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Index A Abuse, risk of, 32 Acceptance of new ideas, 7 Addams, Jane, 79 Affiliation, need for, 68 AFL-CIO, 140 AFL-CIO Resolution on Computer Homework, 78,152-153 Allied Professionals Educational Consulting Services (APECS) 95, 97 Allison, Elisabeth, 115 ALMSA (Automated Logistics Management Systems Activ- ity), 24-32 Alternate work sites (AWS), 38-50 American Express Company case study, 8-15 American labor force, 112 APECS (Allied Professionals Ed- ucational Consulting Services), 95, 97 AT&T divestiture, 109, 111 Attitudes toward technology, 17-18 Attractiveness of homework, 137-138 Audit, external, 31-32 155 Automated Logistics Management Systems Activity (ALMSA), 24-32 AWS (alternate work sites), 38-50; see also Control Data Corpora- tion B Balance of trade, 91-92 Blackwell, Ann, 81, 85 Blue Cross/Blue Shield of South Carolina case study, 16-23 Brief, Arthur P., 66-75, 85,88 Bypass carriers, 110 Byrne, Dr. Richard, 17 C Career advancement, 98-99 Career development, 48 Carey, Matthew, 79 Case studies, 3-56 American Express Company, 8-15 Blue Cross/Blue Shield of South Carolina, 16-23

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156 Control Data Corporation, 38-50 F International, 51-56 Mountain Bell, 33-37 overview, 5-7 U.S. Army, 24-32 CDC (Control Data Corporation), 98; see also Control Data Cor- poration entries Center for Futures Research, 9 Centralized message centers, 127 CETA (Comprehensive Employ- ment and Trninillg Act), 14 Chamot, Dennis, 76-84,85,88, 89, 92, 93 Change accelerating, 6 continuity versus, 74 technological, 133 Child care,113-114 Child labor, 79-80 laws, 62 Choice, 68, 78 freedom of, 21 Clerical positions, 134 Clerical workers, female, 112-124 Clustered work force, 16 Coaxial cable, 108 Collective bargaining, 63 Communications, 40, 54-55 costs, 109-110 devices, 27 difficulty of, 36-37 procedures for, 50 technology, 108 Competition, overseas, 91-92 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 14 Computer connect time, 29-30 "Computer Homework" resolu- tion, 78,152-153 Computerized monitoring, 118-119 Computers, personal (PCs), 7, 100-101, 133 Connect time, computer, 29-30 Connell, James, 17 Continuity versus change, 74 Contract organizations, 127-128 Contractors, independent, 60-61 Control Data Corporation (CDC), 98 AWS Employee Survey, 145-148 INDEX AWS Manager Interview Pro- tocol,149-151 case study, 38-50 Homework program, 41-42 Copiers laser beam, 109 telecopiers, 10-11 Cost/benefit analysis, 41 Cost curves, 105-107 Costello, Cynthia, 114 Costs communications, 109-110 telecommuting, 138 Cottage keyer project, 18-20 Couples, professional, 130 CPU efficiency rate, 28, 29 D DARCOM (Development and Readiness Command Material), 25,28,31 Decentralization of office work, 120 Delivery, work, 43 Demography, 134-,136 Development and Readiness Com- mand Material (DARCOM), 25,28,31 Dictation system, 8 Display, high-resolution, 108 "Dominetics," 1 Duplicate records, 99 EEarnings comparison, 22; see also Wages Education system, PLATO, 42-43, 48 EEO (equal employment opportun- ity),60,62 Efficiency rate, CPU, 28, 29 Electronic cottage concept, 14 Electronic homework, see Home- work Elisburg, Donald, 59-65, 85, 88-89 91-93 Emergency situations, 99 Employee morale, 30, 31 Employee Survey, Control Data AWS, 145-148

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INDEX Employees defined, 60 professional, see Professional employees selection of, 139 Employment practices, fair, 140- 141 Energy expenditure, 69 Environment, work, 93 Equal employment opportunity (EEO), 60, 62 Equitable Life Assurance Society, 14 Equity concept, 88 Error rate statistics, 22 External audit, 31-32 Exxon SQIP-2150 telecopier unit, 10-11 F F International (FI) case study, 51-56 Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 60, 80 Fairness, philosophy of, 142 Family interaction, 34 Federation of the Handicapped, 90-91 Female clerical workers, 112-124 Female economic realities, 113 Female telecommuting, 141-142 FI (F International) case study, 51-56 File storage evolution, 106-107 Flexibility, work, 118 H Hackman, J. R., 70 Handicapped, Federation of the, 90-91 Handicapped population, 9-10 Handsets, telephone, 108-109 Hawthorn Effect, 137n Health, occupational, 64, 114-115, 142 Health insurance benefits, 20 High-resolution display, 108 Hine, Lewis W., 79 "Hold harmless" agreements, 27, 31 Home-based work, see Homework Home workstations law and, 13-14 printing capability of, 109 use and misuse of, 76-84 word processing, 8-15 Homebound, Project, 8-15 Homework abuses of, 88-89 attractiveness of, 137-138 ban on, 88-90 "Computer Homework" resolution, 78, 152-153 electronic concept of, 7 future of, 87-88, 103-144 limits on, 78-79 strengths of, 55-56 weaknesses of, 55 Homework program, Control Data Corporation's, 41-42 Hours and wages, 85-87 "Flexiplace," 1 Human resources organizations, 1?LSA (Fair Labor Standards Act), 128 60, 80 Forecast, technology, 105-111 Fraud, risk of, 32 Freedom of choice, 21 Fringe benefits, 63-64 G Geisler, Greg, 16-23, 85-87, 95-97, 99, 100 Goddard, Robert, 6 Gregory, Judith, 112-124, 126, 129 Gunnarsson, Ewa, 118 157 IBM, 100-101 IBM PC, 20 Ideas, new, acceptance of, 7 Independent contractors, 60-61 Individual needs and pressures, 129-131 Industrial Revolution, 5, 16 Information processing technol- ogy, 6 Information security, 98-99

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158 Installation, communications system, 108 Insurance, medical, 63-64 Insurance claims, "paperless," 18 Interaction, social, 70-71 Interactive systems, 24 International competition, 91-92 IRS, 98 K Kawakami, Steven S., 81 Kiron, Alan, 1 L Labor movement, 87 relations, 63 standards, 60-63 unions, 63, 94, 116 Labor force, 134-136 American, 112 Lanier "Telestaff" central dicta- tion system, 10 Laser beam copiers, 109 Laws, 39, 59-65 child labor, 62 home workstations and, 13-14 zoning, 13, 64-65, 142-143 Lefcourt, Herbert, 21 Legalities, see Laws Location-independent organiza- tions,126-127 Logistics, 40 Organizational phenomenon, 2 Organizations contract, 127-128 human resources, 128 location-independent, 126-127 OSHA (Occupational Safety and and Health Administration), 13 Overhead costs, 77, 116 Overseas competition, 91-92 Miller, Don, 5-7, 95, 100-101 Minimum wage, 62, 79-80 Monitoring system, 11-12 computerized, 118-119 Morale, employee, 30, 31 Motivation, 67 work location and, 66-75 Mountain Bell case study, 33-37 N Naisbitt, John, 1 Nelson, Kristin, 120-121 New York City, 9 Nilles, Jack M., 1, 115,133-144 Nord, W. R., 74 o Occupational health, 64, 114-115, 142 Occupational safety, 64, 142 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 13 Office acculturation, 15 Office relocations, 120-121 Oldham, G. R., 70 Olson, Margrethe, H., 1-2, 114 125-132, 141 Optical character reader, 89 Optical fiber, 108 Optical storage, 106-107 Organizational needs and pres- sures, 128-129 M Magnetic recording, vertical, 107 Management, 2, 17, 40-41, 48, 100, 138-140 Manager Interview Protocol, Con- trol Data AWS, 149-151 Manning, Ronald A., 38-50, 95, 97, 98 McDavid, Mary, 24-32, 95, 98 Medical insurance, 63-64 Message centers, centralized, 127 Micronet, 53 Microprocessors, price of, 105-106 Microwave technology, 108 l~DEX p "Paperless" insurance claims, 18 Participation, level of, 49 Part-time work, 91, 94 Part-time workers, 119-120

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INDEX PCs (personal computers), 7, 100- 101, 133 Personal interaction, reduction in, 44-45 Personal needs and pressures, 129- 131 Personnel, 41 Phelps, Nelson, 33-37, 95-100 Phones, see Telephone entries Physically disabled homebound people, 10 PIC (Private Industry Council), 14 Pickup work, 43 Piecework standards, 80, 86, 118 PLATO education system, 42-43, 48 Pratt, Joanne H., 95, 97-100 Printing capability, workstation, 109 Private Industry Council (PIC),14 Production log, 12 Productivity, 18, 40, 45-46, 70, 90, 95-97, 136-137 initial drop in, 36 intensification of pressures for, 117-119- measurements of, 50 statistics on, 21 Professional couples, 130 Professional employees, 83, 125- 126, remote work for, 125-132 Profit motive, 90 Profitability, project, 96 Programming, 51 development of, 7 Project Homebound, 8-15 Psychological phenomenon, 2 R Raney, James G., Jr., 8-15 Reagan, President Ronald, 9 Records, duplicate, 99 Relocations, office, 120-121 Remote work for professionals, 125-132 Reporting, 40 Retirement, 128 Rodgers, D. T., 74 Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 5 159 S Safety, occupational, 64, 142 Satellite technology, 108 Schiff, Frank, 1 Secretarial positions, 134 Security data problems, 98-99 SEIU (Service Employees Inter- national Union), 82 Selection, employee, 139 Semiconductors, 105 Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 82 Shirley,V.S., 51-56,95, 96, 99, 138 Shoji, Nancy, 95, 96, 98 Social interaction, 70-71 Social progress, 6-7 Social status, 71-72 Software, system, 108 Suburbanization, office, 120-121 Supervision console, 10-12 Support structures, 7 Sweatshops, 92 T Technological change, 133 Technology attitudes toward, 17- 18 communications, 108 female clerical workers and, 112- 124 Technology forecast, 105-111 Technology push, 1-2 Telecommuting, 1, 135-136 advent of, 6 costs of, 138 female, 141-142 future of, 2, 143 growth of, 99-100 origin of, 1 Telecopiers, 10-11 "Telemanaging," 14 Telephone handsets, 108-109 Telephone installation costs, 47 Telephone lines, 12 "Telework," 1 Terminal costs, 47 Terminals, video display (VDT), 59, 114-115

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160 Texas Instruments Silent 700s, 21 Timekeeping form, 12 Toffler, Alvin, 9 Trade, balance of, 91-92 Travel costs, 47 U Unemployment compensation, 63-64 Unions, labor, 63, 94, 116 U.S. Army case study, 24-32 V VDT (video display terminal), 59, 114-115 Vedel, Gitte, 118 Vertical magnetic recording, 107 Video display terminal (VDT), 59, 114-115 Vision and video terminal viewing, 115 Vroom, V. H., 66 W Wages, 67-68, 72-73,82,85-87, 116 comparison of, 22 minimum, 62, 79-80 Wang WP-5,10 Wideband bypass carriers, 110 Wisconsin Physicians Service (WPS), 114 Withington, Frederic G., 105-111 Women, see Female entries Word processing workstations, 8-15 INDEX characteristics of, 66-67 new forms of, 1 office, decentralization of, 120 part-time, 91, 94 remote, for professionals, 125- 132 Work environment, 93 Work flexibility, 118 Work force categories of, 77-78 clustered, 16 productivity of, see Productivity reorganization of, 16-17 Work location and motivation, 66-75 Work pickup and delivery, 43 Work productivity, see Productiv- ity Work schedule, 53 Work selection criteria, 40 Work sites, alternate (AWS), 38-50 Working, see Work Workmen's compensation, 27-28 Workstations, home, see Home workstations WPS (Wisconsin Physicians Ser- vice), 114 y Yankelovich, D., 74 z Zalusky, John L., 76-84,85-92, 94 Zoning laws, 13, 64-65, 142-143