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HI MONITORING ED MODELING OF I~R AIR POLLUTION This chapter discusses the research tools required for measuring or estimating indoor pollution and exposure to it. Techniques and instruments used for the measurement of outdoor pollution may be modified for the sampling of indoor environments. Several problems emerge with such modif ications, and those problems are discussed here, as well as instruments designed specif ically for the sampling of indoor air. Personal monitors are increasingly recognized as powerful scientific tools for determining individual and population exposure to a it pollutants . Although they are still in the early stages of application, it is clear the personal monitors can yield data that are useful in associating human activities with exposure to air pollution. The benefits and def iciencies of personal monitors are discussed in a separate section of this chapter. The extent of indoor air pollution can be estimated with numerical models; mass-balance equations are used to estimate concentrations of indoor pollutants as fractions of outdoor concentrations and to estimate infiltration rates, indoor source strengths, pollutant decay r ates, and mixing factors . Several models have been developed, but f ew have been validated against data obtained from measurements. In estimating the total exposure of humans to pollutants {exposure to pollutants encountered indoor and outdoors, in industrial sites and other workplaces, etc.), it is essential to know not only the pollutant concentration., but also individual patterns of mobility and use of t ime . The available information pertinent to the last two characteristics has been gathered roo~;~cly by social scientists and, although interesting, does not meet the information needs for assessing exposure to air pollution. The final section of this chapter discusses the idea of total exposure and what knowledge is needed to measure it. FIXED-STATION SAMPLING AND MONITORING There is an extensive data bare on outdoor air quality, and much of the knowledge gained from studies of outdoor air quality is applicable 2S9

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260 to the characterization of nonindustrial indoor environments. However, the characteristics of indoor air quality in residentis1 and commercial buildings and at other indoor sites can be quite different from those of outdoor and hea~y-industrial environments. Thus, a n',mher of special problems arise: the quality of indoor air is affected by a broad spectrum of pollutants from both outdoor and indoor sources; measurements of indoor air concentrations may require sampling instruments considerably different from those used in the outdoor or industrial environment; and the air volume inside a building is finite, and the rate of air exchange (especially in residential units) may be very low, and therefore, when air samples are drawn from an occupied space by external samplers, the s~mplinq flow rate must be so low a. to have only a negligible effect on indoor air movement and on the air- exchange rate. Because of the effects of equipment heat and noise, an well as occupant inconvenience, sampling and monitoring equipment should (and usually can) be placed in remote locations outside the building being evaluated. Thus, it is common practice is to locate the instruments outside the building space and draw air-~ple streams to them. Se~plinq technigues fall into the following broad categories: - Continuous sampling : Provides ~real-time. sampling: required to observe temporal fluctuations in concentration over abort periods. Integrated or continuous asm-Dlinq: Provides an average sampling over a specified period; used when the mean concentration is either desirable or adequate for the purpose. Grab or spot sampling: Provides single samples taken at specified intervals; typically consists of admitting an air sample into a previously evacuated vessel, drawing a sample into a deflated bag for later analysis, or drawing (by mechanical pump) a sample through a sample collector to extract a contaminant from the sir; suitable when .spot. samples are adequate for the measurement of a pollutant and knowledge of temporal concentration Variation over short periods is not important. Some instruments sample and measure pollutants directly, and others ample for later laboratory analysis. The direc~c-reading inetruments required for continuous monitoring use various types of physicocl~emical detectors that can measure the concentrations of pollutants in situ. Integrated or grab-sampling method. are used when there ts no suitable concentration sensor available, when the pollutants of interest are present at concentrations too low to permit use of direct-reading instruments, or when sampling sites are inaccessible to bulky instruments. Further information on Sampling and measurement methods for air pollutants is available elsewhere. ~ 53 l.' CONTINUOUS MONITORING ~- Cont~nuous monitoring is a technique for sampling and measuring the real-time concentration of pollutants. Indoor sir quality in subject

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261 to both temporal and spatial variations, and data on these variations would be needed to determine the concentrations to which occupants are exposed or to model indoor air pollution. The choice of monitoring techniques must be consistent with the types of information desired and the resources and manpower available. Although continuous monitoring has numerous benef its, it also has a number of disadvantages. Two positive features of continuous monitoring are that peak short-term concentrations can be determined, in addition to average concentrations calculated over any period, and that concentration variation as a function of time can be correlated with source generation , inf iltration-ventilation , and other characteristics. The availability of continuous-monitoring instrumentation depends on many factors, including the chemical properties of the pollutant and the range of concentrations to be measured. Continuous monitors are commercially available for all the gaseous pollutants that are designated ~criteria. pollutants by the EPA--carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and total nonmethane hydrocarbon. . The EPA has specif fed performance criteria for the instruments used to measure each of these pollutants, and all analyzers that meet these specifications in performance sts are designated ~EPA-approved. Continuous-monitoring system a, even with high~quality instrumentation, are not troub.' ~-free. For example, continuous monitors are expensive and rep ire frequent calibration and routine maintenance. In addition, they have their own power and ambient- temperature requirements and can create safety, heat, and noise problems if they are placed at the sampling points. For these reasons, monitoring systems are generally designed to have all equipment for continuous analysis and recording at a single remote site, often a mobile laboratory. Such a laboratory usually contains facilities for calibration and maintenance, and it may also provide electric power and suitable environmental conditions for the equipment. If sampling lines made of flexible fluorocarbon tubing or other nonreactive materials are used, air from several sampling points can be drawn into the laboratory for analysis. One set of continuous monitoring equipment can be shared by several sampling sites if the individual lines are sequentially sampled.' In this scheme, all instruments obtain air samples from a colon manifold, which, in turn, is supplied with air from one of four sampling sites (one of which is usually outdoors) or from a calibration system. ' ~ The length of the sampling interval for each site can be determined by the response times of the individual instruments , the actual transit time in the sampling line, and the details of temporal information required at each sampling site. Continuous monitoring requires highly trained field personnel, rigorous quality-control (calibration} procedures, and provisions for quality assurance ~ independent performance audits of routine monitoring and data-handling operation" ~ . Securing electric _ power and a suitable location for a mobile laboratory equipped with sampling lines and cables can require long-term planning and entail considerable expense. This type of f~xed-station monitoring is not suitable for large-scale s urveys, because of these time and cost considerations . For large-scale survey work, integrated sampling and grab-sampling techniques are generally snore appropriate.

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262 INTEGRATED SAMPLING Integrated sampling, in which a known sampling rate is maintained over some period, is commonly used for pollutants that must be accumulated to permit analysis. The period of collection may be several minutes or several weeks or month.. Analysis may be performed at the collection mite or in a laboratory. The data resulting from analysis of integrated samples are expressed as an average concentration over the sampling period. A variety of particles, gases, and vapors are sampled by this technique. Particles can be collected on filter media for later gravimetric and chemical analyses. Size-selective particle samplers, such as various dichotomous air samplers58 and portable cyclone sailers, i. l.2 are used in indoor aerosol sampling when it is desirable to determine the concentration of fine particles (less than 2.5 ~ in aerodynamic diameter} or respirable particles (less than 3.S am in aerodynamic diameter ~ . The samples can be analyzed by beta gauge or gravimetric techniques capable of determining mass concentration; by x-ray fluorescence, neutron-activa~cion analysis, etc., to determine their elemental,composition; and by ~ variety of separation and analytic techniques to determine chemical Composition. Aerosol samplers must be placed directly at the sampling sites, to avoid the particle losses that occur when air i. drawn through sampling lines. me sophistication of particle samplers ranges from hand-held unit. that require manual operation to fully automated units that can be programed to operate unattended for several weeks. Gaseous substances can be collected by both passive (diffusion-controlled) and active {powered bulk air-flow) samplers. Soluble vapors, such as formaldehyde and ammonia, can be collected by liquid gas washers and bubblers. Air sampling with bubblers, as well as with other accumulating sample collectors {such as ad~orbers and condensation traps), requires that the total volume of the air sample be accurately known. This can be accomplished with dry- or wet-test meters, which measure sampled volume directly, or by measuring or controlling the sampling rate and tie e . Many techniques have been used to measure the concentrations of radon and radon daughters. Because of the low level of radioactivity usually found in buildings, integrated measurements are often necessary. Passive devices that use sensitive thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips, 23 passive fi", or track~tch techniques25 can record alpha decay over periods of weeks or Months to determine average radon concentrations. Radon-daughter concentrations can be determined by Massing a known volume of air through a filter paper . . . . ~ _ ~ ~ (typically for 10 min) and then measuring total alpha acezvley on one filter with an alpha-decay ratemeter. Integrated sampling techniques have several advantages: they are less expensive and require lest manpower than continuous monitors, they can be used to measure concentrations that are too low to be measured directly, samples can often be analyzed later at a more convenient time or place, and average concentrations over long periods are easily obtained. But they also have some disadvantages: short-term temporal

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263 information is lost; samples must be taken frequently if temporal variability in concentration in to be assessed; transporting the sample to its point of analysis may require special handling, special environmental conditions, or rapid delivery to avoid deterioration; and quality control may be more difficult deco implement. GRAB SAMPLING In grab sampling, one sample is collected over a very short period. Grab samples have to be taken frequently, if temporal variability in pollutant concentrations is to be assessed. It is usually the least expensive technique for field sampling, unless very f requent samples are required. It may simply involve f illing a container with an air sample and transporting it to a laboratory for analysis, or it may involve extractive sampling, as in calorimetric detector tubes. It is moat useful when the laboratory equipment required for analysis is at a remote location, when a very large number of samples are required, or when manpower and equipment are limited. Sampling vessels commonly used include plastic bottles, glass tubes f illed with adsorbent, stainless-steel containers, and bags of aluminum polyester (Mylar), P~C film, and fluoroplastic film. '' Grab sampling has been used to estimate concentrations of radon, tracer gases, and organic compounds. Grab sampling can be used to measure radon concentrations by pumping a known volume of air through a filter into a Tedlar24 bag, which is impervious to radon. The time at which the sample is taken must be recorded, and, because of the decay properties of radon gas, analysis must be performed within a few days. If necessary, the sample can be concentrated with a cryogenic trap or transferred directly into a z inc sulf ide scintillation chamber s ~ for alpha-counting. The bags are inexpensive and can be mailed, with manual pumps, to field sites. Similarly, air samples can be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for organic compounds with gas-chromatographic techniques. Grab sampling, with its low cost and minimal manpower requirement, is suitable for large-scale survey work. However, a number of problems are associated with this technique. No information other than an ~ instantaneous. concentration can be obtained, and this value could be greatly affected by something as simple as the opening of a door or window. Sampled volumes are relatively small, and the laboratory measurement technique must be sensitive enough to determine ambient concentrations directly. Inward and outward diffusion of various gases has been observed for many material'; used in collection bags, and leaks in the containers and connectors are common. Par tickler attention must be given to degradation, adsorption, oontamina~ion, transformation, and the possible formation of artifact pollutants. The expeditious transport of grab samples with reference to time, temperature, sealing, and handling is important. Quality control is difficult to maintain, but must be established before this technique can be used with confidence.

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264 MONITORING OF VENTILATION RATE Indoor air quality is directly affected by the rate at which outdoor air enters a building. Ventilation can be used to maintain low concentrations of indoor-generated pollutants . In turn, hen comfort conditions, such ss temperature and relative humidity, can be the determining factors in setting ventilation rates. Measurement of the infiltration-ventilation rate, the meteorologic factors that affect it (outdoor temperature, wind speed, and wind direction), and comfort factors (temperature and relative humidity} can be an integral part of fixed-location field monitoring. ventilation systems; vary considerably. Detached single residential units are ventilated primarily by infiltration--the uncontrolled leakage of air through cracks in the building envelope {around doors and windows, through walls and floor joints, etc.~--and by the controlled opening of windows and dove. Large buildings are usually ventilated by mechanical systems of varied complexity. So-called f resin air enters detached residential structures by infiltration; the term fair changes per hour. (ach) is routinely used for thin source of ventilation--~1 ache means that a volume of outdoor air equal to the volume of the interior building space ~leaks. inside each hour. That does not idly that the incoming air drives out or displaces the old air as it enters; rather, it is assumed that perfect mixing takes place. In practice, however, perfect mixing is impossible to achieve. Tberefore, an estimate of outdoor-air flow rate is based on the assumption of perfect mixing and homogeneity of indoor air to facilitate calculating infiltration rates. I3y far the most c ~ only used method of estimating air~exchange rates is the tracer-gas decay technique..' In this method, a tracer gas is released into the building space at one or more points, possibly a; - ~ - ~~ t~ ~ ~~ _~ "~= "~= ~^ arm. -~ this way' an attempt is made to produce a uniform concentration throughout the building ~pace. If homogeneity is maintained, the decay of the tracer gas is exponential, and the infiltration rates can be determined by sampling the air at several times. The air-exchange rate can be obtained from the slope of a semilogarithmic plot of tbe natural logarithms of the pollutant concentration versus time. In a similar method, the equilibrium-ooncentration method, ~ tracer gas is released at a constant rate into the building space. .' In the s~eady-steee condition with perfect mixing, the indoor concentration will reach a steady-atate value. From this and the injection rate, We infiltration rate can be calculated. With this technique, although it is simple to perform, it often takes many hours to reach a steady-state equilibr in - . More complex tracer~gas system can measure infiltration rates on a semicontinuous or continuous basis.~, Many gases have been used for tracer-gas measurements. Some of the properties that such a gas should have are easy measurement at low concentrations, minimal interference from other air constituents, chemical stability, nonreactivity, lack of. absorption by building contents, a density comparable with that of air, safety for hens, lack of explosiveness and flannosbility, absence of

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265 other interior or exterior sources, low cost, and ready availability. Some gases commonly used are sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, and ethane.~ Mechanical ventilation systems vary considerably in design and complexity, and methods chosen to estimate ventilation rates must be suitable for the systems under consideration. The methods commonly used to estimate the ventilation rate for systems that use recirculation include pressure-measuring devices (such as inclined manometers and U-tubes), velocity meters (such as pilot tubes, hot-wire flow~eters, heated-thermistor flowmeters, and heated-thermocouple flow~eters), mechanical gas-flow indicators (such as rotating and deflecting-vane anemometers), tracer-gas techniques, and heat-balance techniques.S, Care must be taken to distinguish between the total rate at which air enters a particular zone and the rate at which outside air enters the zone. Temperature-measuring devices suitable for continuous monitoring include thermocouples, semiconductors, and thermistors. Typical indoor temperatures range f rom 15 to 40 C. Thermocoupler present problems with low voltage outputs near 0C and have nonlinear characteristics, but only when the cold junction is at 0C. Semiconductor temperature sensors Chat use integrated circuits and have a voltage output linear with temperature are suitable for continuous recording. The most common temperature probe for measuring temperatures in this range is probably the thermistor, because of its high resistance ratio (which yields large voltage changes for small changes in temperature), its linearized output, and its wide operating range. Temperature gradients can be large in a building and even in an individual room. Probes should be placed where they will sense the temperature experienced by the occupants. Temperature probes should be calibrated against mercury thermometers that meet the specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM}. Relative humidity can be measured with sensors of the human hair. type, which expand and contract with changes in humidity, or with dewpoint-measuring devices. Commercially available dewpoint hygrometers, based on the principle that the vapor pressure of water is decreased by the pressure of an inorganic salt, are well suited to continuous monitoring. Relative humidity can be readily calculated from dry-bulb and dewpoint temperatures. Relative-humidity measuring devices can be calibrated with the aid of sling psychrometers. PERSONAL MONITORS Over the last 2 decades, a wide variety of miniaturized air samplers have become available that collect gaseous and particulate samples from the immediate vicinity of people, even as they conduct their normal activities. The initial devices used battery-powered samplers, defined as ~nonpassive.. Although widely used. there devices are often larger and heavier than desirable. Mare recently, a variety of diffusion- and permeation-con~rolled samplers have become available. These ~passive. devices are applicable solely to gas- and

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266 vapor-~ling and are very seall and light. They all use sensitive chemical or physical analytic methods. Three recent workshops reviewed candidate technologies for personal sampling and monitoring of air-pollution exposure. A BrooNhaven group.' identified potential methods for gas- and particle- monitoring. An EPA feasibility study38 identified useful methods for monitoring sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Another EPA symposiums' explored the use of available technology for health~ef fects studies and other uses . Blood carboxyhe~oglobin {COBb) can be used as a measure of the actual dose of carbon Monoxide received by a person. Respirable-particle concen~crations are also of prime concern in health-effect" studies; come of the factors involved in obtaining reliable data have been evaluated. t.2 PERSONAL SAMPLING DEVICES Gas-SamPling The major techniques developed for sampling gaseous pollutants are passive (based on membrane permeation or diffusion through a geometrically defined air space) and nonpassive (in which air-pu~eping devices draw defined air volumes through devices of known collection e f f iciency) . Passive S~plere. Passive samplers use the kinetic energy of gas Molecules and the efficiency of the adsorbent collector to extract pollutant Molecules from the air at ~ known rate. The Ampler must be placed at the collection site, but has no requirement for ~ pump, flow regulator, or batteries. Such samplers therefore have major advantages with respect to weight, cost, and Maintenance. mere are two basic types: diffusion and permeation. Their use is liaised by the rate and amount of gaseous diffusion through a geometrically controlled air space or by transport through a permeable membrane that is specific for the pollutants being sampled. The choice and use of the diffusion-collector technique require knowledge of the coefficient of diffusion of the pollutant to be sampled in air under conditions similar to those normally encountered. Humidity effects have been encountered; ~ese are most probably caused by changing absorbent efficiency. One diffusion sampler has been developed.'''. for the measurement of abut nitrogen dioxide. It uses the principle of diffusion through the bore of an open tube that defines the rate of transport to the collector. The quantity of nitrogen dioxide diffused fras the open end of the tube to the collector surface (triethanol~ine) is calculable by Fick's fires law of diffusion, which may be expressed as: QNO2 D{A/L}Ct,Wh~re QNO2 ~ number of stoles of nitrogen dioxide

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267 transferred during time t, A a cross-sectional area of tube (cm2), L ~ distance from open end to collector surface (cm), C ~ concentration difference between tube entrance and closed end (mol/cm3), and D a coeff icient of dif fusion of nitrogen dioxide in air (cm2/s) . The required nitrogen dioxide absorbed ~ 2 iS given as a time-weighted average concentration for the -sampling period. 2 Substituting typical values of the parameters--D ~ 0.154 cm Is, A ~ 0.71 cm2, and L = 7.1 cm--simplifies the expression to: Q~O2 = 2 ~ 3 (ppm-h) x 10-9 . In principle, this method is applicable to determination of any gaseous air pollutant for which an efficient, selective absorbent is available and for which an appropriate analytic chemical procedure may be devised. The size of the sampler can be varied, but attention must be given to scaling factors. ~ ~ ' Diffusion samplers have reportedly been used for water vapor and sulfur dioxide," nitric oxide,' t Is aniline,~3 benzene, 4 Is ammonia,'2 carbon monoxide, and NQx ' s An activated-carbon element has been used as the collector in a badge that has an open grid to define the geometry of the gaseous diffusion port. 32 This method of sampling requires use of gas-chromatographic (GC) analysis for measurement of the specif ic gaseous pollutant absorbed. A variety of organic compounds can be sampled and measured by this technique. A large variety of permeation samplers used for monitor systems are available commercially. All use membranes fabricated and calibrated to control the rate of permeation of the pollutant to the collector, which may be a solid medium, such as charcoal or Tenex GO for specif ic chemicals . Process ing of the collected sample var ies widely; chromatographic or calorimetric procedures are commonly applied for measurement. Transport of a gaseous pollutant across a membrane resembles the diffusion process. ~7 However, permeation involves solution of the gaseous species in the membrane . Specif ic interaction between the gas and the polymer matrix introduces variables. As in a diffusion collector, the concentration of the gas approaches zero on the side of the membrane next to the collector, causing a gradient that results in flow from the ambient-air side. The permeability constant, P. of a membrane is def fined by the equation N = PA (C1 - C2) /S, where ~ ~ rate of transport across the membrane (mol/s ), p a permeably ity constant (cm2/s ), A ~ cross- sectional area (cm2 ), S ~ membrane thickness (cm), C1 ~ concentration of gas on ambient side of membrane ~ ~/m3}, and C2 = concentration of gas on collector side of membrane ~ ~g/m3) . As a function of time, Nt = PAClt/S. If W - Nt, the amount of gas that passes through the membrane in time t, then. because P. A, and s are constant for any device and gas, W = Clt/k, where k = s/PA, or C1 = Wk/t. Thus, the amount of a gaseous pollutant, W. trapped in the collector medium is proportional to its concentration, C1, in the air. The value of k must be determined by calibration.

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268 Membranes used in permeation collectors are made from polymeric materials, such as dieethylailicones, silicone polycarbonate, silicones, cellulose acetate, TFI: Teflon, F!:P Teflon, Mylar, polyvinyl fluoride, Iolon, and Silastic. Thicknesses of 2.5-25 x 10 3 cm have been tested. " The permeation collector with activated absorbents is particularly useful for organic pollutants when GO analysts ts abetted. Co~ercia1 monitors are available from the all Corporation35 and Du pant that allow determination of Pore than 80 compounds by this method. Sulfur dioxide,63 .. i~ chlorine,37 ~~ vinyl chloride I'' "' nitrogen dioxide, ~ .. alkyl lead, I" and benzene ~ " have been determined. The utility of a spectrum of absorbents in these passive collectors teas been tested.. Nonpassive Svate~. A considerable variety of smopling system using pu - s to move the air have come into use over the last 2 decades, including impinger systems and solid adsorbere for gases and impingers, filters, and infractors for solid particles. Directly indicating devices using impregnated papers, chalks, and crayons and stain~detector tubes have also been used. 'these techniques have been reviewed in detail by Linch55 and Saltz~n.~ A recent development in personal monitors involves ~ pump that is- positioned next to the wearer's diaphragm by a light harness. The volume of air pumped by the motion of the thoracic cavity is recorded by an electronic package, which may be checked by ~ detached readout system. This system samples air for gases through costed diffusion-tube collectors or for particles through sasI1 filters at flow rates of 7S-SOO ml/min, depending on the wearer's breathing rate. m e complete apparatus weighs 590 9. In conjunction with spira~eter calibration, actual exposures to measured pollutants may be calculated. Particle-Samplinq Particulate samples are collected by using the same principles used for large-acale samplers: filtration, impaction, and liquid impingement. The separation of the respirable fraction of particles is of considerable importance for personal monitors, and collection of adequate numbers of samples for analysis is critical. All particle- sa~plers use some device for souring the sir sable and for separating the respirable~particle fraction. Collection is preceded by such ~ device as ~ cyclone presa~ler. me relatively low power available to drive the air- - plink pop usually limits particle collection by personal monitors to filtration, either in ~ single stage or in a second stage that follows a cyclone that collects the large. nonrespirable particles. For respizable-particle-~mpling. the air-flow rate must be precisely controlled. The theory of aerosol collection by filtration has been extensively reviewed by Dorman,2i Pich, " Fuchs, 28 Green and Lane,36 Liu and Lee,5' and Lippeann.~. Small-a cale impactors suitable for respirable-dust-sa~pling with a personal monitor bane been described by Marble and Willeke.~.

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269 Biologic Monitoring Measurements made on the human body and its excretions constitute an alternative way of measuring exposure to environmental pollutants. They include measurements of blood, urine, feces, and hair. The methods that can be used to relate environmental pollutant exposure to human composition have been reviewed at length in other NBC reports (on carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide., and various trace metals). USE OF PERSONAL MONITORS IN EXPOSURE STUDIES Exposures to air pollution usually vary with a person's mobility patterns and activities. Therefore, estimating the total exposure of a person from one or a few air-pollution measurements at stationary locations cannot properly characterize the variation in a population's or a person's actual exposures. To evaluate health effects, it ts necessary to know actual personal exposures and the distribution Of those exposures in a population. The need for direct measurement of personal exposure to pollution has been noted by several author. 67 Personal monitors for various pollutants are commercially available. The Brookhaven workshop identified four basic experimental designs: 1. Use of Individual Air Pollution Monitors for Direct . Determination of EX ~ sure. Each person in the study population would wear or carry an individual air pollution ~ . . . . monitor during the course of the study. The same individuals would also be subjected to continuous or periodic evaluation of health responses Individual exposure and response would thus be measured. . . . Because of economic constraints, only relatively small populations could be studied by this direct approach. 2. Use of Individual Air Pollution Monitors to Adiust Results from Fixed Stations. As previously indicated, there can be substantial variations between area level measurements and personal exposure measurements. By monitoring exposure of individuals with individual air pollution monitors in areas also monitored with fixed stations, one would obtain the distribution of individual exposures in relation to measurement. obtained at the fixed stations. If one or several relatively constant relations were found in various areas, fixed-station data would then be corrected for use in estimating population exposures. 3. Use of Representative Sampling to Determine Subgroup Exposure. A carefully selected sample of the study population would be asked to wear or carry individual air pollution monitors. The sample would be stratified, grouping those expected to have similar exposures (e.~., office

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291 ott77 definer an ~exposure. of person i to concentration c statistically as the joint occurrence of two independent events: person i is present in microenvironment j, and the concentration Ctj} c occurs in microenvironment j . C (; ~ denotes the probability distribution of the concentrations associated with the microenvironment and is based on f ield monitoring data . Then, the integrated exposure Hi of person i is computed as the sum of the products of the concentrations encountered in each microenvironment and the time spent there: = _ . ~ Cjtij, j = 1 where c. is the concentration associated with microenvironment j, ti is {he time spent by person i in microenvironment j, and J is the total number of microenvironments occupied by person i in some period of interest. Conceptually, this model can be represented by a three-dimensional array (see Figure VI- that is similar to a three-dimensional space developed by Moschandreas and Morse. 70 However, the computer simulation follows one person at a time through his or her daily activities, and the resulting distribution of exposures is obtained by considering those of all persons in the simulation. The times ti spent in the microenvironments are variable and do not need lo be integer multiples of 1 h. REFERENCES 2. 3 1. Amass, C. E. Passive membrane-limited dos~meters using specific ion electrode analysis, pp. 437-460. In D. T. Mage, and L. Wallace, Eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Development and Usage of Personal Monitors for Exposure and Health Effect Studies . U. S . Environmental Protection Agency {Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, and Health Effects Research Laboratory) Report No. EPA-600/9-79-032. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Pr inting Of f ice, 1979 . American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. 5th ed. Cincinnati: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1978. Azar, A., R. D. Snee, and A. ~abibi. Relationship of community level" of air lead and indices of lead absorption, pp. 581-594. In D. Barth, A. Berlin, R. Engel, P. Recht, and J. Smeets, EdS. Proceedings. International Symposium. Environmental Health Aspects of Lead, Amsterdam, October 2-6, 1972. Bamberger, R. L., G. G. Esposito, B. W. Jacobs, G. E. Podolak, and J. F. Mazur. A new personal sampler for organic vapors. Am. Ind. Hyg . Assoc. J . 39: 701-708, 1978 . 5. Berlandi, F. J., G. R. Dulude, R. M. Griffin, and E. R. Sink. Electrochemical air lead analysis for personal environmental

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292 ~\Ro~ 1 2 9 8 6 w at, 5 2 '1 ~ \ . ~ ~ MY W.' i i \\- \ !n , \ \ ~ Hi\ ~.~ \\ hi\ , 1.~ FIGURE VI-5 Graphic representation of person-environment-time Stray in computer simulation model of exposure to air pollution suggested by Ott.

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