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Id CONTROL OF INDOOR POLLUTION The quality of the environment in a building is inherently dependent on the design and operation of the building ' s environmental control system. Several factors that af feet the des ign and operation of control systems are identif fed in Chapter A, including human activities and geographic and building characteristics . Optimally, control systems are designed to maximize human comfort, and it is essential to know the acceptable ranges for environmental characteristics {comfort and air~qual~ty factors). Some constraints that must be imposed on control systems are related to cost and energy consumption. As a result of the application of these constraints, the goal of maximal comfort in usually compromised. The ranges of conditions within which control systems operate are usually based on codes and standards that have been developed and promulgated to protect the health and welfare of occupants. This chapter begins with a review of codes and standards that pertain to indoor pollution. Codes and standards have been developed as prescriptive guidelines based on consensus, but, as energy conservation and operating cost become more important, the need for evaluation of control-system performance increases . Cr iteria of system acceptability are also changing-codes and standards are becoming oriented more toward performance, and life-cycle costs are receiving more attention. Changes in the attitude toward environmental control present several cliff iculties . Feedback control for acceptable indoor air quality is recognized and needed, but the availability of reliable and inexpensive controllers is seriously limited. Performance-oriented standards ham not been widely accepted by contractors and enforcement officials, ~~:;suse of barriers in technology transfer and increased costs of implementation and liability. And economic decisions based on life-cycle Casting have not been accepted by contractors and building developers, who have resisted because of a lack of incentives, such as amortization periods and all:~*ance of pas"-through of operating costs, and because of the high cost of capital. Appendix B considers energy, environmental, and economic factors and presents a method for providing acceptable control of indoor air quality at acceptable costs of money and energy. 450

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451 VENTILATION CODES AND STANDARDS .. Control of indoor environments in residential and commercial buildings to achieve what Is termed ~comfortable. or an ~acceptable. thermal quality requires approximately one-third of the total annual energy consumption in the United States.6S An additional 10% may be required to maintain conditions that are acceptable for occupants in industris1 facilities. Ventilation systems have been reported to require as much as 501 or 601 of the fatal enerav consumed in building. 5. SO 7 ~ ~ For energy conservation, rather arbitrary changes in building codes and standards are being proposed. Is Reduction of ventilation in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings could jeopardize the health, safety, or welfare of those who occupy them. Reduction of energy consumption is a necessary but insufficient step in the development of acceptable building energy management programs. Also required in the maintenance of environmental conditions that are not deleterious to the occupants Or harmful to property. These conditions include spatial, thermal, illumination, and acoustic qualities of the environment, as well as the gaseous and particulate qualities of the air. Ventilation is the historically and currently practical means of providing acceptable indoor air quality. To protect the health, safety, and welfare of the general public, building codes have been adopted and enforced by local, state, and federal government agencies. These codes generally specify minimal acceptable ventilation cr iter is to be maintained In the buildings . Note that Ventilation air, ~ as used here and elsewhere in this document, refers to outdoor air or recirculated, treated air. Compliance with building codes is usually the responsibility of licensed professional engineers and architects during design. Responsibility for compliance during operation often is vague, if specified at all. After a building has been designed and constructed, the owner or manager usually assumes responsibility for maintaining the quality of the indoor environment, and there is normally no official enforcement. State and local building codes are normally based, directly or with modification, on one of three model building codes published in the United States: The BOCA Basic Building Code ~ s ~ ~ of the Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA); the Uniform Building Coder' of the International Conference of Building ort~czals (ICBO): and the Southern Building Code55 of the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. (S8CCI). Building codes are usually derived from standards that have been promulgated by authoritative bodies, such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Other organizations that publish standards for the building industry are the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Society of Hechanica1 Engineers (ASME), the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES), the

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452 American Concrete Institute (ACI), the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI), and the Sheet Metal Contractors Association (SMACHA). (In preparing proposed procedures for listing voluntary standards bodies for federal agency support and participation, the Department of Commerce held discussion. with come 3 7 voluntary standards bodies. 62) Standards published by these organizations are usually developed by a consensus method and are known as .voluntary standarde. or ~consensua standards. 62 ,' Voluntary standards are usually adopt - , after periods of open review, as guidelines of recommended practice or minima performance criteria by which an organization may govern itself. However, a voluntary standard may become mandatory if it is adopted within legal document-, such as government standards or building codes. Standards also are developed in response to state or federal laws. These are known an Mandatory standards. ~ 2 ~ ~ and are promulgated in the form of state or federal regulations after they have been subjected to public hearings. Agencies responsible for the promulgation and enforcement of mandatory standards relevant to the building industry include the Department of Housing and Urban Development (BUD), the Department of Health and Human Services {D~S, formerly the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, or DREW), and the Department of Energy (DOE). BACKGROUND By selecting the site, size, shape, and orientation of housing, man has nearly always take- advantage of natural ventilation for thermal and air~uality contra ventilation requirements in buildings have been specified since ice eighteenth century. The early history of the development of ventilation codes and standards has been reviewed by Nevins,.' Klaus et al.,32 and Arnold and O'Sheridan, Incest As shown in Figure IX-1, ventilation rates increased from 4 cfm/person in 1824 to 30 cfm/person in 1895. A minimal requirement of 30 cfm/person dominated design of ventilation systems during the first quarter of the twentieth century, as evidenced by the fact that in 1925 the codes of 22 states required a minimal ventilation rate of 30 cfm of outdoor air per person. 32 A major change :n ventilation standards resulted from experimen"1 work reported by Yaglou et al. '. in the 1930~. These studies recognized the importance of controlling indoor air quality, as well as ventilation-air quantity, and reported ventilation rates in cubic feet per minute per person required to provide ~odorfree. environments as functions of available air space per person. It should be noted that these ventilation rates were bared on the assumption that outdoor air of resin air ~ ~ was odorf tee. The Yaglola studies, conducted under controlled experimental conditions, have served as the primary reference in codes and standards for the last 40 yr . However, because of the cliff iculty in accurately estimating occupancy and the lack of feedback control methods for

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453 30 O 25 co A: Al 20 LU z~ 1 5 o - ~S 10 by - _ - _ _ i,_ ASHVE R - tuirarmna r' 1 / Tred~old (t824) 0 1825 1850 1875 19~00 1925 1950 1975 1980 YEARS Accepted Rquiranen~ \ Subject to R~lustion ; - ;8 for ~ ASA Standard Yaglou (1938) ASHVE Requirement ASHRAE Standard 82-73 (1973} Current Revaluation FIGURE LY-1 Historical development of ASHRAE Standard 62-73 After Klauss et al.

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454 ventilation, many codes and standards, including several now in e f feet, ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ - 7 a have specif fed ventilation requirements as room-air changes per hour, rather than exchange rate per person. Theoretically, these or iter ia should be synonymous, but they are not . When ventilation rates are specif fed as room-air changes per hour, sensitivities to spatial dimensions and occupancy are lost. For example, 5 air changes per hour (ach) in a theater with a 20-ft (6.1-m) ceiling height and a sparse occupancy of 100 ft2 (9 .3 m2) of floor area per person would result in 161 cfm {79 L/s) per person, whereas the same room-air exchange rate and occupancy in a classroom with an 8-ft {2 . 4-m) ceiling would mean 67 cfm {32 L/~) per person. Bowever, at full-load occupancies of 10 ft2 (o.g m2) per person in the theater and 20 ft (1.9 m2 ~ per person in the classroom, 5 ach would result in 17 cfm (8 L/s ~ per person in the theater and 13 cfm ~ 6 L/s ~ per person in the classroom. Thus, at less than full-load occupancies, the ventilation rates per person would exceed the values shown in Figure ~X-2, whereas at full loads, the ventilation would be insufficient to provide ~odorfree. air. The inherent problems associated with specifying air changes per hou r have been recognized in some standards for several years . In 1 946, the Amer ican Standard Building Requirements for Light and Ventilation, AS3.1, was published by the American Standards Association (ASA) with primary criteria in cubic feet per minute per square foot of floor area. A A revision and update of A53.1 was published in 1973 by ASHRAE with primary criteria in cubic feet per minute per person. ~ The latter standard was adopted by the ANSI (formerly ASA) in 1977 and has been designated ANSI Standard B194 .1. For the f irst time in a ventilation standard, Standard 62-73 provided a quantitative def inition of Acceptable outdoor air ~ and specif fed conditions under which recirculated air could be used. Both minimal and recommended ventilation rates were specified in the ASHRAE standard to accommodate fuel economy (minimal values) or comfort in odorfree environments (recommended values). Energy savings at design surmer and winter conditions resulting from minimal ventilation rates specified in Standard 62-73 have been estimated to range f rom 27 to 81% for various occupied spaces, compared with rates in Standard A53.1. 'I In response to demands for energy-ef f icient buildings, ASHRAE developed a new standard, which was published in 1975: Standard 90-7S, Energy Conservation in flew Building Design. ' Through a contract with DOE, the National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, Inc. (NCSB0S), undertook, with the three n~odel-code groups recognized in the United States, to write a model Code for Berry Conservation in New Building Construction. ~, This roodel code was based on ASlIRAE Standard 90-75 and is generally considered to be its codified counterpart. By 1980, legislation either had been parsed or was being considered by 45 states for energy-conservation regulations based on these two documents. ~ ASHRAE Standard 90-75 was expected to reduce energy requirements in new buildings by 15-60%, 12 but efforts to promulgate the standard resulted in a conflict with Standard 62-73. Standard 90-75 stated that the ~minimum. column in Standard 62-73 for each type of occupancy

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455 30 - z 25 - :~: - ~ 20 cat go to - 15 10 s _ _ _ _ O l I 0 100 \ \ Theater \ ~ \.o~ ~0', occupancy - 10 f t2tperson . classroom occupancy 2 - 20 ft /person MI N I MUM YENTI LATION FOR ODOR-EREE SPACE AStlYE RECOMMENDATIONS (1936) ~0z i; AVERAGE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS 200 3iO0 400 500 AIR SPACE PER PERSON ( ft3) FIGURE IX-2 ventilation rates resulting f ram the Yaglou studies .

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456 .shall. be used for design purposes. This statement in Standard 90-75 effectively deleted the Oregon mended. column in Standard 62-73 and caused serious concern regarding the possibility of insufficient ventilation in new buildings. For example, when smoking was allowed in a room ventilated at the minimal rate of 5 cfm ~ 2 .4 L/s ~ per person, the carbon monoxide concentrations approached the limits specified by the EPA primary ambient-air quality standards, and particle concentrations exceeded the proposed limits by a factor of 30-60. i2 .. There is still controversy about what are acceptable concentrations of pollutants and ventilation rates. In January 1981. ASERAE adopted Standard 62-1981' in an effort to resolve some of the problems with Standard 90-75 and to reflect newer design requirements, equipment, systems, and instruments. A comparison of the newly revised Standard 62-1981, Standard 62-73, and the obsolete Standard A53.1 is shown in Table IX-1. Several major revisions have been made in an effort to resolve the apparent conflict between operating ventilation control systems for energy savings and operating them for protection of the health and comfort of the occupants. The quality of outdoor air to be used for dilution and control of indoor air pollution has been defined, not only in terms of the EPA pr imary standards, but also in terms of other recognized guidelines and professional judgment. values for minimal and recommended ventilation rates have been replaced with required values for smoking and nonsmoking areas. Nonsmoking areas have proposed values similar to the existing minimal values, and those for smoking areas are similar to or greater than the values currently recommended . A method has been specified that will determine the amount of recirculation air required to compensate for allowable reductions in outdoor air. The amount is determined as a function of air-cleaner e f f iciency . The operation of mechanical ventilation system during periods of occupancy is specified as a function of the source of indoor pollutants . An alternative method specifies both objective and subjective criteria for indoor air~quality, but the method of achieving control is left to -fine discretion of the operator. With the advent of performance criteria for indoor pollutant control, conflicts between various codes and standards could became more intensive. IMPLEMENTATION OF CODES AND STANDARDS Ventilation codes and standards have been published by several agencies and organizations. As ~ result, the designer or operator of a system has the responsibility of reviewing the relevant documents and then deciding which of them apply. In many canes, the values in these codes and standards will not be consistent. Thus, it can prceent a

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457 -m ~ ~ ~- ~ ~ 2 . you t . V U) . ~ - .~ L ~ , C ~ 2 c e in| V V ~ ~ ~ o c, 0 At s ~ ~ V. ^ ~ ^ o: C ~ | E ~ ~ v e ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ C) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 3 c ~ ~ ~ ~4 $~ at 1 V ~ 6 ~ 1 ~ ~ S :> V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z O ~ 0 V Cal I I., ~ O o ~ V 0 O| 'A -` -a ~ at ~ c ~ l'. Oral ~ I ~ V A, ~ S in 0 ~ ~ p4

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458 challenge to the building designer and operator to select a ventilation rate that will meet the requirements of all relevant codes and standards. Under these circumstances, the usual procedure has been to select the largest value that would satisfy the requirements of all the codes and standards. Because of recent concerns regarding energy consumption and costs, some regulations have been promulgated or proposed that are in direct conflict with those promulgated to protect the health or comfort of occupants; an example is the 1977 Assembly Bill 983 of Wisconsin, Ventilation Requirements for Public Buildings and Places of Emplownent. Bill 983 would have eliminated mandatory minimal ventilation requirements specified in the state building code (i.e., 5 cfm per person} during the period October 1 to April 1 of each year. Building owners would have been allowed to close or otherwise regulate outside-air intakes to conserve energy during these periods. Bill 983 was passed by the 1977 General Assembly and vetoed by the governor; the veto was overridden by the Senate and sustained by the Mouse. This legislation was reintroduced as a rider to an appropriations bill in the 1979 General Assembly . I t was later amended to allow reduced ventilation only through adminstrative action; in that form, it passed . The state Department of Industry, Labor and Human Relations, previously responsible for ventilation requirements, will administer the law. A summary of the most commonly cited ventilation codes and standards is shown in Table IX-2. Several model codes and ASHRAE Standard 62-73 may be applied to each of the nine functional categories of buildings listed in Table IX-2.S Other voluntary and mandatory standards are shown as they apply to particular functions. It should also be noted that the NCSBCS model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction was developed with the three model-code groups and applies to all functional categories. I' This model code specif ies ventilation rates for energy calculations as the minimal values in Standard 62-73 0 The ASHRAE standard, in turn, defers to other standards or codes when they have precedence and require higher ventilation rates. Domicile" - As indicated in Table IX-2 ~ the two primary sources for ventilation requirements are ASHRAE standards ~ ~ and the HUD Minimum Property Standards IMPS) . ~ ~ ~ ' ~ Both nets of standard" are considered voluntary, but may become mandatory under 'specific conditions--Standard 62-73 when adopted as part of a state energy code, and the MPS if housing is financed through the Federal Housing Administration (E~A). Ventilation rates for various spaces throughout private dwelling places are specif fed in Standard 62-73 as 5-20 cfm/per~on {minimum) and 7-50 cfm/person (recommended). The higher rates are for bathrooms and kitchens and are for intermittent operation. The MPS also set intermittent exhaust rates in kitchens and baths at 15 and 8 ach, respectively. The 1979 revisions of the MPS allow ventilation by

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459 TABLE LX-2 Sources of Ventilation Codes and S&candards for Occupied Spaces Buil di ng-Funct ion Cat egory - Domictle: place of residence, such as a single-family dwell- ing, multifamily dwelling, public housing, rowhouse, apartment, or con- domi nium Educat tonal: but ld- ing used f or class- rooms or instruction Laboratory: building - used predominantly for research and diagnostic work, and not necessarily for instruction Medical: building used for health-care facilities, such hospital, clinic, medical center, sani- tarium, day nursery, infirmary, orphanage, nursing home, or mental-health institu- tion Voluntary Standards ASHRAE6 ~ 9 MPS 490069 MPS 4 9107 ASHRAE 6 ~ 9 I IAR guide jade 2 Mu ASHRAE ASHRAE6, 9 MPS 49207 Office: such buildings ASHRAE6'9 as used for offices, Civil administration. Or radio or tele- vision station Public assembly: build- - ASHRAE6'9 ing where groups can meet for such f unc- tions as theater, restaurant, cafeteria, retail store, art gallery, museum, bank, pos t of f ice, court- house, assembly hall church, dance hall, coliseum, passenger terminal, or library Mandatory Standards l 9 CFR 1.1, 197974 29 CFR 1910, 197972 H~ 79-1450068 Model Buildlug Codes BOCig UBC SBCCI 55 NCSBCS17 B()C2~15 ~ 16 ItBC 9 SBCCI55 NCSBCS 17 ~9 UBC SBCCI55 NCSBCS1 7 BoC~15 ~ 16 use 9 SBCC155 NCSBCS17 ~,oC,15, 16 UBC SBCCI55 NCSBCSi7 15,16 Usc SBCCISS NCSBCS17

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460 liable IX-2 (coned ) But l di ~-Funct ion Category - Rehabilltation: non- . healt in-care bu ildi ng used for instruction, but not of the regi- n~ented classroom type; pertains more to read just~nt, such as jail ~ prison, refo rmo story, or half-way houses Warehouse: but 1 di ng used for storage of materials and sup- plles, such as stor- age facility, msin- tenance faclli ty, garage, airplane hangar, or bus barn Industrial: such . buildings as factories, assembly plants, foundries, mills, power plants, eelephone-exchange facllitie~, water and waste~water treatment plants, solid-refuse plants, zoos, greens houses, aviaries, arboreta - , or others requiring environ- mental control for process control Voluntary Standards ASHRAE ~ 9 ' ASHRAE 6, 9 ASH~69 9 Handatory Standards os~72 osHA72 Model Building Codes BoCtI5,16 UBC SBCCI55 NCSBCS17 SOCKS 5,16 UBC SBCCI55 NCSBCS17 BoC,15, 16 UBC SBCCI 55 NCSBCSl 7

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495 pace-heaters fueled with gas or oils therefore, large runts of carbon dioxide and water vapor are introduced indoors. The indoor-pollution problems caused by the lack of spot ventilation or exhaust in single-fa~nily residences are only now being studied. The information is inadequate to assess the magnitude of the problems or to define the amount of ventilation air needed to abate the pollutants produced by these sources. Source removal is the most effective means of controlling indoor pollution. Examples of source removal are nonsmoking areas and prohibition of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and kerosene heating units for indoor spaces occupied by people. These strategies are more effective when substitute products are available and less effective when they rely on enforcement to ensure compliance. Where source- removal strategic. modify human behavior, conflict with consumer preference, or involve an economic penalty, they are less likely to be adopted by regulatory bodies. The adverse effects of indoor con~caminant exposure must be well established in the public perception. Public debate centered on the restriction of smoking in public places illustrates the controversy that surrounds source-re~val strategic" for maintaining indoor air quality. However, when material or product substitution is not disruptive or expensive, source removal is clearly the strategy of choice. Tt is obvious that these decisions should be made early in the design stage" of new facilities. If a material or product already in use is determined to be hazardous. removal may still be the strategy of choice. Source removal has been applied in the removal of lead from house paint both in the produce and by paint removal. A current widespread effort to remove all asbestos from school buildings is another example of the source-removal control strategy. Cost consideration must be carefully compared with the likely benefits in reduced health risks and property damage and with other imputed benefits. Source removal may cause a displaced problem, such as occupational exposure during removal or a hazardous-waste disposal problem. These and other factors must be carefully considered before the institution of a program to remove an existing source. Air-cleaning devices have been used in large indoor commercial, industrial, and institutional environments to eliminate or reduce indoor pollutants. This strategy has not been widely used in residences, because the devices are expensive to buy and operate and can be bulky and noisy. Small commercial electrostatic precipitator-, ion generators, sir filters, and gas absorbers (charcoal filters) are used to remove contaminants in some indoor environments. Many of these devices are advertised to provide particlefree and odorfree clean indoor environments. The efficiencies of these devices need to be evaluated by independent organizations. Source modification is an alternative to source removal. The objective of source modification is to reduce the rate of pollutant emission into the indoor environment. Source modification includes maximizing the efficiency of gas cooking and heating facilities that reduce emission of some pollutants. Coating of lead-ba~ed paints and asbe~to--containing building materials to seal the surface and prevent emission is effective and practical. Coating radon- and formaidehyde-

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496 emitting surfaces is promising and warrants further study. A source should not be modified when it can be assumed that the codification will cause emission of a different contaminant. The spraying of surfaces that are formaldehyde-emitters may itself constitute a source of indoor contamination. Table IX-13 summarizes control strategies available for several types of pollutants. The table identifies strategies proved effective in controlling a pollutant, but interactive effects must bee considered if several pollutants are to be controlled simultaneously. mis requirement and the complexity of control strategies lead to the necessity of an overall systems designer. Control of indoor contaminant concentrations by dilution with outdoor air will continue to be a major control strategy. Direct control of the ventilation system based on indoor contaminant concentration is the best means of achieving the optical compromise between energy conservation and pollution control. Some provision is needed to add or conserve moisture. }bones in cold climates need to conserve humidity in the indoor sir in winter and reject as much water as possible to the outside in super. Simple energy-conserving means for this kind of moisture control are not yet available, but the latent heat associated with moisture movement can represent substantial energy that is not conserved. New ventilation control strategies are needed. Positive ventilation with heat recovery should be introduced in the building industry. Past practice fixed the temperature of the mixed sir {outside air plus recirculated air). This simplified comfort control. but usually resulted in excessive energy loss. A floating mixed-air temperature based on outside-air temperature can provide closer control of the ventilation sir and energy savings. New sensors for optimal control of ventilation should be developed. Although laboratory instruments can measure the concentration of Tonne indoor pollutants, often these instruments are too bulky, too expensive, too complex, and generally not suitable for extended, unattended use that might be required in measuring indoor environments . Greater emphasis should be placed on controlling specific pollutants at their sources. Co~bustion-generated pollutante-- including carbon dioxide, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide-can be removed at the source. New inexpensive, 11, and uncomplicated pollutant control devices are also needed. New construction materials must be examined carefully for undesirable environmental effects. The efficiency of each control strategy must be studied both in laboratory and under ~real-life. conditions. As indicated earlier, systems approach may be required in large structures however, less elaborate and inexpensive means of Controlling contamination in indoor residential environments are conceptually possible, are needed. and can become practicable. Some indoor pollution problems can be controlled through the marketplace choices of an educated consuming public. The general public must be informed of the sources of indoor contaminants and the - the a

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497 0 0 v v o a: L' a o - o ~ 0 1 o x a ~ A: ~ ~ a - ; o E" 0 ~ so :- v a, I: o a ~ c} :: o ~ ~ o a ~ ~ o a, ~1 v o I: a ~ 0 =e e ~ ~ ~ o Cot ~ 0 V ~ 0 0 C _. I _ V 0 - ~ ~" C, :. v 0 V A: 0 X I I: o V o ~ 0 v D CO ~ To 1 V 0 1 s0_ t~,4 0 ~ _ C ~ ~ Z == == =~" ~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z ~ Z 00 CL Z ~ V" ~ : 60 C ~ g ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ Y ~ e ~ ~ ~ Z . ~ ~ ~ :^ :' 0 0 :' O ~ e~o 0 C D C ~ h ~ ~ ~ ~ a: ~ Z ~ Z ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ . ~ V l: b E C c K 111 ~ = O C ~ ~ b ~ 0 ~ ~ l , o ~ 0 a ~ b E _ ~ 1# V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 60 ~ ~ C :' ~ ~ ~ V ~4 b e e ~ ~ e ~ ~ C 0 0 e X I b S ~ b 0 0 C E 08 C C C O O 811 _ b _. V 4, | O ~ O .e ~ ;~) ~ ~ ~ x: ~ ~ ~ v ~

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498 adverse consequences of acute and chronic exposures. It must be informed about the cost and effectiveness of various control options and the efficiencies of commercially available air-cleaning equipment. The public should be informed of its legal r ights with respect to product liability. The obligation and rights under purchase and lease agreements pertaining to healthful indoor environments for residential, commercial, and public places must be defined. Education provides easy and inexpensive steps that help to improve indoor air quality. Such steps include reduction in indoor smoking, ban of potentially harmful indoor sprays, use of proper paint, changes in daily routines to evoid exposing all family members to pollutants, and the like. The efficiency of this control strategy cannot be estimated, but most would agree that only a properly educated public can require steps toward ~mp~ementlng one or more combinations of the other control strategies. Public-interes~c organizations, public utilities, professional societies, trade and manufacturing associations, and government agencies all have a responsibility to ensure that the public receives factual information related to indoor contaminants. REFERENCES 1. American National Standards Institute. Constitution and Bylaws of the American National Standards Institute. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1978. 16 pp. 2. American National Standards Institute, and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1981. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. New York: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1981. 48 pp. 3. American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ASK RAE Handbook and Product Directory. 1979 Equipment, pp. 2.1-2.8. New York: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1979. 4. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioninq Engineers. ASHRAE Standard 52-76. Method of Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter. New York: American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~Conditioning Engineer-, Inc., 1976. 5. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air~Conditioning Engineers. ASERAE Standard 55-74. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. New York: American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~Conditioning }engineered, Inc., 1974. 12 pp. 6. America--: ~ Gaiety of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~Conditioning Engineers RESERVE Standard 62-73. Standards for Natural and Mechanical Ventilation. New York: American Society of Beating. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1973. 17 pp. 7. American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~C;onditioning Engineers. ASERAE Standard 90-7S. Energy Conservation in New Building Design {Section 123. New York: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air~onditioning }engineers, Tnc., 1977. 11 pp.

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