Index

A

Acetylcholine (ACh)

ACh inhibitors, 70, 75

in Alzheimer's disease, 57–58, 70

neurotransmitter functions, 69–71, 84

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 59–60, 61–62

AIDS-related dementia, plate 2,

Addictive disorders, 10, 155–156

Adenosine triphosphate, 75

Adenylate cyclase, 75

Adrenal glands, 71

Adrenergic receptors, 78–81

Adrenocorticotropic hormone, 18

African toad (Xenopus) ,83

Aggression, 11

Aging, 44, 53–54, 55, 57

Akil, Huda, 156

Alcohol, 10, 88

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), 148, 151

Alcoholism, 22

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 148

Alimentary canal, 16

Alpha receptors, 78, 79

Aluminum, 56

Alzheimer's disease, 22, 44, 53–59, 70

Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, 54

Amino acids, 55–56, 78, 81

Amphetamines, 73

Amygdala, 21, 27, 124

Amyloid proteins, 54–55, 57

Anatomie (Dryander), x

Anencephaly, 88

Animals, 11

cerebral cortex in, 26

hippocampus in, 22, 53, 58

learning in, 5, 72

limbic system in, 21

mental representation, nervous systems, 29–30

pineal gland in, 19

Animal testing, 147

Alzheimer's disease, 56, 58



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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN Index A Acetylcholine (ACh) ACh inhibitors, 70, 75 in Alzheimer's disease, 57–58, 70 neurotransmitter functions, 69–71, 84 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 59–60, 61–62 AIDS-related dementia, plate 2, Addictive disorders, 10, 155–156 Adenosine triphosphate, 75 Adenylate cyclase, 75 Adrenal glands, 71 Adrenergic receptors, 78–81 Adrenocorticotropic hormone, 18 African toad (Xenopus) ,83 Aggression, 11 Aging, 44, 53–54, 55, 57 Akil, Huda, 156 Alcohol, 10, 88 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), 148, 151 Alcoholism, 22 Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 148 Alimentary canal, 16 Alpha receptors, 78, 79 Aluminum, 56 Alzheimer's disease, 22, 44, 53–59, 70 Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, 54 Amino acids, 55–56, 78, 81 Amphetamines, 73 Amygdala, 21, 27, 124 Amyloid proteins, 54–55, 57 Anatomie (Dryander), x Anencephaly, 88 Animals, 11 cerebral cortex in, 26 hippocampus in, 22, 53, 58 learning in, 5, 72 limbic system in, 21 mental representation, nervous systems, 29–30 pineal gland in, 19 Animal testing, 147 Alzheimer's disease, 56, 58

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN hypothalamus, 18 obsessive-compulsive disorder, 50 panic disorder, 53 visual development, 109 Anterior commissure, 29 Antidepressant medication, 51 , 63 Antipsychotic medication, 65 Anxiety, 40 , 41 , 51 , 52 Arginine, 84 Aristotle, 8 , 46 Artificial brain, 140–142 Artificial intelligence, 8 Artificial perception, 140 , 141 , 144 “Association” cortex, 26–27 , 105 Asthma, 71 Atropine, 70 , 75 Attention, 105 , 115–117 , 123 , 129–130 neural circuitry, 117–118 pathology, 120–122 reticular activating system, 20 system development, 118–120 Auditory association area, 26 Auditory nerve, 141 Autism, 44 Autonomic nervous system, 17 , 70 Autopsy, 34 Autoradiography, 35–36 Axons, 71 , 139 AIDS and, 60 backward projection, 107 blood flow, 35 in brain development, 96 , 97–99 , 100 cerebral cortex, 29 myelin sheath, 30 , 31 , 72 reticular network, 20 signal transmission, 30 , 32 , 82 , 97 , 128 , 134 synapse connections, 30 , 33 , 97–98 , 101 , 127 AZT, plate 2 ,62 B Balance and posture, 19 , 20 Barbiturates, 52–53 , 74 Barrestin, 81 Basal ganglia, 5 , 50 Behavioral studies, 147 Benzodiazepines, 52 , 53 , 74 Berthoz, A., 111 Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK), 81 Beta-agonists, 71 Beta-endorphin, 77 Beta receptors, 78 , 79 Birds, 19 , 130 Birth defects, 10 , 88 Bisiach, E., 113 Bladder, 16 Blindness, 110 Blood-brain barrier, 58 Blood circulation in the brain, 3 , 56 , 116 imaging techniques, 45 , 116 neurotransmitter control, 71–72 Blood vessels, 35 brainstem control, 15 hypothalamus control, 17 neurotransmitter control, 5 , 74–75 , 84 Body, 3 , 4 Body temperature, 17 Botulin, 70 Brain aging and, 44 , 55 , 57 body and, 3 , 4 complexity of, 1 , 33 , 86 , 136 computer simulation, 136–137 , 140–144 drugs and, 10 evolution of, 13 , 26 , 93 imaging techniques, 7–8 , 34–35 , 45 information processing, 1 , 4 , 123 , 141 , 147 medical examination of, 34 and mind, 46–47 , 62–63 , 121–122 neuroscience approach, 3 , 7 , 9–12 parallel processing, 8 physical structure, 13–15 , 29–30 , 31 plasticity, 8 , 86–87 , 88–89

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN storage capacity, 137–138 weight, 22, 33 Brain development, 6–7, 15, 22–25, 86–89 cell migration, 5, 95–97 cell proliferation, 93–95, 102 cellular competition, 98–101, 143 synapse formation, 97–98, 102, 128 techniques for studying, 89–93, 101–103 visual attention system, 118–120 Brain disorders, 6, 100, 145, 151. See also Mental illness Brain hemispheres, 15, 20, 23, 28–29 attention system, 121 panic disorder, 40–41, 52 vision, 107 Brain injury, 26, 28, 34 frontal lobe, 121 medial extrastriate cortex, 38 parietal lobe, 112, 113, 116–117, 120 prefrontal cortex, 27 Brainstem, 15, 29, 71, 77 Breathing, 15, 16 Broca, Paul, 28 Broca's area, plate 7 ,23, 28, 92 Brodmann, K., 92, 102 Bromley, D. Allan, 2, 152, 156 Bush, Barbara, 2 Bush, George, iv, 2 C Cade, John, 49 Calcium, 9, 10 Calcium channels, 32, 82, 84, 85, 126, 127 Calcium ions, 32, 75, 127, 139–140 California Institute of Technology, 141 Calmodulin, 85 Canada, 153 Carbon dioxide, 52 Caudate nucleus, 41 Cell-adhesion proteins, 5, 128–129 Cell death, 103 Cell migration, 95–97, 100 Cell proliferation, 93–95, 102 Central nervous system, 1, 69–71, 104 Cerebellum development of, 96 hemispheres, 20 in language tasks, 39 movement control, 14, 15–16, 19– 20 neurotransmitters in, 71, 84, 85 Cerebral cortex, 13–15, 16 “association” cortex, 26–27, 105 cell composition, 91, 95 development of, 5, 22–25, 88, 89, 90, 95–97, 101 dopamine receptors, 101, 134 emotional control, 17, 27 gyri and sulci, 25–26 language functions, 26, 27–29 layers, 29, 97 lobes, 23, 25, 90 memory functions, 27, 70 movement control, 25–26 physical areas of, 26, 28, 46, 92–93 pyramidal neurons, 9, 97, 134 size of, 19, 22, 91, 94 visual functions, 27, 106, 110 Cerebrum, 65 Chaos theory, 147 Chemical signals, 6, 31, 32–33, 69, 74, 80 Chemical synapses, 30 Chimeric receptors, 79–81 Chimpanzees, 91 Chloride channels, 53, 74 Chloride ions, 53, 74 Chlorine ions, 32 Chlorpromazine, 64, 73 Cholinergic pathways, 58 Cingulate gyrus, 120, 121 Citrulline, 84 Clinical practice, 11–12, 48, 147–148, Clomipramine, 50

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN Cloning, 82 Cochlea, 141 Cognitive function, 8, 130, 134–136 Color vision, plate 8 ,108, 110, 120 Computed tomography, 7, 42–43 Computers, 8, 115, 136–137, 138, 147 artificial brain, 140–142, 144 Consciousness, 18, 20, 46 Conte, Silvio, iv, 2 Corpus callosum, 29, 100 Cortical plate, 101, 102 Cowan, Maxwell, 11 Crayfish, 124 Curare, 70, 75 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), 75, 78, 79 role in memory, 126, 127–128, 129 Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP), 84–85 Cytokines, 61 D Darwin III, 143 David Mahoney Institute for the Decade of the Brain, 155 Decade of the Brain, 2, 7, 8, 11–12, 145, 155 Presidential Proclamation, iv, 163 research agenda, 150–153 Degenerative disorders, 10, 53 Déjà vu, 27 Dementias, 53, 55, 58, 59 Demyelinating disease, 61 Demyelination, 61 Dendrites, 9, 30, 31, 32–33 blood flow, 35 in brain development, 97–99, 100 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 91, 94, 126 Depression, 48 chemical deficiencies in, 63, 71, 72 PET imaging, 41, 45 Depth perception, 110 Descartes, René, 105 Desensitization, 81 Diacylglycerol (DG), 75–76, 78 Dogs, 130 Domenici, Pete V., 2 Dopamine, 101 in cognitive function, 133–135 in movement control, 72–73 in Parkinson's disease, 57–58, 73 production of, 18, 72 prolactin inhibition, 18, 72 in schizophrenia, 73–74 Dopamine blockers, 65, 73 Dopamine receptors, 64, 65, 101, 134 Dopaminergic neurons, 72–73 Down's syndrome, 57 Drinking, 17 Drugs, 79, 85, 88 ACh inhibitors, 70 antidepressant medication, 51, 63, 71, 72 antipsychotic medication, 65 beta-agonists, 71 obsessive-compulsive medication, 50–51 opiates, 76–77 panic disorder medication, 51, 52–53 schizophrenia medication, 64, 65–66, 73 substance abuse, 3–4, 7, 10, 155–156 Dyslexia, 38 E Eating, 17–18 Ectopias, 100 Edelman, Gerald, 128, 142, 144 Education, 149–150 Electrical signals, 6, 31, 67–69, 80, 81–82, 98 Electrical synapses, 30 Electroencephalography (EEG), 42, 117–118, 133 Embryo, 87 Emotion, 119–120 hypothalamus and, 17 imaging techniques, 39–41

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN limbic system and, 21, 27, 40 prefrontal cortex injury and, 27 Encephalitis, 59 Endocrine system, 16–17 Endorphins, 76, 77 Enkephalins, 77 Environment, 6–7, 8, 86–87, 88–89 Epidemiology, 58, 59 Epilepsy, 10, 21, 29, 44 Epinephrine, 18, 52, 71, 76, 78 Equilibrium sense, 16 Eserine, 70 Evolution, 13, 22, 26, 27, 93, 102, 136 Eyes, 109–110 F Fasciculations, 97 Fetus, 45, 88, 98 FIDIA Pharmaceutical Corporation, 148–149, 153 Follicle-stimulating hormone, 18 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 48–49, 148 Forebrain, 15, 88, 90 Frontal lobes, 23, 25, 26 Alzheimer's disease and, 55 attention functions, 39, 117, 118, 121 dopamine fibers, 65 PET imaging, 41, 118 Fruit flies, 82 G Galvani, Luigi, 67–69 Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 52–53, 74 Ganglion cells, 107, 108 Genes, 8, 57, 93, 103 Genetics, 8, 145, 146 Alzheimer's disease, 55, 57 brain development, 89–91, 93, 101 manic-depressive disorder, 49 obsessive-compulsive disorder, 50, 52 panic disorder, 52 Gill withdrawal reflex, 125 Glandular cells, 75 Glial cells, 95, 96 Glucose, 17, 35, 71 Glutamate, 84, 85, 139–140 Glutamate receptors, 84–85, 139–140 Glutamic acid, 56 Goldman-Rakic, Patricia, 65, 131, 132, 134, 135, 136 Goodwin, Frederick K., 149, 150 Gordis, Enoch, 3, 7, 10 G-proteins, 75, 78, 80 Granule cells, 96 “Gray matter,” Grignolo, Alberto, 153 Guanosine triphosphate, 75 Guinea pigs, 49 Gyri, 25–26 cingulate gyrus, 120, 121 parahippocampal gyrus, 40 H Hallucinations, 64, 65, 73 Head injury, 2, 50 Hearing, 104–105 Heart, 46 Heartbeat, 15, 16 Hebb, Donald, 139, 140 Hemiballism, 6 Heroin, 77 Hindbrain, 15, 90 Hippocampus, 141 Alzheimer's disease and, 55, 56, 58, 70 blood flow, 56 in limbic system, 22, 40 long-term memory, 124, 139 neurons, 10, 56, 58 in panic disorder, 53 short-term memory, 10, 22, 58 Hippocrates, 46 Hormones, 18 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 148 Hubel, David H., 104, 109, 110, 111, 116

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN Human genome project, 151 Human growth hormone, 18 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 59, 60, 62 Human nature, 11 Hunger, 17–18 Huntington's disease, 6, 57 Hydrogen, 43 Hyoscine, 70 Hypertension, 63 Hypothalamus, 14, 16–18, 19, 21, 71 I Imaging techniques, 7–8, 34, 45, 133 Immune system, 60, 61 Immunoglobulin, 128 Infants, 118, 119–120 Inositol, 10 Inositol triphosphate (IP3), 75–76, 78 Institute of Medicine, 11, 145, 147 Insula, 25 Interneurons, 29, 126 Intestines, 17 Ion channels, 32, 81–83 Ions, 6, 31, 32, 80, 139–140 Italy, 153 J Jamais vu, 27 Jan, Lily Yeh, 83 JohnD. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 148 Johnson, Mark, 119 Johnson, Richard T., 61 Judd, Lewis, 66 K Kandel, Eric R., 124, 125, 127, 139 Kidneys, 3 L Langfitt, Thomas W., 150, 154 Language processing, 26, 27–28, 29 occipital lobe, 118 parietal lobe, 112 PET imaging, 37–39 schizophrenia and, 121 Lateral geniculate nucleus, 106, 108, 109 L-dopa, 73 Learning, 8, 123–125, 127, 129, 138 aging and, 55 Alzheimer's disease and, 59 computer simulation, 8, 140 dendrite spines and, 9 ion channels and, 82 PET imaging, 39 Learning disorders, 38 Lee, D., 111 Lefkowitz, Robert, 78, 79, 81 Left hemisphere, 15, 20 language functions, 26, 27, 28, 29, 121 panic disorder and, 40, 41 visual function, 107 Limbic system emotional functions, 21, 124 mood regulation, 65, 71, 73 nervous system connections, 21, 22, 27, 65 opiate receptors, 77 PET imaging, plate 6 ,41, 52 Lishman, J., 111 Lithium, 10, 48–49 Lithium carbonate, 49 Liver, 3, 46, 71 Livingstone, Margaret, 111 Lobes, 23, 25 Logical functions, 142 Long-term memory, 22, 27, 124, 125–129 Luteinizing hormone, 18 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 72 M McDonell-Pew Cognitive Neuroscience Program, 154 McKhann, Guy M., 54, 55

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN Macrobiology, 147 Macrophages, 59, 61, 62 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plates 3–5 ,7, 43–44, 110, 118 Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 7, 44 Magnetic source imaging, 7–8, 44 Mahoney, David T., 155 Mammals, 77, 82, 95, 99, 139 Manic-depressive disorder, 10, 48–49 Marijuana, 22, 77–78 Marine snail (Aplysia) ,5, 124, 125–126, 139 Martin, Joseph B., 145 Mason, James O., 151 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 136–137 Medial extrastriate cortex, 38 Medulla, 14, 15, 16, 96 Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, 18 Melatonin, 18–19 Memory, 8, 123–125, 138–139. See also Long-term memory; Short-term memory Alzheimer's disease and, 53, 55–56, 58, 59 computer simulation, 140 visual, 27 Mental health, 2, 47–48 Mental illness, 46–48, 145 AIDS-related dementia, 59–62 Alzheimer's disease, 53–59 diagnosis and treatment, 4 genetic transfer, 8 manic-depressive illness, 48–49 mood disorders, 62–63 obsessive-compulsive disorder, 49–51 panic disorder, 51–53 PET imaging, 41 schizophrenia, 64–66 Mental representations, 129–130, 132, 136 Mental retardation, 57 Messenger molecules, 98 Messenger RNA, 5–6 Metabolism, 35, 41, 44 Metals, toxic, 55, 56 Microglia, 61 Midbrain, 15, 16, 90 Migraine headaches, 85 Mind, 46–47, 62, 105, 121–122, 123 Mitochondria, 30 Molecular biology, 8, 50, 103, 146, 147 Monkeys attention system, 115, 118 axons, 99, 100 cerebral cortex, 93, 94, 95–96, 101, 130 dopamine receptors, 101, 134 movement perception, 113–114 nervous system development, 91, 94, 95, 99 working memory, 65, 130–131, 132–133, 134, 135 Monocytes, 62 Mood control, 71, 73 Mood disorders, 62–63 Morphine, 77 Motor cortex, plate 7 ,19, 24, 26 Mountcastle, Vernon B., 112, 113–114, 115 Movement control, 5–6 brainstem, 15–16 cerebellum, 19–20 dopamine and, 72–73 precentral gyrus, 25 reticular network, 20 Movement perception, 110, 113–115 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 60 Multiple sclerosis, 44 Muscle cells, 75 Muscular movement, 15–16 Mussels, 55–56 Mutation, 57, 86–87, 102 Myasthenia gravis, 70 Myelin sheath axons, 30, 31, 72 imaging, 42–43 pathologies, 44, 60, 61

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN N National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD), 155 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 11, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, 54 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 148, 151, 154 Natural selection, 99 Nerve growth factor, 58, 98, 99 Nerve tracts, 15, 20, 132 Nervous system, 20 AIDS infection, 59–60 Alzheimer's disease and, 55, 59 autonomic nervous system, 17, 70 central nervous system, 1, 69–71, 104 chain of signals, 4 development of, 99, 124–125 electrical signals in, 67 hypothalamus and, 16–17 in learning, 5, 124–125, 129, 138, 139 messenger molecules, 98 movement control, 72–73 proteins in, 128, 129 robot, 143 Neural tangles, 54, 55, 56 Neural tube birth defects, 88 in brain development, 15, 86, 89, 90, 95 Neurobiology, 123–124 Neuroglia, 31 Neurological diseases, 6 Neurology, 146, 153 Neuromodulators, 71, 98 Neurons, 29–31 Alzheimer's disease and, 55, 56 blood flow, 35 cell elimination, 88, 99–100 cell migration, 5, 88, 95–97 cell proliferation, 86, 93–95, 98–99 cerebral cortex, 25, 29, 131–132, 134 chain of signals, 1, 4, 6 in cognitive function, 134–135 computer models, 140–141, 147 dopaminergic neurons, 72–73 electrical charge, 31, 32, 53, 82, 83 genetic transcription, 126–127 hypothalamus, 17 imaging techniques, 35, 36, 44 ion channels, 81–83 learning and, 5, 82, 138 in memory, 125–126, 128–129, 131–132 motor neurons, 70, 125–126, 127, 128 nerve growth factor and, 58 neuroglia, 31 neurotransmitter synthesis, 69, 71 nitric oxide-forming enzyme in, 85 number of, 86, 88, 138, 155 pineal gland, 18–19 protein synthesis, 126, 127 pyramidal neurons, 9, 97, 134 receptor sites, 32–33, 74–76, 78–81 reticular network, 20 sensory neurons, 125, 126, 127, 128, 139 serotonergic neurons, 72 synapses, 30, 31–32, 88, 91, 97–98, 127, 138, 139–140 thalamus, 16, 20 visual, 110, 113–114 Neuroscience, 2, 3, 4–5, 6–7, 104 and artificial brain, 142 and brain development, 88, 92, 103 and mental illness, 9–11, 46–48, 59, 66, 145–146, 147–148 and psychology, 10–11, 62–63 research directions, 8–9, 11–12, 146–149, 151–157 technological innovations, 7–8 Neurotransmitters, 4 acetylcholine, 69–71

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN in Alzheimer's disease, 58 antidepressant medication and, 63 dopamine, 72–74, 133–135 endorphins, 76–77 excitatory and inhibitory, 32–33 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 52–53, 74 in memory, 126–127, 129, 133 multiple functions of, 5, 74 norepinephrine, 70–71 number of, 33, 74 receptor sites and, 9, 32–33, 74–75, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84–85, 92 second messengers and, 75–76 serotonin, 71–72 storage and release, 30, 32, 33, 126–127 Nitric oxide, 83–85 Nitroglycerin, 84 Norepinephrine blood vessel effects, 5, 74–75 central nervous system functions, 70–71 medications and, 50, 63, 71, 72 as neuromodulator, 71 receptor sites, 5, 74–75, 78 O Obsessive-compulsive disorder, 49–51, 52 Occipital lobe, 25 language capacity, 118 visual functions, 23, 27, 106, 111, 116, 117, 132 Ocular dominance columns, 109, 110–111 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 151–152 Olfactory bulb, 21, 23, 85 Opiates, 76–77 Opsins, 79 Optic chiasm, 107 Optic nerve, 102, 106, 107, 109 Ovulation, 18, 19 P Painkillers, 76–77 Pain sensations, 16, 20, 71–72 Panic disorder, plate 6 ,39–40, 41, 45, 51–53 Parahippocampal gyrus, 40 Parallel processing, 8 Parietal cortex, 132–133 Parietal lobe, 23, 25 in attention system, 115, 116–117, 120 language functions, 112 movement perception, 115 in spatial perception, 112–113, 132–133, 136 visual neurons, 113–115 Parietal lobe syndrome, 112, 116–117 Parkinson's disease, 2, 6, 56, 57–58, 59, 72–73 “Parsimony in nature,” Perception, 104–105, 129–130, 142–143 Peripheral vision, 111–112, 113–114, 115 Peterson, Steven, 117 Pew Charitable Trusts, 148, 154 Pharmaceutical industry, 148–149 Pheromones, 21 Phospholipase C, 75–76 Phosphorous, 44 Phrenology, 46 Pineal gland, 18–19 Pituitary gland, 14, 17, 18, 85 Pons, 14, 15–16, 96 Positron emission tomography (PET), 7, 35–37, 45, 50, 110, 133 and attention system, 117, 118, 120 imaging of AIDS-related dementia, plate 2 imaging of language recognition, plate 1 ,37–39, 116 imaging of panic disorder, plate 6, Posner, Michael I., 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120–121

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN Postcentral gyrus, 25 Potassium channels, 31–32, 82–83, 126 Potassium ions, 31 Precentral gyrus, 25–26 Prefrontal cortex dopamine in, 133–134 emotional functions, 27, 65 schizophrenia and, 64–65, 66, 135 in working memory, 65, 66, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 136 Pregnancy, 10, 45, 86, 88, 91 Pressure sensations, 16 Primates, 66, 129, 136 Private sector, 148–149, 153–155 Prolactin, 18, 72 Protein kinases, 4, 76, 81, 127, 129 Proteins amyloid proteins, 54–55, 57 cell-adhesion proteins, 5, 128–129 G-proteins, 75, 78, 80 in learning, 5, 127–128 second-messenger systems and, 75 in synapses, 30 synthesis of, 126, 127 Psychosomatic disorders, 3 Psychotherapy, 49–50, 65–66 Public Health Service, 148, 151 Purpura, Dominick P., 2–3, 5, 6, 9 Pyramidal neurons, 9, 97, 134 R Raichle, Marcus E., 37–39, 41, 116 Rakic, Pasko, 92–93, 94, 95, 100, 101, 102 Raphe nuclei, 20 Rats, 77, 139 Reading, 26, 38–39 Receptor sites, 9, 32–33, 74–75 acetylcholine receptors, 70, 75 adrenergic receptors, 78–81 chimeric receptors, 79–81 dopamine receptors, 64, 65, 101, 134 elimination in brain development, 101 GABA receptors, 52–53, 74 glutamate receptors, 84–85, 139–140 mapping of, 77–78, 92 norepinephrine receptors, 5, 74–75, 78 voltage-gated channels, 31–32, 81–82 Reproductive functions, 19 Reptiles, 21 Research, 146, 147–149, 151, 152–153, 154, 156–157 Reserpine, 63 Reticular activating system, 18, 20–21 Retina, 106, 107, 141 Retrovirus, 89–91 Rhinencephalon, 21 Ribonucleic acid (RNA) messenger, 5–6 synthesis, 126 Right hemisphere, 15, 20, 28–29, 41, 107, 121 Robots, 143 Rubella, 88 S Schizophrenia, 7, 73–74, 147–148 and attention system, 120–121 imaging technologies and, 44 medications, 64, 65–66, 73 and prefrontal cortex, 64–65, 66, 135, 136 Science, 149–150, 155, 157 Scopolamine, 70 Second messengers, 4, 69, 75–76, 78, 80, 98 Sejnowski, Terrence J., 136, 137, 138, 141, 144 Selkoe, Dennis, 57 Senile plaques, 54–55, 57 Senses, 8, 16, 104–105, 110–111, 129–130 Sensitization, 72 Serotonergic neurons, 72

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN Serotonin medications and, 50, 52, 63 neurotransmitter functions, 71–72, 126, 127–128, 129 Sex hormones, 18 Short-term (working) memory, 125, 126 acetylcholine and, 70 aging and, 55 hippocampus and, 10, 22 nerve growth factor and, 58 prefrontal cortex and, 65, 66, 130–132, 134, 135 Skin pigmentation, 18–19 Skull, 28, 36, 45 Sleep, 18, 72 Smell, 16, 21, 104–105, 130 Smooth muscle, 16, 17 Snyder, Solomon H., 84 Sodium channels, 31–32, 82 Sodium ions, 31, 75 Sodium lactate, 40, 41, 52 Somatic sensory cortex, 24 Spatial cognition, 132–133 Spatial perception, 105, 111–113 Speech, 26, 28, 92 Spina bifida, 88 Spinal cord, 14, 15, 20, 95 AIDS and, 61 opiate receptors, 77 Strabismus, 109–110 Stress, 18, 52, 76 Stroke, 44 Stroop effect, plate 8 ,120 Substantia nigra, 56 Suicide, 51 Sulci, 25, 131, 132 Sullivan, Louis W., 2, 149 Surgery, 34 Sweat glands, 17 Synapses, 33, 91, 138 Alzheimer's disease and, 55 chemical, 30 dopamine synapses, 134–135 electrical, 30, 98 elimination in brain development, 99, 100, 143 formation of, 97–99, 101, 102, 128 Hebbian model, 139–140 in learning, 125, 127, 128 schizophrenia and, 65 serotonin uptake, 50 in visual system, 108 voltage-gated channels, 31–32 Synaptic cleft, 30, 32, 33, 63, 70, 71, 82 Synaptic vesicles, 30, 126–127 Synthetic neural modeling, 142–143 T Taste, 104–105 Technology, 7–8, 146 Temperature sensations, 16, 20 Temporal lobes, 23, 25, 29 Alzheimer's disease and, 55 auditory area, 26 in long-term memory, 27 visual memory area, 27 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 22, 77–78 T-4 cells, 62 Thalamus, 14, 16, 19, 134 connections with cerebral cortex layers, 29, 102 in limbic system, 21, 27 in reticular activating system, 20 Thought, 123 Thyroid-stimulating hormone, 18 Touch, 16, 20, 104–105 Toxic metals, 55, 56 Tranquilizers, 51, 52 Tryptophan, 72 Tumors, plates 3–5 ,44 Twins, 49, 50, 52 U Ultrasound imaging, 7–8, 44–45 United States government research funding, 148, United States Congress, iv, 2, 163 United States Department of Energy, 148

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DISCOVERING THE BRAIN United States Department of Health and Human Services, 148, 151 V Vascular disease, 55, 56–57 Ventricles, 15, 42–43, 46 in brain development, 89–91, 94, 95 Ventricular zone, 94, 95, 96, 103 Vertebrates, 15, 21, 77, 99, 124 Viruses, 55, 56, 59 Visual association area, plate 7 ,26, 27, 92 Visual cortex, 92, 93, 111, 114 computer simulation, 141 development of, 95–96, 118–119 information pathways, 106, 107, 108, 109–110 optic nerve and, 102, 106, 109 PET imaging, plate 7 ,36, 37 Visual memory, 27 Visual system, 27, 104–105 color, plate 8 ,108, 110, 120 development of, plate 8 ,118–119 information pathways, 106–108, 110 peripheral vision, 111–112, 113–114 signal interpretation, 109–111 Vital functions, 13, 14, 15, 123 Vitamins, 10 Voltage-gated channels, 31–32, 81–82 W Wernicke, Karl, 28 Wernicke's area, 23, 28, 92 “White matter,” Winnicott, D. W., 48 Working memory. See Short-term memory X X-ray technology, 36, 42, 43, 44, 88, 91 Z Zidovudine (AZT), plate 2 ,62