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Indoor Pollulants Committee on Indoor Pollutants Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards Assembly of Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1981

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its Congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The work on which this publication is based was performed pursuant to Contract 68-01-4655 with the Office of Research and Development of the Environmental Protection Agency. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 81-83813 International Standard Book Number 0-309-03188-5 Available from . National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON INDOOR POLLUTANTS JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, Chairman MICHAEL D. LEBOWITZ, University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, Arizona, _ochairman RONALD W. HART, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas CRAIG D. HOLLOWELL, University of California, Berkeley, California MORTON LIPPMANN, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York DEMETRIOS J. MOSCHANDREAS, GEOMET Technologies, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland JAN A. J. STOLWIJK, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut DAVID L. SWIFT, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JAMES E. WOODS, JR., Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa JAMES A. FRAZIER, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Staff Officer NORMAN GROSSBLATT, National Research Council, Washington' D.C., Editor LES LYE Be GIESE, National Research Council, Washington, DeCe Research Assistant JEAN E. PERRIN, National Research Council' Washington, DeCe' Secretary ~ 111

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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE REPORT Ott INDOOR POLLUTANTS JAMES Bl3RR, Uni~rersity of California, Berkeley, California WILLIAM F. BRAND, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado DATED M. BURNS, University Hospital, San Diego, Californta BRAWN BUS, Arizona Bealth Sciences Center, Tucson, Arisons WILLIAM CAIN, Yale University School of Medicine, New Baven, Connecticut RI)Y R. CR~RD, Iowa State Uni~reraity, A - es, Iowa CHART W. DI~IG13R, Stanley Consultants, Inc., Muscatine, Iota DOUGLAS DOCKED, B - rverd Sc~ol of Eublic malts, Boston, t - esachusette NURTAN IlSMIIN, University of Pittaburgb, E,ittsburgb, E.nnsyIvenia HUGH EvaNs~ New York University Medical Center, tw York, fir York ARTHUR FRASER, Mount Sinat School of Medicine, New York, ~ York RALPE F. GOI^AN, Tnetitute of Environmental Re~arob, U.S. Army, Natick, llas~chusetts JACK 13. Blarney, Rancho L~o. Amigos Bospital, Dandy, California CHARLES M. Boor, Rational Bureau of Standards, Washington, I).C. GEORGE JARAB, The Jobne Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOHN 13. JARSS=, Baneywell, Inc., at. Paul, Minnesota BDUARDO A. 8. MA~ - DO, Ions State University. A - e, Iffy,.

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PRESTON E. - :~, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. BRIAN HO&r~R, Lovelace Bidical and Bnviro~nta1 Researob Institute, Albuquergue, Hew Mexico G~DI" M. HONTAG, Iows State University, Ales, Iota ANTHONY Now, Univerelty of California, Berkeley, California AN~NY N~AN-TA=OR, Briton Bospital, London, England WAYNE 0", Stanford University, Stanford, California GARY L. REBIDS, Iowa State University, Ads, Iowa RI=ARD RILEY, Petersh~, ^~achusetts GEORGE ROYAL, American Institute of Architects, Hashington, D.C. ROBERT N. SAWYER, Yale Oniversity Bealth Services, New Beven, Connecticut FREDRICx B. STAR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California DONALD SI8BBRT, GEoMET Technologies, Inc., Pomona, California SAMUEL SI~BBRSTBIN, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM R. SOLOMON, University of Michigan Bospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan JAMBS STUBBY "S. JR., Doe AD Science Laboratory. Los Alamos, Hew Mexico TEBODOR D. STERLING, Simon Framer Univere$ty, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada JAMES B. TROSKO, Michigan State gntV6r8ity, E~8t Lansing, Michigan McDONALD E. WRENN, Univere$ty of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah JOAN YOCOM, TRC Corporation of How Snq1and, Hetberefield, Connecticut Hi

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BOARD ON TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONNEN!AL E~rE HAZARDS ROAD E$TABROOR, University of Texas Medical School, Dallas, Texas, Chairman PEILIP I~NDRIGAN, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Bealth, Cincinnati, Ohio, Vice~Cbairean THEODORE CAIRNS, Greenville, Delaware VICTOR COBS, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. JON W. DRAKE, National Institute for Environmental Bealth Sciences, Research Tr tangle Park, North Carolina A. MYRICK FRY, Bowdoin College, Brunewick, Maine RICHARD HALL, McCormick ~ Company, Bunt Valley, Maryland RONALD W. Ed, National Center for Toxicologice1 Research, Jefferson. Arkansas MICHAEL LIE8ERMAN, Washington University Sc~1 of Medicine, St. Louis, Missour i BRIAN Mac~ON, Barvard School of Public Bealth, Boston, Massachusetts RICHARD MERRILY, University of Virginia Law School, Ct'ariottesville, Virginia ROBERT A. NEAL, Cbemica1 Industry Institute of Toxicology, Researob Triangle Park, North Carolina IAN NISBET, Chemical Associates, Washington, D.C. CHARLES R. SCHUSTER, JR., University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois GOD W=AN, Ilaseachusetts Institute of Teabnology, Cambridge, Maseachusetts Nit

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sx Officio ~beZ8 HERD BRE;NICR, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont DAVID CLAYSON, Eppley Institute for Cancer Research, O - ha, ~bracks JAMBS F. CR - , University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin JOE i, University of Kaneas Medical Center, En - e City, Ban"e PEER 0. EN, L~velace Bic~ical and sn~rtron#ntel Research Institute, Albuquerque, - w Mexico ROBERT RAZZ=, University of Maryland, Collie Ark, ^"land ROB=T MIr"R, National Cancer Institute. "the"a, Maryland SEEN MW1P=, tini~raity of - :us, muston, Texas NORM NErsoN' New York University Medical Center, New York, New York JOBN D. SPAR, Harvard &boor of Public "altb, Boston, Massachusetts JARS; L. ~I~B~;BR, Harvard School of Public Bealth, Boston, ^~eachusetts alit

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AC~NTS This document is ~ result of individual and coordinated efforts of the members of the C - mittee on Indoor Pollutants and the contributors selected to prepare various sections of the- report. Dre. Job n D. Spengler and Michael D. Lebowitz, Cheir~n and Cochairman of the Camittee, prepared Cbaptere I, II, and TII, on the basis of material submitted by the other members. Dre. Craig D. Bollowell and Demetrios J. ISosabandreas coordinated the preparation of Chapters IV, A, and Vl. Chapter VII was written under the direction of Drs. Lebowitz, Mar ton Lippmann and David L. Swift. Dre. Lebowitz and James E. Woods, Jr., collaborated in the preparation of Chapter VTII, and Dr. Wood e prepared Chapter AX and Appendix B. Appendix A was compiled by Dr. Ill-will. The whole manuscript was organized, re~riewad. and approved by the full Committee. A special acknowledgment should be paid to Dr . Ronald W. Bart, who chaired the Remittee in its formative period and contributed t hereaf ter as a member . Particular tbanke should be extended to Dr. Hoods, who boa ted subcommittee at Iowa State University to coordinate the material in several chapters. For providing resource material and other information. we note our gratitude to Dr. Joseph F. Cube,* Director of Researeb at the American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~conditioning Engineere,~Inc.s fir. Barry Thompson at the U.S. Department of Forces Moe. ^ Naismith at the Office of Technology Asees~nts and Mr. James L. Repace and Dr. Robert J. M. Borton of the 13nviron~nta1 Protection Agency. Assistance was given also by the staff of the Committee on Toxicology, National Research Councils "e National Agricultural Library, the National Library of Medicine, and the George Hashington University Library. Other persons assisted in Many ways, our appreciation is extended to those not specifically Mentioned. *Deceased. ix

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Dr. Alan P. Carlin was the project officer for the ~iron~ntal Protection Agency. The staff officer for the Oo~itt~ on Inter Pollutants was Mr. J~s A. Frazier, ubo acknowledges the generous assie~nce of are. Jean E. Perrin, secretary. The bibliographic references were verified and prepared for publication by lIrs. L~slye 8. Geese. 51yPl~g ~e done by the Manuscript Processing Unit of the national Academy of &$er~ces, coordinated by Use Bstelle Miller. He entire report was edited by Mr. Norean Groseblatt. x

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QON"NTS EXECUTIVE SPRY Scope of the Report, 2 Organization of the Report, 4 Principal Findings on Specific Pollutants and Classes of Pollutants, 5 Radon, 5 Formaldehyde, 6 Asbestos and Other Fibers, 6 Tobacco Smoke, 7 Indoor Combustion, 8 Microorganism and Allergens, 9 Moisture, 9 Responsibilities, 9 Conclusions, 10 Recommendations, 13 I INTRODUCTION II SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Characterization of Indoor Air pollution, 30 Radioactivity, 30 Aldebydes, 31 Consumer Products, 31 Asbestos and Other Fibers, 31 Indoor Combustion, 32 Sock ing, 3 3 Odors, 34 Other Chemical Pollutants, 34 Airborne Microorganisms and Allergens, 35 Monitoring and Modeling of Indoor Pollution, 36 Factors that Affect Exposure to Indoor Pollution, 36 Health Effects of Indoor Pollution, 37 Involuntary Saok ing, 38 Radon and Radon Progeny, 38 Asbestos and Other Fibers, 39 xi r 1 16 30

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Formaldehyde, ~ O Indoor Combustion, 41 Indoor Contagion, 42 Effects of Indoor Pollution on Bean Welfare, 42 Socioeconomic S&catus, 42 Productivity, 43 Soiling and Corrosion, 4 3 Discomfort, 43 Control of Indoor Pollution, 43 Control Strategies, 43 Codes and Standards, 44 Air Diffusion Control. 44 Indoor Environmental Control Systems, 44 Air~Cleaning E~uip,eene, 45 Cost Effectiveness, 45 .. .. T ~ ~ R~ENDATIONS Radon, 48 Formaldehyde, 49 Tobacco Smoke, 50 Asbestos and Asbestiform Fibers, 51 Combustion, 51 Consumer Products. 53 Aeropathogens and Allergens, 54 Ventilation Standards and Control Strategies, 54 sure Studies, 5S Education, 56 Iv SOU=ES AND CHARAC57~sxIZATTON OF INDOOR POLLUTION Radioactivity, 58 Introduction, 58 Sources of Radionuclides and Radiation, 63 Indoor Concentrations and Radiation Fluxes, 70 Control Techniques, 74 Research Needs, 76 Formaldehyde and Other Organic Substances, 82 Formaldehyde, 83 Other Organic Substances, 93 Consumer Products, 100 Aerosol-Producing Products, 102 Particles Produced as a Byproduct, 103 Products and Activities Associated with E'reporat$on or Sublimation, 104 Some Mechani - s of Biomedical Effects, 106 Spry and Conclusions, 107 Asbestos, Ill Def inition of Asbestos, 111 Important Characterist$ce of A - bestifore Mineral Fibers, lll Asbestos Production and Application, Il2 ABbeBto8 Cont~inetion of the ~nviro~nt. 113 Environmental Sampling for Asbestos, 114 xii ~6 57

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Asbestos Air Data, lI7 Standards, 121 Regulations, 123 Control of Contamination Potent$~1, 124 Spry ~ 124 Fibrous Glass, 128 Definition, 129 Concern over Potential Adverse Bealth Effects, 130 Importance of Characteristics of Fibrous Glass, 131 Analysis, 131 Standards, 131 Control, 132 Combustion Sources, 134 Residential Buildings, 135 Ca~nercia1 Buildings, ~ 47 Tobacco Smoke, 149 Background, 150 Contaminants in Smoke, lS5 Indoor Concentrations of Particles and Vapor from Cigarette Smoke, lS6 Conclusions, 16 4 Odors, 16 8 Sources, 169 Measurement of Odor, 17 S Odor Control, 185 Research Needs, 193 Temperature and Humidity, 202 Beat E:xc hang e with the Indoor Atmosphere, 203 Physiologic Responses to the Thermal Environment, 209 Bealth Consequences of Extremes of Temperature and Tumidity, 212 Characterization of Additional Physical Indoor Pollutants, 213 Source and Noise, 214 Radiof requency and Microwave Radiation, 217 Far-Infrared and Infrared Radiation, 219 Visible Radiation, 221 Ultraviolet Radiation, 222 Spry, 222 At FAC!roRs THAT INI?Lt~CE EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS 225 Buman Activities, 226 Geographic and Local Varistions, 231 Geographic Variations in Indoor Air Quality, 234 Urban, Suburban, and Neighborhood Variations in Indoor Air Quality, 240 Varistions in Indoor Air tCpality in Buildings, 245 Building Factors, 247 Site Charecteristice, 249 Occupancy, 249 Design, 250 Operations, 252 Spry and Recommendations, 252 Fiji

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VI MONITORING AND MODELING OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Fixed-Station Sampling and Monitoring, 259 Continuous Monitor ing, 260 Integrated Sampling, 262 Grab Sampling, 263 Monitoring of Ventilation Rate, 264 Personal Monitors, 265 Personal Sapling Devices, 266 Use of Personal Monitors in Exposure Studies, 269 Modeling of Indoor Air Quality, 277 Multicompartment Models, 279 Two~ompar tmen t Models, 28 0 Single~mpartment Models, 282 Spry and Conclusions, 285 Estimation of Total Exposure to Air Pollution, 286 VI I }MALTS EFFECTS OF INDOOR POLLUTION Introduction, 30 2 Radon and Radon Progeny, 307 Review of Dose and Exposure Calculations, 308 Biologic E:f fects, 309 Summary and Conclusions, 317 Por~ldehyde and Other Organic Substances, 322 Effects of Formaldehyde in Animale, 322 Effects of ~r~ldehyde in Bans, 323 Effects of Other Organic Substances, 332 Fibrous Building Materials, 339 Specific Bealth Effects, 340 Laboratory stridence of Bealth Effects, 342 Epidemiology and Occupational Exposure, 343 Nonoccupational Exposure, 345 Combustion Products, 350 Carbon Monoxide, 351 . Nitrogen Oxides, 353 Spry of Recent Epidemiologic Studies of Indoor Pollution with Special Reference to NOR Exposure, 359 Involuntary Smoking, 364 Absorption of Smoke Constituents, 365 Effects on Bealthy E.ersons, 368 Effects on Special Populations, 372 Oonclusione.." 377 Indoor Airborne -anion, 382 Assessing Indoor Biogenic Pollutants, 38 3 Evidence Of Indoor Airborne Infection, 384 Importance of Airborne Contagion, 387 Prevention of Indoor Airborne Contagion, 388 Allergic Reactions in the Indoor 13nvirorment, 394 Allergic Reactions on the Skin, 395 259 302 Allergic Reactions in the Respiratory Tract, 395 Factors That Determine Allergic Reactions in the Rcepiratory Tract, 399 Allergic Lung Diseases and Their Cause1 Allergens, 401 xiv

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VII] ErE~iCTS OF INDOOR POLLUTION ON BUMAN WELFARE Relationships between Socioeconomic Status and Indoor Pollution, 419 Burean Discomfort, 421 Malodors, 422 Noise, 423 Temperature, 424 Interrelationships of Environmental Factors 430 Scary, 4 30 Recommendations, 431 Decreased Productivity, 431 Def inition of ~Productivity., 432 Productivity in Industrial Environments, 43 2 Productivity In Nonindustrial Environments, 436 Soiling, Corrosion, Maintenance, and Bounekeeping, 43 7 Particle Deposition, 437 Moisture and Fungal Growth, 440 Gaseous Pollutants, 440 Effects of Tight Construction, 441 Effects on Maintenance for Corrosion and Deterioration, 441 Effects on Housekeeping, 443 Method of Treatment, 444 Recommendations, 444 I X CONTROL OF I~R PO==ION Ventilation Codes and Standards, 451 Background, 452 Implementation of Codes and Standards, 456 Summary, 463 Reco~endat ions, 4 6 5 Air Diffusion Control, 46S Air Diffusion Equipment, 465 --I Air Diffusion Criteria, 466 Conclusions, 471 Recommendations, 471 Air Cleaning Equipment, 471 Location of Indoor-Air Cleaners, 472 Type'; of Air~Cleaners, 472 Sugary, 488 S trateg zes for Control of Indoor Pollution, 488 419 , ~ ~,.+ 450 APPENDIX A: AIR~UALI" STATS 50 5 APPENDIX B: ESTI^TI~ ~ I~=T OF "S ID~I" ~= CONSERVATION HIS ON AIR QUASH: A BYPOTHE17IC" CASE 516 Bypothetical Case Study, 516 Existing Conditions, SI7 Case Analysis, 517 Sugary, 53S Reccqomendations, 535 xv

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