Pakistan that are included in ISI Web of Science and have an impact factor. There are, I think, about four or five journals. I was talking about international publications in international journals from the developing world.

The data that you talked about also needs to be tweaked a little, because although there is an increase, this increase is largely because China is counted as a developing country. If you take away China, then I think you will not find that there would be much of a change in the rest of the developing world. This data was taken from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2010 World Science Report, which has grouped the developing countries together, including China.

PARTICIPANT: There has been some news recently about the Pakistani government’s interest in devolving some of the responsibility from the central government to the provinces for higher education and other research activities. Could you comment on that?

DR. ATTA-UR-RAHMAN: This has been an impending disaster in Pakistan in the last few weeks. What has happened is that because the Higher Education Commission was an honest and merit-based organization, it would not bow to political pressure. The Commission found that about 50 of our parliamentarians had forged degrees, and it reported it. Another 250 parliamentarians’ degrees were in the process of being investigated. Certain young people in the government then decided to cut this organization to pieces. I took a very strong stand and wrote a number of articles in national newspapers. I went to the Supreme Court last week, and the decision from the Supreme Court of Pakistan was that the Higher Education Commission is protected under the constitution. This is where it stands now. I understand that there are reverberations. The government is thinking of changing the law, so there may be more to come.

PARTICIPANT: This is one illustration of the fact that if governments are not working for the good of the people, they can create all kinds of problems. We have to watch for that, but things are changing drastically. I just came back from Egypt. I have been talking to groups of young revolutionaries. Indeed, their outlook is very positive. They know exactly what the corruption within the government was like and what the results were. They are looking forward to new ways of doing things, both with the government and by themselves. The one thing they asked me to convey to the world is that they are ready and willing to work with anybody, especially in science and technology. They need help and they are willing to work harder than anyone else.

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