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APPENDIX C Executive Summary The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (PL93-523) required the Admin- istrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to arrange for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking- water regulations that were promulgated under the Act. The Study was conducted by the Safe Drinking Water Committee of the National Re- search Council. A thorough study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of drink- ing water in the United States. Assessment of the health benefits and the economic or technological feasibility of achieving a given level of contaminant control was outside the scope of the study, although the beneficial effects of some constituents of drinking water were considered. The risk to man of contaminants ingested in drinking water was evalu- ated on the basis of both epidemiological studies and studies of toxicity in laboratory animals. The theoretical and experimental bases for extrap- olating estimations of risk to low levels of dose were reviewed, and some principles to guide the conduct of this and future studies were defined. Five classes of contaminants were examined: Microorganisms, Partic- ulate Matter, Inorganic Solutes, Organic Solutes, and Radionuclides. A great reduction in the incidence of gastroenteric diseases has re- sulted from the control of pathogenic microorganisms by the standard drinking-water treatments (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) adopted early in this century. However, in 1975, more 917

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918 Appendix C than 10,000 cases of waterborne enteric disease were reported, but in- only about 10% of these cases were causal agents identified. There are reasons to believe that many cases go unreported. Improved detection and reporting systems are needed to determine more accurately the nationwide incidence and causes of these diseases. Chlorine is the stan- dard disinfectant against which others are compared. While it is not ideal in every respect, much more research is required before any of the pro- posed substitutes can be recommended to replace it in water treatment. Questions concerning effectiveness of disinfection, toxicity of by- products, and residual in the distribution system must be answered for proposed substitutes, as well as for chlorine. Finely divided solid particles are found suspended in many drinking- water supplies, particularly in those not treated by coagulation and filtra- tion. While certain particles may indirectly reduce the efficiency of dis- infection treatments, and act as carriers of some other contaminants, only in the case of particles derived from asbestos minerals are there grounds for suspecting that direct effects on human health may result. Inhalation of asbestos dust for long periods of time has been shown to produce toxic effects, but evidence of the toxicity of ingested particles of abestos minerals is not conclusive. Further research is necessary to resolve this problem. Health eRects associated with 22 inorganic solutes were reviewed. Most were judged to present little or no threat to human health, either because of low concentration in drinking water, minimal potential tox- icity, or both. Thirteen are essential nutrients. Their potential toxicity at high levels and nutritional role at lower levels complicate the issue, but none of them poses a threat to health at the concentrations normally found in drinking water. The inorganic contaminant with the greatest potential for toxicity is lead. The present standard may not provide an adequate margin of safety, especially for infants and young children. The data presented justify reexamination of the current standards for arsenic and selenium. The preponderance of evidence supports an inverse cor- relation between the incidence of cardiovascular disease and water hard- ness, but the underlying causal relationships are not clear. On the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the study, 129 organic compounds (including 55 pesticides) were selected for detailed examination. A list of the compounds in drinking water that are known or suspected carcinogens was prepared after a detailed analysis of the available data. Estimates of cancer risk to man from a lifetime exposure were made

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Appendix C 919 when sufficient data were available to permit a statistical extrapolation. These projections were made for 22 compounds judged to be either known or suspected human or animal carcinogens. Of these only vinyl chloride is confirmed to be a human carcinogen. The available data on mutagenicity and teratogenicity also were summarized. Although the carcinogenic effects of the compounds were of primary concern, evidence of other effects was considered. An "Acceptable Daily Intake" (ADI) was calculated for 45 compounds that were judged to be potentially toxic but not carcinogenic. The ADI is an empirically derived value that reflects a particular combination of both knowledge and uncertainty about the relative safety of a chemical. It is the level at which exposure to a single chemical is not anticipated to produce an observable toxic response in man. The ADI does not repre- sent a safe level in drinking water because it does not specify what frac- tion of the potential contaminant intake may come from water. Data were insufficient to calculate an ADI for 61 of the compounds that were considered. The radiation associated with most water supplies is a small propor- tion of the normal background to which all human beings are exposed. Consequently, it is difficult, if not impossible, to measure with certainty any adverse health effects that may be due to radionuclides in water. In a few water supplies, however, radium can reach concentrations that pose a higher risk of bone cancer for the people exposed. Subgroups within the population have been identified that are more susceptible to the adverse effects of certain constituents of drinking water than would normally be expected of the population-at-large.

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Index absorption of chemical agents, 29 absorption rates differences between species, 32, 53 At antham`'eba species, 113 acceptable risk, 24 acculturation and hypertension, 407409 acetaldehyde, 686-687 effects on animals, 687 effects on man, 686 acetylsalicylic acid toxicity, 37 acicular crystals, 144-147, 158-159 acrocyanosis, 324 Acrolein, 553, 554-556, 798 toxicity, 554-555 acroosteolysis, 784 acrylaldehyde (see Acrolein) additives, food, 15 ADI (acceptable daily intake), 15-16, 492, 701 factors in calculating, 15 toxicological evaluation standard, 15 adenoviruses, 3, 88, 90, 96, 108 adrenal glands degeneration, 724 necrosis, 724 adsorption and pathogenic transport, 13 catalysis, on clays, 141 adverse dose response, defined, 802 921 aerosols, 140 air pollution, 373 interaction with cigarette smoking, 50 Alachlor, 525, 527-530 dose effects, 527-528, 796 toxicity data, 529 alcohol, ethyl (see acetaldehyde) interactive effects, 50 aldehydes, 553 aldicarb, 635, 637-643 carcinogenicity, 641 effects in animals, 639-640 effects in man, 638-639 toxicity data, 643 Aldrin (see cyclodienes) algae, 63 removal, 185 alkaline earth elements, isotopes of, 868 alkaline earth metabolism, 868 alkylmercury compounds, 274-275, 278 alpha activity. gross, 870 aluminum, 210-212, 218 sulfate, 106 amebiasis, 113, 120-121 amebic cysts, 113, 185 Amercide (see captan) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 23~231 American Water Works Association, 206

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922 Index Amiben, 519-521 ADI, 520, 796 amides, 525-533 (see also Alachlor, Butachlor, Propachlor, propanil) amosite, 144, 151-152, 162, 165 amphiboles, 145-150, 184 Ancylostoma duadenale, I 15 anemia, 238, 249 aplastic, 586 hemolytic, 682 myelocytic, 688 angiosarcoma, hepatic, 784 animal effects, application to humans, 15, 19, 22, 27-39, 52-54, 55-56, 165-168, 490, 791-792 absorption rates, 33-34 cellular barriers, 34 correlating, 15, 22 distribution rates, 33 excretion rates, 33 metabolic differences, 30 animals, test design of laboratory experiments, 34-37, 5~57 homogeniety of, 30-31 lifetime feeding studies, 19 number, 32 selecting, 34-35 size, 31 design of laboratory experiments, 34-37, 56-57 anions, inorganic, 138- 140 anisole, 142 antagonistic interactions of water solutes, 15 anthophyllite, 144- 151, 152 Anticarie (see HCB) anticholinesterase effects, 605 Aphelenchus species, 116 argyria, 290-291 arrhythmia, 782 arsenic, 28, 54, 212, 316-344, 428-430 absorption, 319 beneficial effects, 340-341 biotransformations, 320 carcinogenicity, 326-331, 336, 339, 429 430 chemical interactions, 340 mutagenicity, 331-333, 339, 429 teratogenicity, 339-340, 429 toxicity, 320-326, 333-336, 429 arsenic compounds arsenates, 319-320 arsenic trioxide, 319, 328 arsenites, 319-321 arsines, 321 arsonium, 321 asbestiform, 144 asbestos, 13, 144-168 analysis, 155-159 concentrations in water and air, 152- 153, 189 dust and cancer deaths, 160-163 emission factors, 153 health effects including cancer, 160-168, 189-191 occurrence, 151-155, 189 redistribution, 152- 155 solubility, 150- 151 UICC reference samples, 147, 150, 151 asbestos fibers, experimental studies, 163-168 sampling and analysis, 155- 159 asbestosis, 160 asbestos minerals, 135 mineralogy, 145-150 Ascaris lumbricoides, 1 15 atherosclerosis, 244 atomic-absorption analytical method, 226, 227, 235 Atrazine (see triazines) attapulgite, 137 Aureobasidium pullulans, 177 azinphosmethyl, 604-608 carcinogenicity, 606 effects, 605-606 toxicity data, 608 Bacillus species, 67, 85 back-flushing, 117 bacteria, 13, 63-64, 66-88, 119-120, 179- 181, 186 coliform count, 75-76, 119 controlling in water supplies, 119- 120 correlations with viruses, 110- 111 disease potential estimation, 69-70 dose required for infection, 67-69 enteric, 67-68 gastrointestinal tract, 33 nitrate-reducing, 417

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Index 923 standard plate count, 120 Balan (benefin) (see dinitroanilines) baritosis, 230 barium, 207-208, 210-212, 218, 220-221, 229-231, 302-305 base exchange capacity, humic sub stances, 170 beer, cobalt additive in, 248 beidellite, 142 BEIR. See National Academy of Sciences Benefin (see dinitroanalines) benzene, 28, 54, 142, 688-691 carcinogenic risk estimates, 690, 794 effects on animals, 689 effects on man, 688-689 benzene hexachloride (see BHC) benzidine, 731 Benzo(a)pyrene, 691-694 carcinogenic risk estimates, 692, 794 effects in animals, 691 effects in man, 691 toxicity data, 694 Benzoics, 519-525 (see also Amiben, Di camba) Beryllium, 211-212, 218, 220, 231-235, 302-303, 305 beryllosis, 234 cancers, 234 pulmonary sarcoidosis, 234 beta activity, gross, 870 BHC (benzene hexachloride), 583, 585-594 carcinogenicity, 588-590 carcinogenic risk estimates, 591, 794 effects in animals, 587-588 effects in man, 586 toxicity data, 593-594 Bi.fidobacterium species, 75 bioassays, 10, 15, 48, 55, 791 biological receptors, 29 bipyridl, 543, 544-546 birth defects, 389-395 1,2-bis(chloroethoxy)ethane, 799 bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, 710-712 carcinogenic risk estimates, 712, 794 toxicity data, 714 bis(2-chloroisopropyl ether, 799 blackfoot disease, 325 Bloom's syndrome and cancer incidence, 43 bone cancer and radium, 17, 894-896, 898 disease, 282 brain disorders, 784 breast cancer, 50-51 Bromacil, 537, 540-543 ADI, 541-542, 796 dose levels, 540-541, 543, 796 toxicity, 543 bromamine, 109 bromination, water, 109 bromine, 119, 171 bromobenzene, 693, 694-695, 793 bromochlorobenzenes, 799 bromodichloromethane, 799 bromoform, 695-697 bronchi, constriction of, 782 bronchitis, 238 brucite-gibbsite materials, 139 burns, chemical, 699 Butachlor, 525, 527-530 dose effects, 527-528, 796 toxicity data, 529 I-butanol (see butylalcohol, tert-) tert-Butyl alcohol, 697-698 Cadmium, 207-208, 211-213, 218, 220-221, 236-241, 302-303, 305-306 health effects, adverse, 238-239 Itai-Itai disease, 237-239 poisoning, 237-239 Calcium hypochlorite, 4 cancer, 20, 160 (see also carcinogenesis, . . . . . carclnogenlc, carclnogenlclty, car- cinogens, dose-response, risk and in- dividual herbicides, insecticides, met- als, somatic effects) bone, 17, 894-896, 898 dose-response models, 47-48 from asbestos, 13 from fluoridated water, 381-389 gastric, 422, 438 gastrointestinal, 162, 165- 167 lung, 288 mechanisms causing radiation-induced, 885-889 skin, 43 specific, estimating, 889-894 stomach, 387, 422 theories, statistical models, 39-47 cancer incidence, 13, 55 asbestos, 13-14

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924 Index fibers, 161, 189 radionuclides, 1~17, 894-896, 898 rates, 40, 49, 55 e-caprolactam, 698-700 Captan, 657, 660 666, 793 ADI, 796 dose levels, 796 effects in animals, 662-663 effects in man, 661 toxicity data, 665-666 carbamates, 635-649 (see also Aldicarb, Carbaryl, Methomyl) Carbaryl, 642, 644-649, 793 ADI, 796 carcinogenicity, 647 dose levels, 796 effects in animals, 645-646 effects in man, 645 toxicity data, 649 Carbon-14, 858-859, 862 carbon activated, 186, 224-225 filters, 107 carbon disulfide, 700-703, effects in animals, 701-702 effects in man, 701 carbon, powdered, in water treatment, 186 carbon tetrachloride, 703-707 carcinogenic risk estimates, 705-706, 794 effects in animals, 704 effects in man, 703-704 toxicity data, 707 carcinogenesis, 25 and ionizing radiation, 38, 885-892, 894-896, 897-898 and synergistic effects, 32 assays, 20, 22 factors in predicting, 22 latency periods, 42, 189 possible thresholds, 38 tests to predict, 22 theories of, 39-47 . . carcinogenic effects, 25 initiators, 15 interactions, 15 mechanisms, 15 modifiers, 15 nitrosamines, 33 pollutants, nonthreshold approach, 21 promoters, 15 sensitivity of tests to detect effects, 27 . . . carclnogen~clty and chemical structure, 791 animal related to human, 53 correlation with mutagenicity, 20, 22, 37-38 carcinogens, 15, 19, 54 additive effects, 49-50 asbestos, 13 chemical in drinking water, 793 definition, 80~802 direct-acting, dose-response relation ship, 39 exposure and cancer development, 21, 30 fibers, 166 167 ingested, 15 listing of, 794 nitrosamines, 416, 438 oral administration of test, 48-49 "positive" controls, 56 carcinoma, bronchogenic, 160 cardiac sensitization, 781 catalysis by clays, of organic species, 140- 143 catalytic alterations, 141 - 142 cation exchange capacity (CEC) and binding of organisms to particles, 181 of soils, 171 cations, inorganic, 138- 140 CDC (National Center for Disease Con trol), 12, 63, 64, 65, 66, 118 cell-culture systems, to detect viruses, 95-97 central nervous system, depressants, 693, 710, 724, 761, 777 cesium-137, 862, 871 cestodes, l l 5 Cheilobus species, 116 chemical agents. (see also arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, selenium, sulfate, and individual herbicides, insec ticides, metals) additive effects, 49-SO and cell interactions, 23 animal testing of, 29-37 distribution by circulatory system, 33 excretion, 29 interactions, 15

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Index 925 metabolism, 29 radioactive, 16-17 reabsorption, 29 reactions, 29 reaction with biological receptor, 29 variations in reaction to nutrition and physical environment, 32 radionuclides, 858-865 chemicals AD1 values, 15- 16 effects of injuries, 23 intoxication, 736, 747 safety and risk assessment, 19-62 structure and carcinogenicity, 791 toxic effects, 23 chemiso~ption, removing trace metals, 220 chloracne, 502 chloral, 708-709 Chloramben (see Amiben) Chlordane (see cyclodienes) Chlordeone (see Kepone) chlorinated hydrocarbons, 21, 556-604 See also BHC, cyclodienes, DDT, Kepone, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Toxaphene chlorination, water, 4-6, 21, 65, 86, 87, 93, 105, 108-110, 112, 117, 119, 185, 186 effect on bacteria, 119 effect on viruses, 108-9 history, 4-6 protozoa resistance, 120-121 chlorine cyanide (see cyanogen chloride) chlorine dioxide (Cl02), 109, 119 chlorobenzene, 709-710 chlorodibromomethane, 799 chloroethene (see vinyl chloride) chloroethyl methyl ether, 799 chloroform, 21, 185, 713, 715-718 carcinogenicity, 715-716 carcinogenic risk estimates, 716, 794 product of chlorination water treatment, 21, 179 toxicity data, 718 chlorohydroxybenzophenone, 799 chloromethane (see methyl chloride) chloromethyl ethyl ether, 799 chlorophenoxys, 493-519 (see also 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; TCDD; 2,4,S-TP; MCPA) chloropropene, 799 cholera, 1-3, 7, 78 cholesterol levels, 442 cholinesterase, 26, 610, 630, 638, 646 chromium, 171, 207, 210-214, 218, 220-221, 241-246, 302-303, 306-307 atherosclerosis, 244 lung cancer, 246 chromosomes aberrations, 875-877, 882 changes in number of (ploidy), 87~877, 882-883 chronic effects, defined, 22 chrysotile, 144-152, 164, 165, 184 cigarette smoking, effect on dose- response, 50 circulatory systems, differences between species, 33 cirrhosis, 26, 330 clay minerals in soil, 169 clays, 135-143 adsorption on, 137-145 classification, 137 removal, 184-185 Clostridium perfringens, 75, 120 coagulation chemical, to remove trace metals, 217- 223 water treatment, 106, 185-186 Cobalt, 139, 208, 211-213, 218, 22~221, 24~250, 302-303, 307-308 beer additive, 248 thyroid impairment, 249 coccidomycosis, disseminated, 495 coliform counts, 75-84 coliform organisms, 67, 71-84 as indicators, 71-74 counting, 75-78 health significance of, 80-84 standards, 78-79, 84, 119-120 MPN technique, 72 MF technique, 72 color, water, 183 community fluorosis (mottling) index, 395 Community Water Supply Survey, USEPA, 77 congenital malformations and dose, 25 contaminants in drinking water (see also chemical agents, pollutants, and indi- vidual items) critena for selection, 9-11, 13 organic solutes, criteria for determining, 14-15

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926 Index particulate, where found, 13 problems in assessing, 10- 11 radioactive, 16, 858, 870-872 varied susceptibility, 17 control groups, 28 copper, 139, 171, 207-208, 210-212, 214- 215, 218, 220-221, 250-254, 302-303, 308-309 gastrointestinal tract irritant, 252 glucose-6-phosphate dyhydrogenase, 253 Wilson's disease, 252 coproantibodies, 68 corrosion, piping, in water systems, 206 coxsackie viruses, 89-90, 100, 101 virus A, 95, 96, 100 virus A2, 108 virus B. 96, 100 virus B5, 103-104 "crib deaths," 409 critical dose, 23 crocidolite, 144-152, 164, 165 crotonaldehyde, 799 cummingtonite-grunerite mineral series, 144-149, 154 cummingtonite, 149 cumulative effects, 25 Curie, 899 Cyanazine (see triazines) cyanogen chloride, 717, 719-720 cyanosis, 418 cyclodienes, 556-573 carcinogenic risk estimate, 567-568, 794 effects in animals, 564 effects in man, 563 food, residues in, 559-561 milk, residues in, 559, 561 occurrence, 557-558 standards, 558 toxicity data, 569-573 Cyclops, 115 cytopathic (liquid overlay) method, 95 cytopathology, 96 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 493499 carcinogenicity, 496-497 dose, no adverse affect, 496, 498, 796 mutagenicity, 496 teratogenicity, 497-498 toxicity, 495-496, 499 Damage, fractional, 24 DBP (di-n-butylphthalate), 720-723 toxicity data, 723 DDE (see DDT) DDT (2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)- 1,1,1 trichloroethane), 178, 568, 574-580 and diet, 575 carcinogenicity, 577-578 carcinogenic risk estimates, 578-579, 794 dose effects, 576-577 in milk, 575 toxicity data, 580 DDT-T (see DDT) debris, organic, 177 deficiency interactions of chemical agents, 51-52 DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 726 729 toxicity data, 729 deletions, gene, 876-877 demineralization, by reverse osmosis, 225 dermatitis acute, 535 chronic, 288 contact, 244, 699 subacute, 535 desalination, by reverse osmosis, 225 developmental effects, 16 diarrhea, 66, 90, 112, 282 diatomaceous earth filters, 107 diazinon, 607, 609-614 toxicity data, 614 dibromobenzene, 799 dibromodichloroethane, 799 Dicamba, 521-525, 526 dose levels, 522-524, 796 toxicity, 526 3,4-dichloraniline, 173 p-dichlorobenzene (see PDB) 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 799 dichlorodifluoroethane, 799 1,2-dichloroethane, 723 effects in animals, 724 effects in man, 724 dichloroiodomethane, 799 dichloromethane (see methylene chloride) 2,4-dichlorophenol, 725-726 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (see 2,4-D) 1,2-dichloropropane, 799

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Index 927 1,3-dichloropropene, 799 dichotomous response models of car cinogenesis, 48 Dieldrin (see cyclodienes) dietary intake, daily, and radionuclides, 859-861 differential thermal analysis of asbestos, 159 1,2-dimethoxybenzene, 799 dimethylbenzene (see xylenes) 2,4-dimethylphenol, 730-731 4,6-dinitro-2-aminophenol, 799 dinitroanilines, 547-553 AD1, 552, 796 dose effects, 549-550, 796 toxicity, 551-553 dioctylapidate, 799 dioxins, 493 diphenylhydrazine, 731-733 risk estimate, 794 toxicity data, 733 Diplogaster species, 116 Diquat, 140 diseases chronic, 20 irreversible, 20 progressive, 20 transmission of, 63 disinfection methods, 5, 10, 107-111, 119, 121 (see also chlorination) disinfection, sensitivity to, 73, 118 distribution of chemical agents, 29 disulfoton (see phorate) Di-Syston R (see phorate) Dithane M-45, 655, 657 dithiocarbamates, 650-660 carcinogenic risk estimates, 656-657 no-adverse effect levels, data, 655, 796 toxicity data, 655, 658-660 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 19, 27, 51, 88, 37, 38 and 2,4-D, 497 xeroderma pigmentosum and ultraviolet-induced skin cancer, 43, 51 dose rates and mutations, 877-889, 894 evaluation of high animal, extrapolated to low human, 15, 55-56 dose-response adverse, defined, 802-804 curves, 24, 26, 37-39, 51 models, 47-48, 51, 59, 879-896 relationship, 15, 35, 37-49, 51, 58, 802, 872, 886 dose animal related to human, 31 annual, estimated from natural radiation in U.S., 858 critical, 23 duration, 36-37 effective, 41 estimation for heterogeneous popula tions, 25 exponential model of retention of radionuclides, 866 high, of carcinogens, extrapolation to low, 47-49 high, relevant to human carcinogenesis studies, 55 interactive effects, 49-52 low, effects of chronic exposure, 21 maximum tolerated, 54, 56-57 "no effect," 24, 43 "no-observed-adverse-effect," 15, 24, 25, 28, 54, 490 power function model of retention of radionuclides, 866 "safe," 24, 27, 53, 54, 56-57 selecting for experiment, 34-35 threshold, 15, 25 dosimetric models, 866 Dracunculusmedinesis, 115 drinking water (see also chemical agents, contaminants, water systems, water treatment) effects of pollutants, 20 European standards, 78-79 evaluating epidemiological information from health authorities, 12- 13 inorganic solutes, 14 microbiology of, 63-134 organic solutes, criteria for selection, 14-16 origin of constituents, 11 per capita consumption daily, 11 radionuclide content, 859-862 selecting for study, 10 standards, purpose of, 22 U.S. standards, 6-9 dysentery, amebic, 112 dysentery, bacillary, 69

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930 Index epoxide, 556-568 herbicides, 140, 493-556 (see also indi vidual herbicides) ADI criteria, 492 evaluation methodology, 490-492 herpes simplex, 326 herpes zoster, 326 hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, 799 hexachlorocyclopentadiene derivatives (see cyclodienes) high LET radiation (see LET and radia tion, high LET) hit-theory models of carcinogenesis, 40-46 hookworms, 115-116 hornblende, 149 humic acids, 169- 174, 177- 179, 185 chemisorption by, 173 DDT and, 178 haloforms from chlorination of, 179 ion exchange capacity, 170 mechanisms of reaction, 173- 174 metal complexes, 171 reaction with organic species, 171 humin, 170 humus, soil, 169 hydrocarbons chlorinated, 21 polycyclic aromatic, 691 hydroxides, 139 Hymenolepis nana, 1 15 hypomagnesemia, 264 hypernatremia, 409 hyperpigmentation, 325 hypertension, 403-409 hypochlorous acid, 108 illite, 137 immune mechanisms, 42 immunochemical methods for virus iden- tification, 97 indicator organisms, 70-75, 97-100 false-negative and false-positive results, 74 industrial waste disposal, 174-176 infantile paralysis, 89 initiator-inhibitor interactions of chemical agents, 50 initiator-promo/or interactions of chemical agents, 50 . . . . mutes, c. 1emlca cumulative, 25 nonreversible, 23-24, 26 reversible, 23, 26 self-propagating, 25-26 types of, 22 inorganic contaminants of water, 14, 138 140 (see also arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, copper, fluoride, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, ni trate, selenium, sodium, sulfate, tin, vanadium, zinc) insecticides, 556-680 (see also chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates) interactions of chemical agents, 49-50 (see antagonistic, deficiency, "fertile ground," initiator-inhibitor, initiator-promo/or, organic-clay, synergistic) International Agency for Research on Cancer, vi, 163 ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), 857, 865 868, 874, 878, 887, 889 International Standards for drinking water, 78-79 in vitro tests, 22, 88-89 iodination, water, 109 iodine, 109, 119, 863 I-125, 864 I-129, 865 I- 131, 862-865 ion exchange, trace metal removal, 225 226 iron, 207, 210-212, 218 irreversible health effects, 23-26, 52 assessing, 53-58 congenital malformations, 25 self-propagating, 26 irreversible toxicity, 27, 52 isodecane, 799 Itai-Itai disease, 237-239 kaolinite, 137, 142, 185 kaopectate, 137 Katadyn process, 289 Kepone, 592, 596-599 carcinogenicity, 596-597 carcinogenicity risk estimates, 597-598, 794 effects in man, 595-596

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Index 931 poisoning, 595 toxicity data, 599 keratoses, 327 kidney failure, 406 tubular necrosis, 243 Klebsiella species, 75 group, 75 K. pneumonias, 72 krypton, 865 lactose fermentation test, 71 reactions, atypical, 74 latent period, 22 defined, 899 laxative effect, 263, 426 lead, 171, 207, 210-212, 214, 218, 220-221, 254-261, 302-304, 309-311 bone storage of, 257 heme synthesis effect, 258 lead arsenate, 320 Pb-210, 861 Leptospira species, 67, 70 leptospirosis, 67 LET (linear energy transfer, high LET, low LET) see also radiation cancer induction, 38, 888-892 definition, 899 high, sources of, 858-861 low, sources of, 858-859 lethal dose (LD), 37 (see also individual items) leukemia, 586-587, 688 acute myeloblastic, 683 benzene-induced, 690 chronic lymphoid, 683 leukemogens, 688 leukopenia, 688 lime softening, 107, 223-224 Lindane (see BHC) lithium, 442 liver damage, chronic, 586 toxins, 757 log-probit method, of high to low dose extrapolation, 47 low-blood-pressure populations, 407 low LET radiation (see LET and radiation, low LET) lung congestion, 788 lung disease, beryllium, 234 magnesium, 210, 221, 261-265, 302, 303, 311 malathion, 620-628, 793 ADI, 626, 793 effects in man, 622 toxicity data, 627 Maneb (see dithiocarbamates) manganese, 207, 210, 212, 214-215, 218, 220-221, 265-270, 302-303, 311-312 manganism, 269 MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid), 509-519 carcinogenicity, 515 dose levels, 513-515, 796 mutagenicity, 515 teratogenicity, 515-516 toxicity, 513-515, 516, 518-519 mechanisms, carcinogenic, 15 membrane filter (MF) bacterial assay, 70, 72, 76, 78-79, 87 membranes, effects on toxic substances, 34 meningoencephalitis, 113 mental retardation, 259 mercury, 207, 208, 215, 220-221, 270-279, 302-303, 312-313 analytic methods, 277-278 ingestion, effects of, 275-276 kidney impairment, 275 Minamata disease, 276 Merkuran, 275 Merpan (see Captan) mesothelioma, 160 metabolism alkaline earth, 870 animal rates, 31 differences between species, 33, 53 factor in dose-response models, 46 glucose, 242 of chemical agents, 29, 33 metachloronitrobenzene, 799 metallic cations, interactions with clays, 138-139, 142 metal oxides, in soil, 169 metals allowable concentrations of, 14 essential, 302 metals, trace, in water systems, 170-171,

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932 Index 175-176, 205-316 (see also specific metals, e.g., copper) analysis of, 226-229 decaying vegetation and, 205 finished water, 209-210 in piping systems, 206-209 in raw water, 210-216 tap water, 206-209 removal, 217-226 me/hemoglobin, 416, 417-418, 424, 437 methomyl (see Aldicarb) Methoxychlor, 579, 581-584 carcinogenicity, 583 dose effects, 582, 796 o-methoxyphenol, 740-741, 798 methyl chloride, 741-743, 798 methylene chloride, 743-745, 798 methylmercury compounds, 221, 272, 274-279 methyl methacrylate, 745-748 effects in animals, 746 effects in man, 746 toxicity data, 748 methyl parathion (see Parathion) methylstearate, 799 microbiological contaminants, 12-13 (see also bacteria, protozoa, viruses) microbiology of water, 63-134, 179-183 bacteria, 67-88, 119- 120 epidemiology, 63-66, 91-94, 112, 118-119 helminths, 115-117 protozoa, 112-115 viruses, 88- 111, 120 water treatment practices and parasite removal, 117-118, 120-121 Micrococcus species, 85 microorganism-particle interaction in water, 179-183 microorganisms in water, action of, 179 183 bacteria, 180- 181 disinfection, difficulty of, 179-180, 182 hydroxide gel coated, 186 microbial aggregates, 179 viral aggregates, 179-180 viruses, 181- 183 microscopy (see electron microscopy, optical microscopy) milk of nursing mothers, 575, 758 Mills-Reincke theorem, 7, 8 Minamata disease, 276 mineral fibers (see also asbestos) identification, 155-159 occurrence, 151-155 removal, 184 miticides, 172 molybdenum, 210-212, 218, 220-221, 279- 284, 302-303, 313-314 bone disease, 282 diarrhea, 282 gout, 283 toxicity, 283-284 mongolism, 377 monobromobenzene (see bromobenzene) monochlorobenzene (see chlorobenzene) montmorillonite, 137, 143, 185 monuron, 172 morbidity minor, 26 major, 26 MPN (most-probable-number) procedure of quantification, 70, 72, 79, 80 multievent theory of carcinogenesis, 40-41, 43, 45, 48 municipal waste disposal, 174-176 mutagenesis, 25, 53 assays, 20 chemical, 38 effects, 25, 52, 87~878 measuring in humans, 30, 877-884 mutagenicity, correlation with car- cinogenicity, 20, 22, 37-38 mutagens, 15 (see also individual items) definition, 802 mutations cell, 47 change in chromosome number, 876-877 chromosome aberrations, 875-877 definition, 875 from toxic chemicals, 23 germ cell, 26, 875 induced, 877-884 in offspring, 23, 875-877 rate and dose, 879, 884-888 risk estimates, 879-881 somatic cell, 875, 884-889 mycoplasma, 63, 64 Nabam (see dithiocarbamates) nacrite, 137 Naegleria species, 113 narcosis, 772

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Index 933 NAS (National Academy of Sciences), v, 9, 25 Committee on Biological Effects of ionizing Radiation, 38, 857, 872-874, 878-883, 886, 889, 892 Safe Drinking Water Committee, vi, 911 NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements), 857, 861, 865-866, 878, 886 Necator americanus, 11 5 necrosis centrilobular, 704 tubular, of kidney, 243 nematodes, 115-118, 121 neoplasms, 21 nephrosis, toxic, 334 neuropathy, peripheral, 757 nickel, 139, 207, 210-212, 215, 218, 220- 221, 285-289, 302-303, 314 health effects, 287-288 nicotine, 747. 749 nitralin (see dinitroanalines) nitrates 41 1-425, 436-439 analytical methods for, 423-424 carcinogenicity, 416, 420-422, 425, 438 toxicity, 416-420, 437 nitrites, 414-416, 418-420, 424, 438 nitrosamines, carcinogenic, 33, 416, 438 N-nitroso compounds, 421, 424, 438 no-effect doses, 24 nomenclature asbestos, 144-145 bacteria, 68 nonane, 799 noncarcinogens, 15 dose evaluation for, 57-58 thresholds, 58 nonmutagens, 57-58 nonreversible effects. 23, 24, 26 nonthreshold approach, 21 nontronite, 137, 142 no-observed-effect doses, 24, 25 divided by safety factor, 54 ''Norwalk agent," 93 NRC (National Research Council), v, 9 N-substituted acetanilides (see amides) nuclear fuel effluents. 865 nuclear weapon testing, 862 octyl chloride. 799 oil pollutants in sediments. 175 one-hit dose response model of car- cinogenesis, 39-40, 45 optical microscopy, asbestos fibers, 156 organic debris, effects on water, 177 organic particles in soil, 135 organic particles in water, 135, 168-179 health effects, 19~191 in municipal and industrial wastes, 174- 176 in soil, 169-174 removal, 185 organic pollutants and clays, 140-143, 169 organoleptic test, 802 organophosphates, 604-635 (see also azin- phosmethyl, diazinon, disulfoton, malathion, methyl parathion, para- thion, phorate) Orthocide (see Captan) oxime carbamates (see Aldicarb) Oxychlordane, 568 ozonation, water, 109 ozone(O3), 109-110, 119 palygorskite, 137, 142 Paracide (see PDB) Paraquat, 543, 544-546 toxicity, 544, 545, 546 parasites, 112-118, 120-121 nematodes, 115- 1 16 protozoa, 1 12-1 15 removal from water, 117 parathion, 626, 629-636 ADI, 796 dose levels, 796 effects in animals, 630-32 effects in man, 630 toxicity, 633-636 Parkinson's disease, 269 particles in water microorganism interaction, 180-183 removal, 188 solid suspended, 179-188 viral interaction, 181-182 particulates, contaminants in water, 13-14 (see also asbestos) particulates, removal from water, 183-186 carbon, 186 clay, 184 mineral fibers, 184 metal hydroxides, 186 polyelectrolytes, 186

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934 Index parvoviruses, 88, 101 pathogenic fungi, 63 yeast, 63 pathogens, 67-69 affected by chlorination, 21 bacterial, 69-70 detection in finished water, 69-88 parasites, 117 transport, 13 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), 756-762 carcinogenic risk estimates, 760, 794 effects in animals, 758-759 effects in man, 757-758 toxicity data, 762 PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene), 673-681 carcinogenicity, 677-678 carcinogenic risk estimates, 679, 794 effects in animals, 676-677 PCP (pentachlorophenol), 750-753 effects in animals, 751 effects in man, 750-751 toxicity data, 753 PDB (p-dichlorobenzene), 680, 682-686 ADI, 796 effects in animals, 683-684 effects in man, 682-683 toxicity data, 685 pentachlorophenyl methyl ether, 799 perchloroethylene (see tetra- chloroethylene) Pesticide Accident Surveillance System (PASS), 661 pesticide reactions, clay catalyzed, 142 pesticides, 14, 140-142, 493-686 (see also fumigant, herbicides, insecticides) Phaltan (see Captan) pharmacokinetic, 36, 58, 494 phenylacetic acid, 754-755 phenylamide herbicides, 172, 173 phenylmercuric acetate, 275 phorate, 613, 615-620 dose effects, 616-617, 796 poisoning, 616 toxicity data, 619 photosensitization, 669 phthalic anhydride, 755-756 phthalimides, 657, 660-666 (see also Cap- tan, Folpet, HCB, PCNB) picornaviruses, 88 Planavin (nitralin) (see dinitroanilines) plankton, 183 plaque-forming unit (PFU), 89, 94, 100- 101, 103, 182 plaques, 89, 96 definition, 89 plaquing (agar overlay) method, 95 plasma cholinesterase inhibition, 26 pleural plaques, 160 plumbism, 258 plutonium, 865 pneumonoconiosis, 230 poliomyelitis, 89, 91, 102-103 virus, 89 polioviruses, 89-90, 93, 96, 100-105 poliovirus 2, 93 pollutants (see also contaminants, micro- biology, particulates, radioactivity, solutes) air, 373 assessing in drinking water, 19 carcinogenic, nonthreshold approach, 21 effects, 20 fecal, 69, 72 methods of study, 19 oil, 175 predicting effects, 35-37 polonium-210, 858 polyelectrolytes, 106 polyelectrolytes, organic in soils, ion exchange capacity, 171 in water, 177- 179 water treatment, 186 Polyram, 655 porphyria, 502 potassium-40, 858, 859, 871, 896 potassium fixation, 139 power function model, of radionuclide retention, 866 procarcinogens, 421 Propachlor, 525, 527-530 dose effects, 527, 528, 796 toxicity data, 529 Propanil, 528, 532-534 Propazine (see triazines) propylbenzene, 761, 763 Proteus mirabilis, 422 protozoa, 13, 63 parasitic, 121 pathogenic, 112-115, 117-118 removal, 117, 120-121

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Index 935 Proteus species, 67, 85 Pseudomonas species, 75, 85, 86 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 67 Public Health Service, U.S., 76, 78 pulmonary diseases, 160 sarcoidosis, 234 Rad, definition, 899 radiation, ionizing, 16, 38, 359, 857-858 adverse health effects, 16-17, 872, 874, 884, 892-898 background, 857-858, 892 carcinogenesis (see somatic effects) carcinogenetic thresholds, 38-39 developmental and teratogenic effects and risks, 872-874, 897 dose estimates, 865-872 dose effectiveness factors, 887-892 genetic effects and risks, 874-884, 894, 897 high LET, 38, 858, 859-861 low LET, 39, 858-859, 873, 878, 886-887 mutagenesis, 37, 877-884 somatic effects and risks, 16, 884-892, 894-896, 897-898 radioactive contaminants in water, 16- 17, 857-903 health effects, 896-898 radioactive CO2 test, 75 radioactive fall-out, 862 radionuclides in water, 16- 17,858-865,870 872 artificial, 862-865 cancer incidence, 16, 894-896, 898 dose factors, annual, 867, 871 hypothetical activity, 870-871 natural, 859-861 radionuclides, retention models exponential, 866 power function, 866 radiopharmaceuticals, 862-865 radium and bone cancer, 17, 894-896, 898 Ra-223, 861 Ra-224, 861 Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, v, 9, 905 Ra-226, 858, 860-861, 866, 869-871, 896, safety, 12, 27, 56 898 definition, 801 Ra-228, 858, 860-861, 896, 898 evaluation of, 801 radon inhalation and cancer, 50 Rn-220, 858 Rn-222, 858, 861 Raynaud's syndrome, 324, 325 receptor sites, differences between species, 34 red-cell cholinesterase, 630 protoporphyrin, 258 rem, defined, 899 renal function, impaired, 379, 380 insufficiency, 704 stones, 238 reoviruses, 88, 90, 96, 100, 108 reverse osmosis water treatment, 97, 225 reversible health effects, 23, 24, 26, 28, 53 Rhabditis species, 116 riebeckite, 144 risk absolute, 899 acceptable, 24 nonthreshold approach, 21 relative, 54, 879, 899 risk assessment factors limiting, 19 procedures, 12, 15, 19-62, 792 risk-benefit, 56-57 comparisons, 21, 57 methods of determining, 12 risk estimate, evaluation, 15, 27-29, 48-49 risk estimating, 19-20, 39, 55-56, 490-491, 890-891 background radiation and, 879, 885, 892-894 genetic effects and, 872-889, 894, 897 radioactive drinking water, 892-894 specific cancers, radiation induced, 889-892 RNA (ribonucleic acid), 88 roentgen (R), definition, 900 ronnel, 142 roundworms (see nematodes) rubidium-87, 858 safe doses, 24, 27-28, 37, 54 and exposure, 28 definition, 54 thresholds, 54 safety factors, 20-21, 24, 27, 54, 801-802 evaluation of, 49-52

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936 Index Salmonella species, 67-68, 70-72, 80, 83, 93 S. enteritidis, paratyphi A, 67-73 S. enteritidis, paratyphi B. 73 S. enteritidis, typhimurium, 73, 83, 86 S. typhi, 3, 66-68, 72-73, 81, 93 S. typhosa, 81, 93 salmonellosis, 65, 67, 78 sand filters, 3, 115- 116 for removal of protozoan cysts, 117 saponite, 137 sarcoidosis, pulmonary, 234 sauconite, 137 sediment in water, 86 sedimentation, water, 87, 94, 117, 183 selenium, 212, 344-369, 430-433 absorption, 349, 431 beneficial effects, 364-365 biotransformations, 352 carcinogenicity, 359 chemical interactions, 362-364 distribution, 349-351 mutagenicity, 361 toxicity, 354-359, 431-432 sepiolite, 137 serologic methods for virus identification, 97, 100 serpentine minerals, 144 Serratia species, 67 serum fluoride concentration, 373-374 serum-neutralization test, 97 sewage systems, 175 Shigella species, 69, 70, 71, 73, 80, 93 S. dys`~ntc~riac,, 67-69, 73 S. dysenteriae I (Shiga strain), 69 S. dysc~nt`~ria`, A-1, 68 S. dysenteriae M- 131, 68 S. c~ntc~ritidis, paratyphi A, 73 S. c~ntc~ritidis, paratyphi B. 73 S. c~nt`,ritidis, paratyphi D, 73 S. flexnc~ri, 67-68, 73 S. flexneri, 2A #, 68-69, 71 S. flexneri, 2A ##, 68 S. flc~xnc~ri, type 6, 65 S. sonnc~i, 64-65, 66. 67, 73, 93 S. typhi, 73 shigellosis, 64, 65. 66, 78 sickle-cell disease, 300 silica, 210 silicate minerals (s<~, asbestos) silver, 207, 210-212, 215, 218. 220-221, 289-292, 302-303, 314 Silvex (see 2,4,5-TP) Simazine (see triazines) skin diseases, 326 pigmentation, 50 slime deposits in water, 86 smectite, 137, 139, 142 sodium, 212, 400-411, 435-436 analytical methods for, 409 daily intake, 401-402, 435-436 epidemiology, 406-409 hypertension and, 403-409, 411 softening, water, 183-184 (see also hard- ness) soil particles in water, 169-174 solutes, inorganic, 205-488 defined, 14 solutes, organic, 849-857 defined, 14-16 somatic cell mutations, 884-892, 894-896 somatic effects, 16, 884-889, 894-895, 897-898 self-propagating effect, 26 SPC (standard plate count), 85-88, 120 spermatogenesis, alterations in, 258 standards for drinking water U.S., 6-9 European, 78-79 stannous fluoride, 293 Staphylo~ oc c us species, 75 sterility, 596 Streptococci, 73 fecal, 75 S. b`'vis, 73 5. `~cluinus. 73 Streptr~my~ `~s species, 85 Strongyloid`~s species, 116 Str`'ngyl`'id`~s st<,rc`'ralis, I 15 strontium-90, 862, 866, 869-871. 896 styrene, 763-765 effects in animals, 764-765 effects in man, 764 toxicity data, 766 subchronic toxicology, 21 sulfates, 425-428 laxative effect, 426 removal, 425 sulfhydryl-arsenic reactions, 319, 332 surface water, treatment of, 206 synergistic interactions, 15, 32, 36

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Index 937 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 499, 500-513, 796 ADI, 509 carcinogenicity, 506 dose levels, 501-506 esters of, 503 mutagenicity, 505 teratogenicity, 508 toxicity, 500-510 taconite ore tailings, 154 tapeworms, 115 TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p dioxin), 498, 500-513 acceptable daily intake, 509, 796 carcinogenicity, 506 dose levels, 501-506, 796 mutagenicity, 505 teratogenicity, 506-508 toxicity, 500-509, 512 technetium-99m, 865 teeth, mottled, 395-396 terata, defined, 23 teratogenesis, 53 teratogenic effects, 16, 53, 897 teratogens, 15, 793 definition of, 800 effect on water supplies, 16 1,1,3,3-tetrachloroacetone, 799 I, I,1,2-tetrachloroethane, 765, 767-770, 798 effects in animals, 768 effects in man, 767-768 tetrachloroethylene, 769-770 tetrachloromethane (see carbon tet rachloride) Thimet R (see phorate) Thiram (see dithiocarbamates) Thorium, 858, 860 Th-232, 859 threadworms, 115-116 threshold actual, 42, 46 dose and long-term exposure, 27 dose concept, 15, 21, 24-25, 27, 37-47, 54-55, 58, 873 dose-response curves, effects showing, 37 practical, 42 radiation doses, 21, 865-872 thyroid function, decreased, 249 time-to-response models of car cinogenesis, 48 tin, 221, 292-296, 302-303, 315 toluene, 770-773 effects in animals, 772 effects in man, 771-772 toxaphene, 600-604, 796 effects in animals, 601-602 effects in man, 601 toxic effects, mechanisms, 58-59 toxicity, acute, 29 toxicity, 12, 30, 57-58 chronic, assessing in animal testing, 22 data selection criteria, 15 definition of, 803 environmental variables affecting, 36 extrapolation from animals to man, 12, 19, 27-37 laboratory studies, 19 reversibility, 23-27, 53 studies of water, criteria for, 12, 16, 19 synergistic, 36 tests, laboratory animal, 29-37, 55-56 tests, standardized conditions, 30-31 toxicology studies, extrapolation to humans acute, 21, 29 subchronic, 21 toxic substances, criteria for testing suspected, 16 toxification, 58 2,4,5-TP (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid), 509-519 carcinogenicity, 515 dose levels, 513-515, 796 mutagenicity, 515 teratogenicity, 515-516 toxicity, 513-515, 516-517, 519 trace elements, concentrations, 218, 220 trace metals in drinking water (see metals, trace) Treflan (see dinitroanilines) tremolite, 144, 151 actinolite mineral series, 148-149 triazines, 533, 535-539, 796, 798 ADI, 796 dose levels, 796 toxicity, 535-536 tribromomethane (see bromoform) trichloroacetaldehyde (see chloral) trichlorobenzene, 773-775

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938 Index 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 775-777 trichloroethylene, 777-781 carcinogenic risk estimates, 779-780, 794 effects in animals, 778 effects in man, 777-778 toxicity data, 781 trichlorofluoromethane, 781, 782-783 trichloromethane (see chloroform) 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 799 Trichuris trichiura, 115 Trifluralin (see dinitroanilines) Trilobus species, 116 trimethylbenzene, 799 tritium, 858, 862, 871 tumors growth time, 40 malignant, 23 turbidimetry, 187 turbidity, water, 94, 183- 188, 190, 217 causes of, 183 measuring, 187- 188 two-hit dose response model of car- cinogenesis, 45 typhoid fever, 3-4, 6-7, 64, 78, 82-83 UICC (Unio Internationale Contra Can- crum), asbestos reference samples, 147, 150-151 ultrafiltration method to recover entero- viruses from water, 97 ultraviolet radiation, 50 uncertainty factor (see safety factor) UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), 857, 858, 859, 861, 878, 886, 889 Uracil (see bromacil) uranium concentrations in water, 858 U-238, 859 urea, 142 vaccines, oral, 101 vanadium, 210-212, 216, 218, 220-221, 296-298, 302-303, 315 Vancide 89 (see Captan) Vanguard K (see Captan) variable-threshold model of car- cinogenesis, 45, 46 vermiculite, 139, 142 Vibrio cholerae, 2, 67-68, 70, 73 vinyl chloride, 783-787 carcinogenic risk estimates, 785-786, 794 effects in animals, 784-785 effects in man, 784 vinyl bichloride (see trichloroethane) viruses, 13, 63, 88- 111, 120, 179, 181- 183, 186 correlations with bacteria, 110- 111 detecting waterborne, 94-95 epidemiology, 91-94 health effects in drinking water, 101-104 history of enteric, 89-91 recovery from water, 94- 101 resistance to disinfection, 104-110 water treatment to remove, 104-111 viruses, enteric (see enteroviruses) waste disposal, 174- 176 wastewater, reclamation of, 104 waterborne disease (see epidemiology) water consumption volume, human, 11 water distribution systems, 65-66, 77, 91 water hardness (see hardness, water) water-softening (see lime softening) water supplies inorganic solutes in, 205-488 monitoring of, 76, 86 on ships and waterborne disease, 65-66 organic particulates in, 168- 179 safety, 7 sampling, 76-78 U.S. standards, history, 6-8 well, 93 water systems individual and waterborne disease, 65 typhoid fever outbreaks, 64 municipal and waterborne disease, 65 semipublic and waterborne disease, 65 typhoid fever outbreaks, 64 water treatment (see also chlorination, coagulation, filtration, sedimentation) history, 2-8 indicator organisms, role of, in, 70-71 parasite removal, 117-118, 120-121 particulates removal, 184- 186 trace metals removal, 217, 220-226 transmission of hepatitis A, 91 virus removal, 104- 111 water uses, 17

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Index 939 whipworms, 11 3- 1 1 6 ~lson's gases, 252-253 Todd Head Own, 78 xeroderma pigmentosum, 4], j 1 x-ray dieact1On, asbestos analysis, 139 xylenes, 787, 788-789 xylenc1 isomers, 7]0 yeast, phrenic, O If Or, ad, Yusho disease, 738 zinc, 1]9, 17 1 , 207-208, 211-212, 216, 218, 220-221, 299-]~, ]16 Zineb Q~ dithioca~m~es) Zimm 0~e dithioca~amates)

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