, 72- 76, 9~93 distribution of, 65-9S emergence of dominant design affecting, 68-70, 7~76 in international trade, 9~93 in product innovations, 19 research and development investment decisions affecting, 88 in small and large firms, comparison of, 88 Protectionist trade policies, 10, 97, 184 affecting globalization of industries, 111-114

OCR for page 261
270 R RACE (Research in Advanced Communications in Europe), 113, 254 Rental agencies, changes in scope of, 139 Research and development programs centralization of, compared to glob~ation of marlce~g and manufactunag, 10~107 and diffusion of new technology, 232 235 government policies stimulating, 172 174 in Japan, 194, 200, 21.8 in mission~riented technology policy, 193-205 design of prods in, 198-199 effectiveness of, 195-198 environmental differences in, 20 203 labor force involved in, 200, 202 national differences in funding of, 194, 198 and profitability of innovations, 88 in technological trajectory, 225-230 Resources, industrial required for commercialization of innovations, see Assets required for commercialization of innovations shifting and deepening uses of, 222- 231 S Scale, economies of Id globalization of industries, 96~118 and profitability of innovations in s~nall and large firms, 88 and relationship of unit production costs to volume of F reduction, 27 in services sector, 132-137 Semiconductor industry, innovations in, 33-34, 40 Services sector, 5-6, 119-159 INDEX affecting manufacturing industries, 147-148 capital intensity of, 123-124 competition in, 142-144 complexity in output of, 139-142 concentration of, 125, 132-137 definition of, 119-121 problems in, 130 and distribution of weals, 152-155 grown of, 168-169 and interchangeability of products and services, 131, 144 in international trade, ~7, 13~131, 132, 144152, 156-157 labor in, 123 and average wages, 152-153 and number of job Enormities, 152-153, 154 limits of current data on, 129-131 mechani7~don and automation of, 125, 133, 137 mergers in, 132, 13~135 myths about, 121-128 and power of society, 156 p~duc~vity of, 149 increases in, 125-128 problems in measurement of, 130 scale of acovines in, 132-137 scope of acquires fin, 137-139 structural changes in, 131-153 technological intensity of, 12~125 value of activities in, 121, 128 Soviet Union, transfer of technology tO9 1 12-! 13 Specific phase of innovations, 21, 22- 23, 25, 26, 29, 69-70 competition in, 35-37 organizational slrucn~re in, 31, 32-33 in process innovations, 26, 29 in product innovations, 21, 22-23, 25 S~dardizabon in manufacturing affecting dis~ibudon of profits, 7~75, 87 in Black & Decker program, 51, 53- 55, 59

OCR for page 261
INDEX . 271 and competidon between productive ~es, 3S-37 emergence of dominant design, 68- 10, 7476 and intentional trade, 42 orgaruz~tional changes in, 32 ~ process innovations, 23-26 in product ~ovabons, 22 Steel Dusky, international agreements coning, 176 Supplies r~ui~ for commercialization of innovations, see Assets for commercialization of innovations Sweden, technology policy in, 192 and defense expenditures, 193, 212 and fimding of research and development programs, 194 and indus~y-university links, 210 Switzerland, technology policy in, 192, 198, 206, 207 and defense expenditures, 193 and education, 207, 208 and funding of msearch and development programs, 198 and ~ndus~y-~versity Is, 210 T Target uncertainty of product innovations, 19, 22 Talc policies affe~g int~onal competitiveness of United States, 173, 177 suing research and development programs, 173 Technical uncertainty of product ~ovat~ons, 19, 22 Technology transfer, see Transfer of technology Textile industries, 42 Trade, mtemational adjustment programs concenung, 177 cats flow conchs in, 111-113 distribution of profits from innovations in, 90 93 domestic impact of, 9 dynamic networks in, 91 exports of United States decline in, 161 win military applications, restrictions on, 113 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade concaving, 180, 181, 182, 183 and gloWi~ion of industnes, 9~118 government policies concerning, 177, 178-186 import restrictions in, 163, 178-179, 181-182, 184 li~rali~ng policies concerning, 183, 184, 185 net balance of United States in, 149, 150, 151 of product innovations, 25, 42, 43 protectionism affecting, 10, 97, 111 114, 184 relationship to innovation and industry structure, 42~4 services sector in, ~7, 13~131, 132, 144 152, 15~157 special interest groups affecting, 184, 185 voluntary export agreements and orderly marketing agreements on, 181-182 Trajectory, technological, 225-231 in Federal Republic of Germany, 229 in France, 228-229 in Japan, 229-230 phases in, 225, 227-228 in United States, 228 in vacuum nlbe industry, 225-227 Transfer of technology, 200 201, 210, 232-233 decentralization of policies affecting, 233-234 incentives affecting, 235 mvesunents in human capital affecting, 233 in Japan, 112, 217-218

OCR for page 261
272 Transitions phase of innovations, 19-22, 23-26, 29, 69 org~ni7~tional struggle in, 27-32 in process mr ovations, 23-26, 29 in product innovations, 19-20, 25 Transportation and contain en shipping, 71-72 improvements in, and glob~ion of industries, 98-99, 107, 161-162 and ~ovabons in airlines industries, 34 imitators profiting Mom, 67 standardization of, 74 U United Kingdom, technology policy in, 192, 203 and accessibility of scientific info~on, 200 and defense expenditures, 193 and design of research and development programs, t98, 199 effectiveness of, 195-196 and funding of research and development programs, 194, 198, 199 and labor force involved in research "d development programs, 200, 202 J~DEX and labor mobilizer, 201 University-mdust~y titles, 200 201, 208, 210 V Vacuum tube industry, development of, 225-227 Value of dollar, and exchange me aUcmadons affecting global*~ion of industries, 101, 11~111 aff~g inter competitiveness of Umed States, 165 of innovations, ami distribution of profits, 65-95 of services sector activities, 121, 128 and national wealth, 152-155 W Wages and international comped~veness, 8, 9, 168, 178 in services sector, 152-153 Wealth, national, services sector affect, lS2-155