make adaptations. During the century, these indigenous systems have undergone continual change, first as a result of policies of colonial powers, and later in response to postwar development policies promoting ''modernization'' and further integration into the global economy. There are competing views of the effects of these century-long trends in political economy on the ability of local populations to withstand drought. In one view, the main results were increased dependency and vulnerability; in the other, vulnerability decreased because of improved availability of medical care, famine relief, and a national infrastructure that allowed for easier. migration and food shipments (Kates, 1981).

The three major droughts of the century, in 1910-1915, in 1968-1974, and in the 1980s, have had different effects on the lives and livelihoods of the local populations. The 1910-1915 drought, which was of comparable severity to the drought of the 1970s, appears to have produced greater increases in mortality; its effects on malnutrition and on the social fabric are harder to determine (Kates, 1981). The knowledge base is better for comparing the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s.11 Local conditions changed between those two periods. Population continued to increase at up to 3 percent annually, forests continued to be cut for fuel and farming, and other forms of resource exploitation probably continued at about the previous rates. Grazing pressure fell, owing to animal mortality but, by the 1980s, cattle holdings had recovered to 60 percent of predrought levels in some areas, and small livestock probably recovered more. On balance, the human demands on the local environment were at least as severe as before the 1968-1974 drought.

The drought of the 1980s was as severe as the previous one. Annual rainfall in 1983-1984 was of the same order as in 1972-1973, and in some areas of the Western Sahel, less. Crop failures and pasture shortages were equally serious. Yet famine did not occur on the same scale, and animal mortality was lower. Possibly food aid was earlier and better in some countries, but in northern Nigeria, where food aid was not a major factor in either period, social distress was noticeably less marked in the 1980s, even in the worst affected areas.

What explains the relatively low human cost of the 1980s drought? It was not the response of the affected governments. Political officials were taken by surprise about equally by both droughts. The people most experienced in surviving failures of agricultural production and managing the environment were those living in the affected areas, but this group had little influence on policy. Of the several political interests concerned with the drought prob-



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