heritance, and neuroscientists have begun to uncover some of the physical abnormalities of the brain that are associated with schizophrenia. This research feeds back into clinical practice by offering more precise criteria for diagnosis.
Because neuroscience spans so many fields of investigation, the funding for such research must also be broadly based. In the United States, the federal government disburses about $8 billion annually to support biomedical research, largely through the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services, which comprises the various National Institutes of Health and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Federal funds also support related projects that are carried out for the Food and Drug Administration and even the Department of Energy. Of this total, about $1.2 billion goes to support research in neuroscience. The Public Health Service is particularly strong in research on mental and addictive disorders, funding almost 85 percent of the nation's efforts in these areas.
The federal government' support of brain research is roughly equalled by funding from the private sector—that is, industry, private foundations, voluntary health agencies, and not-for-profit research institutions. Most notable in this last category is the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, which disburses more than $200 million annually for basic biomedical research at about 50 universities around the country; in 1990, it directed about $35 million toward research in neuroscience. Other private foundations that are not devoted exclusively to biomedicine nevertheless contribute substantial sums to basic research: in 1985, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation gave $9 million, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation $12 million, and the Pew Charitable Trusts $21 million. In addition, a great many smaller foundations support research on a specific disease or disorder; such foundations often begin as one family's personal response to affliction.
As the costs of research have increased, the role of industry as a significant source of support has also grown, making it second only to the federal government. Although the pharmaceutical industry, for example, directs nearly 80 percent of its research funds toward product development, it is also farsighted enough to fund both basic and applied research. For example, FIDIA, the fourth-largest pharmaceutical company in Ita-