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Hypersonic Technology for Military Application Committee on Hypersonic Technology for Military Application Air Force Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC. 1989

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the .~VA&LL~ A~a.U.~lIl' Vi ~ll~lllb~11118, =1U Ulna 1nSUtU~ 0[ mealcme. 1 ne members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate Hat requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administra- tion and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to idenu- fy issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel ~ Thither in`~.QirlPnt nf th" Alit ^, Medicine. - - --- - ~ - ~~~-~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ Natimna1 A~O~l^~r ~ =~;_A~ A__3 ^1 _ ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ A-~_^ ^- ~^ I my ~11~ ~lloLlLUL~ U1 The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communizes. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report represents work under Contract No. F49620-87-C-0122 between the United States Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 90-60076 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04229-1 Copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 S112 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, February 1990 Second Printing, November 1990

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HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY APPLICATION ~ 111 AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD John L. McLucas, Chairman QuesTech Inc. John J. Martin, Vice Chairman NASA (retired) Julian Davidson, Chairman Emeritus, Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc. Josephine D. Davis, Albany State College Paul R. Drouilhet, MIT Lincoln Laboratory Craig L. Fischer, M.D., Diametrix Inc. Grant L. Hansen, Unisys Corporation James E. Hubbard, Jr., Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Benjamin Huberman, The Consultants International Group Erich P. Ippen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lorenz A. Kull, Science Applications International Corporation John K. Lauber, National Transportation Safety Board James W. Mar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Gary D. Mather, Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc. Robert C. Mathis, General, U.S. Air Force (retired) Brockway McMillan, Chairman Emeritus, Bell Telephone Labs, Inc. (retired) Hyla S. Napadensky, Napadensky Engineers, Inc. Brian O'Brien, Chairman Emeritus, Private Consultant Oswald G. Villard, Jr., Member Emeritus, Stanford University Robert A. White, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign COMMITTEE ON HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY APPLICATION Jack L. Kerrebrock, Chairman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert F. Bestgen, Battelle Columbus Laboratory Seymour M. Bogdonoff, Princeton University Dean R. Chapman, Stanford University Donald C. Fraser, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Nicholas J. Grant, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Richard C. Henry, Lt General, USAF (retired) Robert H. Korkegi, National Research Council Artur Mager, Consultant James W. Mar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Frank E. Marble, California Institute of Technology Duane T. McRuer, Systems Technology Incorporated Ronald Smelt, Lockheed (retired) Morris A. Steinberg, Lockheed (retired) Robert A. White, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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1V HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY APPLICATION LIAISON REPRESENTATIVES Lt. Col. Vincent L. Rausch, AFSC/NAI, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio Lawrence M. Weeks, NASA, Washington, D.C. AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD STAFF Vernon H. Miles, Sr., Director Donald L. Whittaker, Research Associate/Editor Terrie Noble, Administrative Associate Katherine H. Atkins, Secretary

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HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY APPLICATION CONTENTS Executive Summary ~ 1 Introduction ~ ~ 1.0 Potential Military Hypersonic Applications ~ 11 2.0 Technologies Relevant to Hypersonic Vehicles and Their Status ~ 13 2.1 Aerodynamic - Propulsive Integration 2.2 Propulsion Systems 2.3 Aerodynamics 2.4 Controls, Guidance, Instrumentation and Information Systems 2.5 Materials for Hypersonic Vehicles 2.6 The Structural Challenge 2.7 The Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics 2.S Experimental Capabilities 3.0 Findings and Reco m m endations ~ 56 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.S 3.9 Appendixes Potential Military Hypersonic Applications Propulsion - Airframe Integration Propulsion Systems Aerodynamics Controls, Guidance, Instrumentation and Information Processing High Temperature Materials, Cryogenics and Cooling Structural Concepts The Role of CFD Test Requirements A. Statement of Task 67 B. Acronyms 68 C. Glossary ~ 69 D. Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics ~ 73 E. Request for Information from NASP Contractors 75 F. Briefing and Meeting Schedule 83 .

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