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REFERENCES Bertsche, William R. and Donald A. Atkins (1981), "Evaluation of the Safety of Ship Navigation in Harbors," Problems and Opportunities in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press), pp. 53-73. Bureau of Ports and Harbours and Port and Harbour Research Institute, (Ministry of Transport, Japan) (1980), "Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan." Caldwell, Joseph M. (1950), "Sedimentation of Harbors," Applied Sedimentation, Parker D. Trask, ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.), pp. 791-299. Canadian Coast Guard (1977), "Code of Recommended Standards for the Prevention of Pollution in Marine Terminal Systems," February 22, 1977. COLS (Committee on Large Ships) (1981), Guidelines for Safety and Environmental Protection of Ports (Tokyo: International Association _ of Ports and Harbors). Crane, C. Lincoln, Jr. (1981), "Concerns of Ship Owners," Problems and Opportunities in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors , (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press), pp. 45-52. Dand, I. (1980), "Ship Behavior In Ports and Their Approaches" (London: National Ports Council). Downs, John ( 1981 ), "Maintenance Dredging, " Problems and opportunities in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press), pp. 39-41. Eclectech Associates, Inc. (1982), "SRA/RA Systems Design Ma~nual-- Restricted Waterways (Draft)," Report No. CG-D-77-81 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Coast Guard), February 1982. Eda, Haruzo (1971), "Directional Stability and Control of Ships in Restricted Channels " Trans. SNARE. 79: 71-116. Eda, Haruzo (1973 ) , "Dynamic Behavior of Tankers During Two-Way Traffic in Channels, " Marine Tech., 10: 254-262. Eda, Haruzo, Robert Falls, and David A. Walden (1979), "Ship Maneuvering a~af~tv Thai "~ . t' Grand. RENAME . 87 ~ 229 - 250. Eden, Edwin W. , Jr. (1971), "Vessel Controllability in Restricted Waters, " J . waterways ~ Harbors and Coastal Ena. , Proc . ASCE, 97 ( WW3 ): 475-490 . . Gibson, W. M. (1951), "Sand Waves in San Francisco Bay," J. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 4: 54-58. .. . . . _ , . Harlow, Eugene H. (1981), "Harbor/Port Entrance Design," Problems and opportunities in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press), pp. 13-25. ' Heiberg, E. R., III (1981), Testimony before Subcommittee on Water Resources, Committee on Public Works and Transportation, U.S. House of Representatives, 97th Congress, 1st Session (June 16-17, July 14-15 , 1981 ), Report 97-26, Port Development, pp . 598-602. 6-1

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6-2 Herbich, J. B. ~ 1975), Coastal and Deep Ocean Dredging (Houston, Tex.: Gulf Publishing Co. ). Herrmann, F. A., Jr. ( 1981 ), "Tidal Hydraulics, " Problems and Opportunity es in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press ~ . ICORELS ~ International Commission for the Reception of Large Ships ~ ~ 1980 ), "Optimal Layout and Dimensions for the Adjustment to Large Ships of Maritime Fairways, " Report of Working Group IV, Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses. Ippen, A. T., ed. ~ 1966 ), Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics ~ New York: McGraw-Hill ~ . Johnson, Douglas ~ 19 29 ), " Studies of Mean Sea Level , " Bull . Nat . .Res . Counci 1, _: 5 -S 0 . Johnson, J. W. ( 1973 ), "Sediment Erosion, Movement, and Deposition, " Short Course in Coastal Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Unpublished. Johnson, J. W. (1981), 'sedimentation in Harbors, " Problems and Opportunitie s in the Des i gn of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press ), pp. 101-114. Kimon, P. M. ~ 1982 ), "Underkeel Clearance in Ports, " Paper presented at SHIP-TRANS-PORT Symposium, Ratterdam, September 6-10, 1982. Kirby , R., W. R. Parker , and W. H. A. van Oostrum ~ 1980 ), "Def inition of the Seabed in Navigation Routes through Mud Areas," Internationa Hydrography Rev., Monaco, LVII(1~: 107-117. (Also First International Hydrographic Technical Conference, Ottawa, May 1979. Knierim, Thomas G. ( 1981 ), "Harbor Entrance: A Pilot ' s View, " Problems and Opportunitie s in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press), pp. 95-98. Komar, P. D., and O. I. Inman ( 1970 ), "Longshore Sand and Transport on Beaches, " J. Geophys. Res., _: 5914 Fray' Casimir J. (1973) / Resign of Ship Channels and Maneuvering Areas,' J. Waterways ~ Harbors and Coastal Eng., Proc e ASCE, _(WW1 ): 89-110 Lacasse, Suzanne ~ 1981 ), " Sizing of Containment Areas for Dredged Materials, " Proceedings of the Thirteenth Dredging Seminar, CDS Report No. 253 (College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University), pp. 146-177. Lloyd' s ( 1980 ~ Lloyd' s Register of Shipping: Statistical Tables ~ London: Lloyd' s ~ . brine Board ~ National Research Council ~ ~ 1981 ), Problems and Opportunities in the Design of Entrances to Ports and Harbors (Washington, D. C .: National Academy Press ~ . Mehta, 1~. J., and E. Partheniades ~ 1973 ), "Depositional Behavior of Cohesive Sediments, " Technical Report No. TR 16, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida. National Ocean Survey ~1982 ), Ti de Tables 1982--High and Low Water Predictions (Washington, O . I:: .: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini stration ~ . National Ports Council ( 1976 ), "Measurement of Draught Variations of Ships in Port Approaches, " Part One (United Kingdom: NPC) . National Waterways Study ( 1980 ), Review Draft: Defense and Emergency Requirements of Waterways ~ Ft . Belvoir, Va.: Water Resources Support Center ) .

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6-3 Nederlof, L. (1980), "Sailing through Water Rich in Floating Silt: A Vessel Behaves Differently but Remains Manageable," Ratterdam Europoort Delta, pp. 19-22. O'Brien, M. P. (1969), "Equilibrium Flow Areas and Tidal Inlets on Sandy Coasts," J. Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Eng., Proc. ASCE, 95(WW1~: 43-62. O'Brien, Morrough P., and J. W. Johnson {1980), "Structures and Sandy Beaches," Coastal Zone '80, Vol. IV, pp. 2718-2738. Parker, W. R. . et al. (1975) . "In Lion Hillel - Fir n~n`:i tat M - AC11r~m~"t-= ; n Dredging Practice and Control, " BHRA Fluid Engineering, 1st Int. Symp. on Dredging Tech., B.3, pp. 25-42. . . . Parker, W. R., and R. Kirby (1977), "Fine Sediment Studies Relevant to Dredging Practice and Control," SHRA Fluid Engineering/Texas A & University, 2nd Int. SYmD . on Dredaina Tech.. B.2, OD. 15-26. Rijkswaterstaat (Public Works Department) (1981), "Density Measurements In Situ," Unpublished report, Netherlands. Simoen, R., et al. ~ 1980 ), "The Extension of the Port of Zeebrugge (Belgium ~ --Study Pattern for the Design and Realisation of an Access Channel in Open Sea for the Reception of Large Vessels in the Extended Port, " PIANC Bull., 37 III/1980. Sjostrum, C. H. (1965), "The Effect of Shallow Water on Speed and Trim," Paper presented at meeting of SNARE , Metropolitan Section, New York, September 1965. Survey Report ID. ~ Thompson, T. A., J. J. Ocken, and J. R. Yacobi, Jr. (1981), Vessel Traffic Services: Houston/Galveston VTS Casualty Analysis (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Coast Guard). Trawle, M. J. (1981a), "Prediction of Shoaling Rates for Deepened Estuarine Navination Channels, " Proc. 14th Annual Dredaina Semi nar ~ College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University ~ . Trawle, M. J. (1981b), Effects of Depth on Dredging Frequency, Report 2, Methods of Estuarine Shoaling Analysis, Technical Report H-78-5 (Vicksburg, Miss.: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station). Trawle, M. J., and J. A. Bond, Jr. (1918), Effects of Depth on Dredging Frequency, Report 1, Survey of District Offices, Technical Report H-7 8-5 (Vicksburg, Miss. : U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station ). Trawle, M. J., and J. B. Herbich (1980), "Prediction of Shoaling Rates in Offshore Navigation Channels," Center for Dredging Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, Report No. 232. (College Station, Tex: Texas A&M University). Turner, H. A. (1978), "Physical Model Study for Improved Navigation Channel Design," 26th Proc. Annual ASCE Hydraulics Div. Spec. Conf.: Verification of Math. and Phys. Models in Hydraulic Eng., University of Maryland, August 9-11, 1978, pp. 265-272. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1965a), Tidal Hydraulics, Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-1607 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1965b), "Evaluation of Present State of Knowledge of Factors Af f eating Tidal Hydraulics, and Related Phenomena'." Report Ma.. 3' Vicksburg' Miss*, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.

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6-4 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1970), "Fire Island Inlet to Jones Inlet," General Design Memorandum, September 1970. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1973), Shore Protection Manual (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1979), Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1979 (Ft. Belvoir, Va. : Water Resources _ Support Center). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1981a), Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities "Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office), p. 11_1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1981b), "Engineering and Design: Deep Draft Navigation Project Design, " Engineer Regulation 1110-2-1404, September 24, 1981. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1982a), "Deep Draft Navigation 'Fast Track. Design," Engineer Technical Letter 1110-2-269, January 15, 1982. Engineers (1982b), "Appropriation Title: _ . _ U.S. Army Corps of Construction, General--Channels and Harbors (Navigation)," pp. 1385-1389. van Oostrum, W. H. A. (1979), "MKO Project," Land and Water International , pp. 17-19. van.Oostrum, W. H. A. et al. (1981), "Dutch Efforts for Optimization of Marine Dredging, " Proc. XXV Int. Nav. Cong., Inland and Maritime Waterways and Ports, PIANC, Section II, Vol. 2, Edinburgh, Scotland, ~- May 10-16. Wang, Shen (1980), "Full-Scale Measurements and Statistical Analyses of Ship Motions in a Navigational Channel," Marine Tech., 17: 3S1-370. Wang, Shen, and Scott Noble (1982), "Columbia River Entrance Channel Ship Motion Studv , " J . Waterways , Harbors and Coastal Enq., Proc. ASCE, 108(WW3): 291-305. Wang, S.' C. Butcher, Me Kimble, and G. Cox (1980), 'Columbia River Entrance Channel Deep-Draft Vessel Motion Study," Tetra Tech Report No. TC-3925, Final Report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pasadena, Calif., September 1980. Waugh, Richard G., Jr. (1971), "Water Depths Required for Ship Navigation," J. Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Eng. , Proc. ASCE, 97 (WW3 ): 455-473. Yamaguchi , et al . t 1966 ), "Model Tests on Sinkage of Vessels Underway in Restricted Channels, " Memoirs ~ KObe University of Mercantile Marine), 14. .. Yamaguchi, et al. (1967), "Full-Scale Tests on Sinkage of Super Tankers through Shallow Waters," Memoirs (Kobe University of Mercantile Marine), 15.