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Inclex A Absorption controls, 16 visible light detection, 39 Asides), deposition, monitoring, 96 Acid rain, 8, 69 Active remote sensors, 179-80 Advection term, obtaining, 143 Aerosol particles, 136-40 assessments, 4 composition, 160-61 (table) concentrations, studies, 146 data uses, 73 definition, 136 determining sources, 133 dry deposition, 15- 16 formation, 136 (figure) future research, 139 light effects, 136 physical measurements, 162 (table) production, 138 (table) removal processes, 4-5, 139 residence time, 88 role in water condensation, 15, 88 scavenging processes, 88-89 soil, 46 sources, 137 transformations, 138 transport, 137 . ~ Agricultural biomes, source investigations, 24 Air masses, remote sensor technology, 176 Air pollution, 113 measurement from satellites, 176-77 Air quality models, 96 Air-sea exchange, trace gases, 42 Airborne matter, time-series data sets, 73 Aircraft platforms, 47, 145-46 summary, 163-66 (table) use, 141 use in biomass investigations, 23 Aldehydes, 157 (table) Amazon Basin, 22 Ammonia, 113, 153 (table) dry deposition, 91 gas-phase reaction, 115 gaseous emissions, 24 reactions in troposphere, 82 Animal feedlots, 65 . . . . . Aquatic environments, alogenlc gas emissions, 66 Aqueous aerosols, chemistry, construction scheme, 84 Aqueous-phase chemistry sulfur end, 120 Aqueous-phase transformations, homogeneous, 83-84 Atmosphere, as chemical system, 7 Atmospheric carbon, role of methane, 58 189 Atmospheric chemical systems, phase transitions, 17 (figure) Atmospheric chemicals, biological sources, 21-26 Atmospheric halogens, sources, 130-31 Automated gas chromatography, use, 29 Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network, 70-72 Bergeron process, 84 Biogenic gas emissions, 66 Biogenic hydrocarbons, photochemical reactions, 56 Biogeochemical cycles, 101 -5, 102 (figure) Biological source models, 96-98 Biological sources, 55-68 atmospheric chemicals, 21-26 chemical substances, evaluation, 4 importance, 55-58 models, 45, 96-98 nature, 57-66 Biomass burning impact, 4 needed studies, 64-65 purpose, 64

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190 source investigations, 22-23 in tropics, 12 Biomes, importance, 59-66 Biosphere, productivity, 3 Blackbody, Planck function, 178 Bogs, as ecosystem, 60 (table) Boron, distribution, 134 Boundary layer models, 45 Bromine, distribution, 129 Budgetary concerns, 5-6 Calcium, source, 46 Canary Islands, Tenerife, 76 Carbon, atmospheric, role of methane, 58 pool size, 103 (figure), 104 (table) Carbon- 14, oceanic monitoring, 70 Carbon compounds budgets, 123 (table) detection constraints, 39 distribution, 123-24 reactive, 122-25 sinks, 124-25 sources, 122-23 transformations, 124-25 Carbon cycle, 122-26, 185 (table) Carbon dioxide, 156 (table) atmospheric concentration, 74-75 monitoring, 9, 70 production changes, 4 transfer, 125 variations, 75, 126 Carbon disulfide, sources, 29, 118- 19 Carbon monoxide, 156 (table) atmospheric sink, 177 interactions, 126 removal process, 124 secondary sources, 25 sources, 22, 122 Carbonate rocks, dissolution, 125 Carbonyl sulfide, sources and distribution, 117- 18 Carboxylic acids, distribution, 124 Charcoal production, determining, 23 Chemical composition, balance, 3 Chemical cycles, 101 -40 Chemical species biological sources, evaluation, 4 distribution, processes, 55-93 measurement techniques, 27-29 Chemicals, removal from atmosphere, 3 Chlorine, distributions, 128-29 Chlorocarbons, source, 130 Chlorofluorocarbons, 158 (table) detection, 9 source, 130 synthetic, release, 4 INDEX Chlorofluoromethanes as tests of, long-range transport models, 28 sinks, 16 Circulation models, 95 Cloud condensation nuclei, 39, 162 (table) Clouds noncyclic transformation and removal processes, 98 optical properties, 17 removal, modeling, 98 sulfur end, 120 Cloud droplets chemical pathways, 84 (figure) nucleation process, 16 Coastal ecosystems, 63 Coastal wetland, source investigations, 23 Combustion, as carbonyl sulfide E source, 118 Concentration Distribution Experiment, 36-37 Concurrent sampling, vertical distributions, 75-76 Condensation, role of aerosol particles, 15 Contact freezing, 84 Continental shelf ecosystems, 63 Conversion, 38-44 models, 46 F Corn fields, nitrous oxide emissions, 67 (figure) Current research, 171 -74 Cycle matrices, 183-88 Cyclic photochemical transformations, 78-82 Cyclones and mixing, 13 Data base, problems and circumven tion, 74 Department of Energy, current research, 173-74 Deposition records, need for com parison, 90 Deposition velocity, 91 definition, 16 Denitrification, 57 products, 66 Deposition, at sea, 42 Deserts, as ecosystems, 60 (table) Dewfall, 90 Differential absorption lidar, 179 Dimethylsulfide estimated flux, 24, 66 photooxidation, 120 sources and distribution, 119 Dimethylsulfoxide, ocean production, 66 Dispersion models, 96 Distribution critical processes, 55-93 three-dimensional, 99 DMS, see Dimethylsulfide DMSO, see Dimethylsulfoxide Dry deposition, 16, 90-93 of aerosol particles, 15- 16 definition, 38, 88 measuring, 92 rates, 91 resistance models, 91 Dry Removal Experiment Program, 39, 42-44 Dry removal processes, 88-93 Dry tropical areas, 62 gas source, 63 Element cycle matrices, 183-88 Environmental Protection Agency, current research, 176 Estuary ecosystems, 23, 63 Ethane, 156 (table) emissions, 66 Ethanol, fermentation, 58 Ethylene, 156 (table) Fallow field, nitrous oxide emissions, 66 (figure) Fast-photochemical cycles and transformations, modeling, 98-99 Fixed nitrogen, see Nitrogen, fixed Fluorine, distribution, 130 Fluxes determination, 43-44 estimates, 12 measurements and applications, 142, 143 modeling, 98 in tropical forests, measuring, 62 Fog, 90 Forests as ecosystem, 25, 60 (table), 62 Fossil fuel combustion, impact, 4 Free troposphere, 13 boundary layer data, obtaining, 76 Freshwater marshes, source investigations, 21-22 G Gala hypothesis, 55 GAMETAG, see Global Atmospheric Measurement Experiment on Aerosols and Gases Gas chromatography, automated, use, 29

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INDEX Gas flux determinations, 23 Gas-phase chemistry homogeneous, 78-83 role ofozone, 14 Gas-phase rate coefficients, measurement, 37-38 Gas sampling, 72 Gas-to-particle conversion, 83 Gas transfer processes, studies, 97 Gases, radiation, absorption and emission, 16 GEMS, see Global Environmental Monitoring System Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, 172 stations, 30 Global Atmospheric Measurement Experiment on Aerosols and Gases, 75 Global distributions, modeling, 99 Global distributions and long-range transport, 25-32, 69-76, 99 Global Distributions and Long-Range Transport Study, 27, 32-33, 45 Global Distributions Network, 27, 30, 32 latitude zone, 36 Global Environmental Monitoring System, 70 Global meteorology monitoring, 70 understanding, 69 Global Tropospheric Chemistry Program framework, 11-18 international cooperation in, 49 long-term goals, 3, 19-20, 69 need for, 7- 10 recommendations for, 3-6 vertical distribution studies, 76 Global Tropospheric Chemistry Sampling Network coordination, 27 elements observed, 51 (figure) objectives, 27, 28 (table), 32, 45 GMCC, see Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change H 3H, see Tritium Halogens, 128-32 atmospheric, sources, 130-31 distribution, 128-30 gaseous, detection constraints, 39 reactions and transformations, 131 removal processes, 132 see also individual species Halogen cycles, 131 (figure), 187 (table) Hawaii, Mauna Loa, see Mauna Loa Heterogeneous transformations, 78-86 191 Homogeneous transformations, 14- 15, 78-84 Human perturbations, 8 Hydrocarbons air quality models, 96 biogenic, photochemical reactions, 56 . . , emission, ~ light, 156 (table) measurement, 36 mechanistic studies, 37 Hydrogen, 154 (table) production, 57 Hydrogen oxidation, with carbon dioxide, 58 Hydrogen peroxide, 155 (table) Hydrogen sulfide oxidation, 120 photochemical sources, 119 sources and distribution, 119 Hydroperoxyl radical, chemical pathways, 15 (figure) Hydroxyl-initiated reactions, transformations, 78 Hydroxyl production, 78 Hydroxyl radicals, 154 (table) chemical pathways, 15 (figure) cycle by-products, 80 cyclic transformations, 78-81 formation, 14 measurement, 36 noncyclic transformations, 82 role in trace gas oxidation, 79 (figure) I Industrial emissions, 65 Infrared radiation, absorbance, impact, 4 In situ measurements, instrumentation, 144-45 In situ removal reaction, 16 Instruments future techniques, 177-80 requirements, 47-48 survey, 144-67 Instrumentation field and laboratory, 47 in situ measurements, 144-45 recommendations, 5 vertical distribution data, 31 Instrumentation development, 141 -43 Interelement ratios, 133 Internal production, calculating, 142 Iodine distribution, 129 sources, 130 Isoprene, 80, 122 distribution, 124 ~ r emissions, oo oxidation in nitrogen oxides, 80 (figure) Lakes, as ecosystem, 60 (table) Laser techniques, 179 Lead-210, as tracer, 29 Light absorption, 16 Lightning, 65 Limiting factors, distribution, 57 Long-lived species simulation, 99 troposphere mixing, 14 Long-range transport and global distribution, 25-32, 69-76 measurement techniques, 27 modeling, 99 Long-Term Trends Network, 27, 30, 32 Lower atmosphere, see Troposphere M MAPS, see Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites Marshland, measurement needs, 22 (table) Mass-balance technique, needs, 141 -43 Mauna Loa, Hawaii, carbon dioxide variations, 75 Mean advection term, obtaining, 143 Mean concentration budgets, 141 Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites, technique, 176- 77 Measurement needs, 22 (table) Measurement validation, 29 Medium-lived species vertical distribution data, 31 simulation, 99 Mercury, distribution, 134 Metals, refining, 22 Meteorological processes, 69 Methane, 156 (table) atmospheric, '4C content, 55 biological production, 58 as carbon monoxide source, 122 distribution, 124 emissions, swamp, 67 (figure) production, 57 production changes, 4 from rice paddies, 24, 65-66 secondary sources, 25 sources, 21, 22 Methane fluxes, in rice paddies, 24 Methyl chloride, source, 130 Mineral aerosol particles, measurements, 31, 73 Mixing, in planetary boundary layer, 13

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192 Modeling, role, 94-100 principles of, 94 Models, circulation, 95 dimensionality, 95 dispersion, 96 Monitoring, global meteorology, 70-73 Monitoring networks, 70-73 Mountains, sampling station prob- lems, 75 Mountain/surface measurement, paired, 76 Multiphase systems, communication, 84 N NASN, see National Air Surveillance Network National Acid Precipitation Program, 173 National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration, current research, 172 National Air Surveillance Network, 72 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, current research, 172 National Science Foundation, current research, 171-72, 172-73 Natural surface sources, 12 Network design, 30-31, 73-74 Nitrate, 113 Nitric acid, gaseous, 151 (table) Nitric oxide, 149 (table) emissions, 66 Nitrif~cation, products, 66 Nitrogen atmospheric form, 102 distributions, 114 fixed, cycle, 113- 15 fixed, from atmospheric electrical discharge, 65 fixed, loss from animal feedlots, 65 odd compounds, transformation, 116 pool size, 103 (figure), 104 (table) reactions in water droplets, 14 removal, 115 sources, 113-14 transformations, 114-115 Nitrogen compounds, detection constraints, 39 Nitrogen cycle, 25, 56, 113- 15, 188 (table) Nitrogen dioxide dry deposition, 91 dry removal, 16 gaseous, 150 (table) photolysis, 81 Nitrogen emissions, in rice paddies, 66 Nitrogen oxides air quality models, 96 INDEX cyclic transformations, 81 emission, gaseous, 149 (table) photochemicalequilibrium, 115 Photochemical expression, 34 production, 81 release, 4 sources, 21 species measurement, 36 Nitrogen trioxide formation, 81 gaseous, 151 (table) Nitrogeneous compounds, mechanistic studies, 37 Nitrous acid, 152 (table) Nitrous oxide, 113 distribution, 114 mean concentration, 74 production changes, 4 significant levels, 9 from soil emissions, 66 sources, 21, 22 Noncyclic transformations, 82-83 modeling, 98 Nonindustrial pollution, 64 Nonmethane hydrocarbons atmospheric chemistry, 80 distribution, 124 emission rates, 123 major, 122 removal, 125 Nucleation process, cloud droplets, 16 Nyquist frequency, 142 o Observational protocol, 29-30 Oceanographic Management Information System, 146 Oceanographic platforms, 146-47 Oceanographic ships, academic institutions, 167 (table) Odd-nitrogen species, transformations, 116 (figure) Open oceans, source investigations, 24-25 Oxygen atmospheric concentration, 14 pool size, 103 (figure), 104 (table) Ozone, 7, 155 (table) air quality models, 96 atmospheric reactions, 33 (figure) climatology, 110- 11 cycles, 109- 12 data sets, 110- 11 detection constraints, 39 distribution, 110-11 dry deposition, 91 experiments, 35 measuring, 74 photochemistry, 82 (figure) photolysis, 78 production, 81, 82 removal paths, 110 role in gas-phase chemistry, 14 sinks, 109- 10 sources, 109 stratospheric injection, 12- 13 surface deposition velocities, 109 as tracer, 29 transformations, 82 Ozonesondes, 29 technicians, 74 p PAN, see Peroxyacetyl nitrate Particles, surface generation, 91 Particulate organic carbon, 123 distribution, 124 removal, 125 Passive remote sensors, 177-78 Passive spectroscopic remote sensors, 177 PBL, see Planetary boundary layer Perchlorocarbons, decomposition, 131 Perfluorocarbons, decomposition, 131 Peroxyacetyl nitrate, 113 formation, 81 gaseous, 152 (table) production, 64 sink, 115 Perturbations, human, 8 Petroleum, refining, 22 Phase transitions, 17 (figure) Photochemical field experiment, critical measurements, 33-35 Photochemical modeling, 38 Photochemical sources and sinks, 82 Photochemical theory hydroxyl radical, 34 testing, 4 Photochemical transformations, 33-38 Photochemical Transformations Study objectives, 33 sampling strategy, 35 Photochemistry modeling, 33, 95 theory validation, 33 Photodissociation processes, 38 Planetary boundary layer, 13 Platform requirements, 47-48 Platform survey, 144-67 POC, see Particulate organic carbon Point sources, as biological source, 64-65 Pollution nonindustrial, 64 ozone production, 109 Pollution chemistry, 69

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INDEX Precipitation generation, 88-89 sampling stations, 72 studies, 29 Propane, 156 (table) Public policy problems, 8 R Radiation, absorption and emission, 16 Radioactive fallout, monitoring, 92 Rainout, 88 Raman scattering techniques, 179 Redistribution, 38-44 models, 46 Reduced gas species, enhancing production, 23 Reducing conditions, dehmition, 57 Remote sensing technology, 145, 175-82 Remote sensors active, 178- 180 passive, 177-78 Removal, 15- 16, 38-44 modeling, 98 Removal processes, models, 46 Removal reaction, in situ, 16 Research Vehicle Reference Service, 146 Respiration, fossil fuel burning, 101 Rice agriculture, 65-66 Rice paddies emissions, 24, 67 (figure) soils, 65 S Sampling by untrained personnel, 74 temporal considerations, 74-75 Satellites, 48, 176-177 Savannas as ecosystem, 60 (table) needed investigations, 62-63- source investigations, 25-26 Scattering controls, 16 visible light detection, 39 Scavenging, sulfur dioxide, 89 Scavenging efficiencies, 88 Scavenging ratio, 89 Sea deposition, 42 nitrogen cycle, 25 Sea-Air Exchange Program, 172-73 Seaboard tundra, measurement needs, 22 (table) Seawater, reduced sulfur compounds, 24, 66 Selenium distribution, 134 Sensor systems, recommendations, 180 193 Ships, 47-48 Ships ofopportunity, 146 Short-lived species network, 30 vertical distribution data, 31 Silicate rocks, dissolution, 125 Smog from biomass burning, 64 reactions, 109 Soilers), as carbonyl sulfide source, 118 Soil aerosols, 46 sources, 137 as tracers, 29 Soil microorganisms, modeling, 97 Solar occultation measurements, 177 Solar radiation, observations, 178 South Pole, carbon dioxide variations, 75 Spaceborne remote sensors, 48, 145, 175-176 Stratospheric sources, 12 Streams, as ecosystem, 60 (table) Sublimation freezing, 84 Submicrometer particles, dry deposi- tion, 91 Sulfate particles, dry deposition, 92 Sulfate reduction, 57 Sulfur anthropogenic sources, 117 aqueous-phase chemistry, 120 distributions, 117- 19 gaseous, 148 (table) noncyclic transformations, 82 pool size, 103 (figure), 104 (table) reactions in water droplets, 14 role ofclouds, 120 sinks, 119-20 sources, 117- 19 transformations, 119-20 Sulfur(IV), conversion to sulfur(VI), 83 Sulfur compounds biogenic emissions, 118 (table) concentration ranges, 117 (table) detection constraints, 39 loss from animal feedlots, 65 mechanistic studies, 37 Sulfur cycle, 44 (figure), 117-20, 184 (table) need for ocean studies, 66 Sulfur dioxide conversion, 15 dry deposition, 91 dry removal, 16 gas-phase, conversion to sulfate, 85 oxidation, soot-catalyzed, 86 Sulfur oxides, release, 4 Supermicrometer particles, dry deposition, 91 Surface boundary condition, modeling, 97 Surface flux, measurements, 141-42 Surface generation of particles, 91 Surface-level measurements, 31 Surface processes, see Heterogeneous processes Surface receptors, role, 56 Surface Source/Receptor Network, 27, 31, 32 Surface sources, 55-58 models, 45, 96-98 Surface time-series data sets, airborne matter, 73 Surface transport models, 45 T Taiga measurement needs, 22 (table) source investigations, 21-22 TCSMs, see Tropospheric Chemistry Systems Models Temperate forests, needed investigations, 25, 61-62 Temperate grasslands, as ecosystem, 25-26, 60 (table) Temporal considerations, sampling, 74-75 Tenerife, Canary Islands, 76 Termite mounds, methane emissions, 66 Terpenes, 80 distribution, 124 Theory validation experiments, 33-36 Three-dimensional distribution, 99 Three-dimensional meteorological model, 99 Trace element cycles, 186 (table) Trace elements distribution, 134 sinks, 134-135 sources, 133-34 transformation, 134- 135 transport, 133 trace gases assessments, 4 removal processes, 4-5 scavenging processes, 88-89 warming effects, 56 Trace substances in situ sources, 12 physical effects, 16- 18 Transformation, 14- 15 heterogeneous, 78-86 modeling, 98 noncyclic, 82-83 Transition metals, importance as catalyst, 135 Transport processes, 13- 14 Tritium, oceanic monitoring, 70 Tropical areas, 62-63 Tropical forests

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194 source investigations, 22 total emission rates, 62 Tropics, biomass burning, 12 Tropopause, 13 Troposphere, compositional balance, 3 Tropospheric chemical cycles, 101 -40 understanding, 4 Tropospheric Chemistry Systems Models, 5, 20, 32, 44-46, 99 Tropospheric composition, changes and impact, 4 Tropospheric species distribution, 11 sources, 12-13 Tundra needed investigation, 59-61 INDEX seaboard, measurement needs, 22 (table), 61 V Vertical distributions measurements, 75-76 obtaining 31-32 Vertical time series data, importance, 30 Vertical transport processes, 13 Visible light, measuring, 39 Volatile emissions from forests, 25 Volcanoes, 65 W Washout, 88 Washout ratio, see Scavenging ratio Water removal, 106 sources, 106-7 transformation and sinks, 107-8 transport and distribution, 107 upward flux, 106 Water cycle, 106-8 Wet deposition, 88-90 definition, 38, 88 monitoring, 90 Wet/dry collectors, 90 Wet Removal Experiment, 39-42 Wet removal processes, 88-93 Wet tropical areas, description, 63 World Meteorological Organization, 72 air pollution monitoring, 71 (figure)