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APPENDIX A AIR~QUaLI~Y STANDARDS The possibility of establishing standards for indoor air quality is under consideration, because its importance for protecting burn health is recognized as a major national en~riron~ntal taste. The ever- increasing cOse of energy has heightened the need for considering such standards, inasmuch as ~ cost-effective method of reducing energy use in buildings is to reduce ventilation, an action that can increase indoor air pollution. There is ~ regulatory indoor air standard for nonoccupational air in the United States only for ozone. There are voluntary standards for indoor air quality that may serve as guidelines to federal, Ante, or local government agencies on formaldehyde, carbon ~acnoxide, chlorine, radon, carcinogenic aerosols, and other chemical substances. The ozone standard applies only to devices thee produce ozone as ~ waste product. The radon standards and guidelines apply only to buildings that are contaminated as ~ result of urantu~proc:~esing (~.g., by the use of mill tailings as landfill) and buildings that are on phosphate land in Flor Ida . Tables A-l through A-8 flat ~ number of o.S. outdoor air~quality and occupational standards and ease relevant foreign standerde. They are presented not as an exhaustive list of air~quality standards, but rather to Fort perspective to the many allusions to standards throughout this report. 505

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506 TABLI! A-1 National Primary Ambient-Air Quali~cy Standards as Set by the U.S. Environments Protection Ageneg Long Term Short Tere Concentration ~ Averaging Conc~ntratlon ~ Averaging Contaminant ~ g/m Tiae i 8/e Time Reference Sulfur oxides, 80 1 yr 365a 24 h 15 measured as sulf ur dioxide Particulate 75b 1 ye 260a 24 h 14 matter Carbon monoxide Ozone Hydrocarbons Nit rogen dioxide 100 1 ye ~ Leat 1.5 3 Moe aMay be exceeded only once per year. bGeo~e t ric mean. 10, OOOa 8 h 16 40,000a 1 h 16 235C 1 h 20 160 3 he 17 19 18 CStantard is attained when expected number of days per ialen~r year with a~xt~1 hourly average concentrations above 0.12 ppa (23S ugia ~ is equs1 to or lees then 1, as determined by Appendix H to subchapter C, 40 CFR SO. t3-h period is 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. e3-mo period in a calendar quarter.

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507 Table A-2 Additional "blent Air Quality Guidelinesa Contaelnan~b Acetone - O Acrolein - O Knin ~ O JeryllI" Cedetue Calctu. oxide ~ Itee Carbon dlculfide - O Chlorine - O Chrome Cresol - O Dichloroethane - O Ethyl acetate - Fomaidehyde - O Hydrochloric acid - O Hydrogen sulf ids - O Ilercaptans - O ttercur~r Methyl alcohol - O Meth~rtene chloride - O Nickel Nitrogen "iodide Phenol - O Sulfatce Lons Ter Concentrations Floe 1 "/~13 24 h 0.5 ~g1~3 Yr 0.01 Ug/~3 3G 2.0ug/a 24 0.15 ag/~3 0. 1 ~g/e 1. 5 a~ g/~3 0~1 ~g/~3 2~0 .8/53 14 ag/m 0.4 ~g/~13 3 40~50 ug/e 2 u8/ot3 1~5 ~g/~3 20 ~g/m SO ~g/53 2 ug/m 0. 5 ~g/~3 0.1 ag`~3 4 yg/m 12 ug/~3 50 ~g/~3 100 U g~m3 Trlchloroetl~y lene - O 2 ag/m 5 ag/m3 2 ug/~3 SO tlg/~3 100 ~ 8/~3 Sulfuric acid - O Venadiue Zloc Short Term . _ Concentratlon~ Tiee~ , d h __ 20~30 ug/~3 C 0.45 ag/, 30 ein 0.3 ag/. 30 ain 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 ~ 24 h 24 h 24 h Yr 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h Yr 24 h Yr 24 h Yr 26 h 26 h Yr 24 h 24 - /~3 25 - 13 7 ~g/e __ 30 "n C C - 6~0 ~g/~3 42 ~g/m 120 Ug`~3 3 ~g/e 42 ~/m 20 u8/~3 6. S ~g/~3 150 - /~3 __ 1 ag/m3 __ 30 ain 30 ein C 30 ~n 1 h 1 h 30 "n 30 a$n 30 min 200 ug/m3 30 2ein 16 ag/a'3 30 ~n ~Reprin ted "th per~iselon fro. ANSI/ASHRAE,1 which states' "Outtoor air shall be co - idered unacceptable if it is known to contain any cont~inant at a concentra- tion abo~re that listed in Table [~-23. This table covere other co~on cont~i~nto for which no EPIL aublent air quality stantards exist. These [concentratlo - ] were selected fro. current practices in ~rarious states, provinces ant other countries.- bCont~inants oarlced -0- have otors at concentrations sooetiees found in outdoor air. The tabulated concentrations do not necessarily result in odorlese conditions. CUnlese otherwise specified, all air quality aeasurements should be corrected to standard conditions of 25C (77~) temperature and 760 am (29.92 in.) of aercury pressure ( 101. 3 kPe ) . dC, cellinB, or maxia~1 allowable concentration. eAn industry organization has appealed t}`e air quality limits of 120 ug/m3 as shown in Tables 2 and 4 of St~ntard 62-1981. The appeal is under considera- tion. If any change in Standard 62-1981 results from the app~.al, all original recipients will be inforaed by ASERAE.

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S08 T"LE A-3 Selected Occupatio~l-Safety and -sleuth Stewards as Set by U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administrations Contaminant Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Forms dehyde Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Ozone Sulfur dioxide Inert or nuisance dust, respirable fract ion Concentration, b - 9 agle POP 5, 000 SO 2 25 5 0.1 5 Asbestos c c aData from 29 CFR 1910.1000.~l 9, 000 55 3 30 9 0.2 13 b8^ time~welghted averages, except values for nitrogen dioxide, which are ceillag values. CEewer than mo fibers longer than 5 ~ per cubic centieenter.

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so9 Table A-6 Selected Guidelines for Air Contaminants of Indoor Origina Contaminantb Ace tone - O Ammoni a - O Asbe stos Benzene - O Carbon dioxide Chlordane - O Chlorine Cresol - O Dichlaromethane - O Formaldehyde - O Hydrocarbons, aliphatic - O Hydrocarbons, aromatic - O Me rcury Ozone - O Phenol - O Radon Te t rach 1 oroe thy le ne - O Trichloroethane - O Turpent ine - O Viny 1 chloride - O Concentration Exposure Time 4.5 g/~3 Continuous 5 ~ g/m Continuous Known human carcinogen; best available con- trol technology Known human carcloogen; best available con- t rol technology __ 120 ug/m3 Continuous W. German and Dutch gultellnes 100 ug/m3 Continuous __ 0.01 working Annual average Background OeO02~ leve 1 ~ WL ~ 0. 004 WL Known human carcinogen; best available con- t rol technology Reprinted with pemission from ANSI/ASHRAE, 1 which states: "If the air is thought to contain any contaminant not listet ~ in various tables ], guidance on acceptable exposure . . . should be obtained by reference to the standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. For application to the general population the concentration of the~e contaminants should not exceed 1/10 of the limits which are used in industry.... tn so',e cases, this procedure may result in unreasonable limits. Expert consultation may then be required." "The~e substances are ones for which indoor exposure standards are not yet available." Contaminants marked "O" have odors at concentrations sometimes found in indoor air. The tabulated concentrations do not necessarily result in odorless ~onditions. An industry organization has appealed the air quality limits of 120 ug/m3 as shown in Tables 2 and 4 of Standard 62-1981. The appeal is under considera- tion. If any change in Standard 62-1981 results from the appeal, all original recipients wi 11 be infonned by ASH RAE .

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510 0 1 AS ~ tn E" O - 1 '1 1 a: ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ C E 1 oe C 40 0 0 (U C$O 1 ~ eo _ c e ~ c~ V ~ :, ~ ~ ~ = - c 0 _ C, ~ oo ~ 0 :, ~ ~ :^ O ~ :' O ~ D =, ~S V V s~ O ~ :- ~ ~ ~ .. = h4 0 D v C: = - ~ O ~ C ~ _ 0 V ~ V C: ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ _ CO ~ c5 C ~ ~ ~ ~ V C ~ CI 0 ~ ~ ~ V ~, - _ ~ ~ 0 ~ O ~ 0 0 ~ 1 '~ e~ V O m~ . 0 V '~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 V C O C) _1 0 _ Sad 3 ~ c C 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ cn U) ~ 3 ~ CL Cd O C~ ~ ~ ~ _. ~ _ 3 ~) _ a' ~ ~ --- ~ o ~ ~ 1 C IV_ ~ o o :> ce ~ - - :> ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ v : 0 _ ~ 0 V ~ _1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0U _- 3 O0 _ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ C D 3 D ~ ~ 3 :' _ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ V q5 _ :> ~ C r_ ~ ~ :^ ~ ~ O C C~ oo O v ~ ~ cn ~ O ~ O ~ 3 _ .C ~ ~ ,: _ ~ ~ _ 3 ~ ~~~ ~~ v V O0 0 o5 C ~ ~ V C ~ ~ ~ ~ OQ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ C C ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ V ~ ~ C O I ~t E ~ D 0 0 ~ ~ ~V G5 "~ ~ ` - ~ ~ ~ ~ E V ~ ~ _ X ~ C ~ :> O IV ~ C ~ ~ O V I C~ t I ~ ~ s ~C C.) ~ O E C~ 0 <: I ~i C~ ~ I I I ~ _ 1 S ~ :> ~5 ce O O ,~: :> O cD ~ :^ == ~ ~ ~ C C C ~ ~ ~ ~ a~ ~' ~ E ~ _ u~ . - ~ o0 ~ O _ _ :: a0 C _' ~ ~ _' ~ _' ~ ~ c~ cr ~ ~ O O O O O ~ 00 0 0 ~~ ~~ D 3 3 ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~C e e ~ ~ O O O ~ tJ O 00 0 0 ~ ~ O ~ ^ O ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ c~ 3 Z D ~ )" O 0 a ~ . ~ - ~ ~0 a~~ , ~ ~ ~ I ~ E ~ ~ C 0 00 ~ _t ~ D ~ O ~u ~~~ l: ~ ~ x ~ ~ ~ e V (V ~ ~ ~ _ _ q5 ~ ^ 0 ~ ~ ~ _ ~ 0 ~ ~ oo ~ ~e _ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 .. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ 3 0 ~ t _ ~ V ~ ~ .. O 0U ~ E ~ 0 0 a0 - 1 ~ ~V ~ C ~ ~ ~ t~ ~. ~ C 3 ~J ~ ~ V x ~ ~ e ~ o5 a, v c ~ ~ v S ~ ~ ~ O C C ~ tc 3 * ~ c~ ~ _ 3 . ^ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~d ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ X ou ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ E O S O ~ ~ C3O O O ~ Z ~ ~ X D X a 0 x ~s _ C O ~ ~ ^, C S _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e C ts5 u, O C ~ ~ a~ ~ C~ ~. C ~ ~ ~ C) U) ~ ~ ~ ~ _ c~ ~ =' t~ cn O ~ ~ D

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511 - TO 0 t {O -2 :- ~ S TIC ~ o o v V. 0 ca C' ~ it_ h A: o 0 0 Ct) _( O . . . Io o ~ o , At, ~ C s ~ ~ 0 ~ V C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 0 e ~ 3 ~ o o z ~ 0 a 2 ~ ~ D ~ ~ v v v C >` ql ,~ ,t, ~ ~ ~ ~ b E C ~ ~ e e ' e O e l,0 " O ~ ~ p~ ~ O ~ O C%l . ~ ~ ~ O oo~ 1 - ' e t~ V dV O V o0 ~ ~ ~ V 0 0 ~ ~ ~ S ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ v D ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ,~ ,= ,~ v ~ 3 :, ~ ~ ~ ~ O 3 ~ ~ t0 ~1 O O ~ % ~ O e e, E S E I E b E E e E 8 ~ c c c b X ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ X X ~ X X ~ 6 v ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 0 V~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ O O ~ ~ O CL ~ ~ ~ ^ ^ ^ O L) ~ 0 _ CL {L ~L ~ 6 ~ E ~ 0 ~ v _t _~ _ ~ ~ _d ~ ~ C~ _ ~ .C V e e e ~ (V S D O O O O O O ~ ~ ~ ~ C3O v v C ~ S: CD ~ V O S" CL V D o 0 s" 0. ~ O . L' ~5 ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ C: V E ~ ~ e V .. oo ~: ~ ~ - ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ o, - ~ 0 ~ cL ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ,,, c ~ c e' P11 C ~ C :~ o =: e: o c: ~ c: ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ 3 CL ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ :' `: ~ :> ~ 3 E] :D ~ Z u, ~ c' V ~ . ~ . O O ~ O u, O ~ V O ~1 D

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512 TABLE A-7 l Other Indoor Air~Quality Standards Contaminant Concent ration Ref erence United States: Ozone 0.05 ppm (IOO ug~m3) 9 Japan: Carbon dioxide I,OOO ppm (l,BOO m,/m3) Carbon monoxide 10 ppm 311 mg/m ~ 6 Particles 150 ug/m

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513 TABLE A-8 Ventilation Standards for Dwellings U . S . STANDARDS AS}lRAE Standard 62-73: ANSt/ASHRAE Standard 62-1781: Single-Unit Dwellings,2 Single or Hultiple Units, cf~n/person cfm/room Area Hinimum Recommended Minimum . General living areas S 7-10 10 Bedroc - s 5 7-10 10 Kitchens 20 30~50 100 ~ intermittent operation) Toilets, bathrobes 20 30~50 50 (intermittent operation). All other rooms NA NA 10 Basements, still ty 5 S NA rooms PROPOSED NORTHERN EUROPEAN STANDARDS Area Standard - General living areas 0.5 ach aeasured in spring ant autu~n, but not less than 4 L/e per beds K! tchens 10 L/s continuously, a plus: For an electric stove with more than two rings, an ad justable fan capable of removing at least 80Z of the gaseous cooking products Toile to al L/s equals approximately 2 cfm. For other electric stoves, an exhaust fan of at least 30-L/s capacity For gas stoves, an exhaust fan of the size necessary to remove the combustion products 10 L/s continuously,a plus an openable window or vent or an exhaust fan capable of 30 L/s

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514 REFERENCES 1. American National Standards Institute, and American Soe$e~cy of Heating, Ref rigerating and Air~Conditioning Engineers . ANSI/ASE~AE Standard 62-1981. ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. New York: American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1981. 48 pp. 2. American Society of lIeating, Refrigerating.and A~r~Conditioning Eng ineer~ . ASBRAE Standard 62-73. Standards for tlatura1 and Mechanical Ventilation, p. 6. New York: American Society of Beating, Refrigerating and Air~Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1913. 3. Andersen, T. Formaldehyde in the indoor environment--~ealth implications and the setting of standards, pp. 65-77. In P.0. Fanger, and 0. Valbj,Srn, Eds. Indoor Climate. Effects on Human Comfort, Performance, and Health in Residential, Commercial, and Light-Industry Buildings. Proceedings of the First International Indoor Climate Symposium, Copenhagen, August 30-September 1, 1978. Copenhagen: Danish Building Research Institute, 1919. 4. Atomic Energy Control Board [Canada] {AECB). Criteria for Radioactive Clean-up in Canada. AECB Information Bulletin 77-2. Ottawa, Ont., Canada: Atomic Energy Control Board, 1977. 5. Baars, R. The formal aspects of the formaldehyde problem in the Netherlands, pp. 77-82. In P.O. Fanger, and 0. Valbj~rn, Eds. Indoor Climate. Effects on Hewn Comfort, Performance, and }lealth in Residential, Commercial, and Light-Industry Buildings. Proceeding s of the First International Indoor Climate Symposium, Copenhagen, August 30-September 1, 1978. Copenhagen: Danish Building Research Institute, 1979. 6. National Technical Information Ser~ric:e. Building Control Law USA Dust Collectors. {in Japanese; English abstract) 1914. APTIC No. 63252. 7. NKB. For~lag till Nordiska riktlinjer for byg~nadabesta~eleer rorande: Luftkvalitet. proposed Nordic Guidelines for Building Codes: Air Quality] Stockholm, Sweden: NEB, 1979. 8. Swedish Ministry of Agriculture. Preliminary Proposal for Measures to Minimize Radiation Risk in Buildings, Sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.~. Stockholm: Swedish Ministry of Agriculture, 1979. 9. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration. Standard for equipment producing ozone as a byproduct. Maximum acceptable level of ozone. Code of Pederal Regulations, Title 21, Part 801. 415, July 1, 1979. 10. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for ~ Recommended Standard .... Occupational Exposure to Eor~ldehyde. Deal (NIOSB) Publication No. 77-126. Washington, D.C.: O.S. Government Printing Off ice, 1977. 11. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Realth Administration. Occupational safety and health standards. Al r contaminants. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Part 1910: 100O, July 1, 1979.

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515 12. U.S. B~vironmenta1 Protection Agenc5!?. Indoor radiation exposure due to radium~226 in Florida phosphate lands: Radiation protection recommendations and request for comment. Fed. Reg . 44: 38664-38670, July 2, 1979. 13. U.S. B`,rironmental Protection Agency. Interim cleanup standards for inactive uranium processing sites. Fed. Reg. 4S: 27366-27368, April 2 2, 1980. 14 . {J . S . Environmental Protection Agency . National primary ambient air quality standards for particulate matter. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 50.6, July 1, 1980. 15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Par t 50 . 4, July 1, 1980 . 16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Code _ , ~ Of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 50.8, July 1, 1980. 17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National priory and secondary ambient air quality standard for hydrocarbons. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 50 . lo, July l, 1980 . 18. O.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead O Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 50.12, July I, 1980. 19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National primary and secondary ambient air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Par t 50 . ll, July 1, 1980 . 20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National primary and secondary ambient air quality Standards for ozone. Ante of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 50.9, July 1, 1980. 21. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Proposed cleanup standards for inactive uranium processing sites. Fed. Reg. 45:27370-2737S, April 22, 1980. 2 2 e U ~ S. Mine Safety and Health Administration. Regulations and standards applicable to metal and nonmetal mining and milling operations. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 30, Part 57.5-38 and 57.5-39, July 1, 1979. 23. Wahren, B. Formaldehyde Indoor Air Standards in Sweden. Paper presented at the Consumer Product Safety Commission Technical Workshop on Formaldehyde, Washington, D.C., April 9-11, 1980.