Index

Abortion, 3, 53, 60, 64, 68

in China, 76

in Eastern Europe, 75

French law, 44, 52, 65

morality and fetal tissue research, 7, 215, 220–223, 233–234, 241–243, 251, 252–253, 310, 318

mortality, 71

number of, fetal tissue research and, 223–228, 235–236, 241, 256, 314

other abortifacients, 52, 59, 68–69

RU-486 procedure, 43, 73, 78–79, 310

societal legitimation of, fetal tissue use and, 216, 228–229, 239

U.S. law, 55, 69, 72, 288 n.29

U.S. rates, 52, 82, 217, 236, 237

women's decision, 56, 220–221, 223, 224, 229, 230, 232–233, 235, 236, 239, 241

Abortion controversy

and fetal tissue research, 221, 232, 253

and RU-486, 43, 47, 57, 62, 72–73, 74, 86, 97, 316

Abortion opponents, 68–69, 72

and fetal tissue research, 218, 237, 239

Roussel-Uclaf and, 46, 58–59, 65, 74–75, 78

RU-486 boycott threats, 54–55, 58, 67, 69–71, 85, 86

RU-486 opposition, 43–44, 47, 48–49, 53, 54–58, 61, 79, 310, 317

Abortion-rights advocates, 64, 68, 72–73

Accident victims, 222, 225, 229, 233

Adams, Arlin, 218, 219, 236

Adenoviruses, 267

Africa, 71

Agence France Presse, 62–63

Agent Orange, 113

Agrigenetics Company, 160

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), 19, 34, 35 n.1,

decision-making process and, 9, 10, 32, 41

research, 15, 20, 135, 137, 142

AIDS activists, 35 n.1

and Bristol-Myers officials, 24–25, 29, 32–33

and early release of ddI, 10, 14–15, 18, 22–23, 24–27, 31–33, 40, 42, 313–314, 316

and public health officials, 10, 17, 19, 20, 32, 34, 36 n.8

AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)n.11

AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP), 15, 22, 24, 25, 36 n.8

AIDS drugs, 15, 34, 35–36 n.4,

AZT, 10, 20, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32

clinical trials, 10, 12, 15–16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35 n.1,

early release of dideoxyinosine (ddI), 6, 14, 23, 24–28, 29, 42, 310, 318

Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award, 75

Alberts, Bruce, 128–129, 130, 138, 154

Alliance for Aging Research, 152, 155

Alliance for Life, 70

ALZA Corporation, 84

Alzheimer's disease, 137



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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Index Abortion, 3, 53, 60, 64, 68 in China, 76 in Eastern Europe, 75 French law, 44, 52, 65 morality and fetal tissue research, 7, 215, 220–223, 233–234, 241–243, 251, 252–253, 310, 318 mortality, 71 number of, fetal tissue research and, 223–228, 235–236, 241, 256, 314 other abortifacients, 52, 59, 68–69 RU-486 procedure, 43, 73, 78–79, 310 societal legitimation of, fetal tissue use and, 216, 228–229, 239 U.S. law, 55, 69, 72, 288 n.29 U.S. rates, 52, 82, 217, 236, 237 women's decision, 56, 220–221, 223, 224, 229, 230, 232–233, 235, 236, 239, 241 Abortion controversy and fetal tissue research, 221, 232, 253 and RU-486, 43, 47, 57, 62, 72–73, 74, 86, 97, 316 Abortion opponents, 68–69, 72 and fetal tissue research, 218, 237, 239 Roussel-Uclaf and, 46, 58–59, 65, 74–75, 78 RU-486 boycott threats, 54–55, 58, 67, 69–71, 85, 86 RU-486 opposition, 43–44, 47, 48–49, 53, 54–58, 61, 79, 310, 317 Abortion-rights advocates, 64, 68, 72–73 Accident victims, 222, 225, 229, 233 Adams, Arlin, 218, 219, 236 Adenoviruses, 267 Africa, 71 Agence France Presse, 62–63 Agent Orange, 113 Agrigenetics Company, 160 AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), 19, 34, 35 n.1, decision-making process and, 9, 10, 32, 41 research, 15, 20, 135, 137, 142 AIDS activists, 35 n.1 and Bristol-Myers officials, 24–25, 29, 32–33 and early release of ddI, 10, 14–15, 18, 22–23, 24–27, 31–33, 40, 42, 313–314, 316 and public health officials, 10, 17, 19, 20, 32, 34, 36 n.8 AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)n.11 AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP), 15, 22, 24, 25, 36 n.8 AIDS drugs, 15, 34, 35–36 n.4, AZT, 10, 20, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32 clinical trials, 10, 12, 15–16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35 n.1, early release of dideoxyinosine (ddI), 6, 14, 23, 24–28, 29, 42, 310, 318 Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award, 75 Alberts, Bruce, 128–129, 130, 138, 154 Alliance for Aging Research, 152, 155 Alliance for Life, 70 ALZA Corporation, 84 Alzheimer's disease, 137

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS American Academy of Pediatrics, 237 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 121 American Civil Liberties Union, 72 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 240 American Fertility Society, 240 American Hospital Association, 328 American Medical Association (AMA), 73, 155, 237, 238 American Psychiatric Association, 9–10 American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 180 American Society of Law and Medicine, 81 American Society of Nephrology, 180, 181 Amino acids, 105, 107 Anderson, Ephraim S., 276, 278, 290n.44 Anderson, Norman, 109, 134, 138–139, 159 Anderson, W. French, 149–150 André, Michèle, 63, 64 Animal research, 5, 50 fetal tissue transplantation, 216, 217, 234, 242 RU-486, 54, 94–95 Animal rights movement, 300 Antibiotics, 263, 300 Apollo space program, 159 Arabidopsis thaliana, Ashby Working Party, 274 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules, 124, 274–283, 284, 301, 331 decision-making process, 7, 277, 281–282, 290n.44, 292n.58, participants, 274, 293–298, 291n.55 safety guidelines, 258–259, 268–269, 277–281, 283, 299, 302, 306, 314, 317–318 Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), 272, 273–274, 283, 288 n.31, 289 n.40 Association of American Medical Colleges, 237 Atomic bomb, 113, 119 Avery, Oswald T., 104, 259 AZT, 10, 20, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32 Bacteria DNA research, 264, 265, 276 genetic structure, 106–107, 262 hazards in research, 263, 280, 302 viral infection of, 105, 259, 264 Bacteriophages, 105, 259, 264 Baltimore, David, 286n.8 and Asilomar conference, 272, 274, 275, 283, 289n.38 and genome project, 140–141, 142, 144, 154 Banta, H. D., 5–6 Barnhart, Ben, 151, 152 Barrell, Bart, 108, 111 Baulieu, Etienne-Emile, 49–50, 51, 52, 53, 58, 61, 62, 63–64, 66, 75 Beadle, George W., 261–262, 286n.8 Becker, E. Lovell, 191, 193 Beckman Foundation, 111 Beckwith, Jonathan, 279–280, 291n.52 Berg, Paul and Asilomar conference, 269, 272–273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 281, 282, 283, 291n.52, and genome project, 112, 124, 125, 127–128, 140–141, 154, 161 recombinant DNA research, 265, 266–267, 268, 286n.8, 289nn.37,38 Berkeley National Laboratory, 120–121, 131 Bioethics Board, 253, 254n.13 Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee, 253 Biomedical research, 2, 3, 5, 157, 158, 259–261, 287n.25 Biotechnology, 157, 158, 303, 304, 306 Biotechnology Science Coordinating Committee, 136, 284 Birth control pill, 49 controversy over, 43, 46, 48, 52, 59, 60 market for, 52, 82 Birth defects, 55, 83, 84, 95 Bitensky, Mark, 114, 115 Black, Francis, 287n.25, Bleich, J. David, 219, 226, 228 Bodmer, Walter F., 108, 112, 123, 125, 127, 154 Bopp, James, 218, 219, 222, 223, 230–231 Bostock, Judy, 116, 121 Boston, Boston Globe, Botstein, David, 108, 111, 124–125, 129, 140–141, 161 Bowen, Otis R., 219 Boyer, Herbert, 269, 270, 271, 276, 289n.38 Bread molds (neurospora), 261–262 Breast cancer, 46, 77, 86–87 Brenner, Sydney, 127, 129, 274, 278, 282, 283, 285 n.7 Bristol-Myers Company, 18, 24–25, 27, 28–30, 32–33, 36n.11 British Society for the Protection of the Unborn, 74 Broder, Samuel, 24 Brookhaven National Laboratories, 155 Brown, Donald D., 274, 280 Bureau of the Budget, 178, 179, 210, 315 Burkitt's lymphoma, 263 Burris, John, 128, 129 Burroughs Wellcome Company, 29

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Burtchaell, James T., 218, 219, 221–222, 230–231 Bush, George, 13, 45, 80, 235 Bush, Vannevar, 259 Business Week, Byrd, David, 62, 66 Byrnes, John, 184, 206n.5 Cahill, George, 125, 127, 130, 147 California, 173 drug regulation, 35–36n.4, California Association for Research in Astronomy, 110 California Institute of Technology, 108, 110 California Right to Life, 79 Cancer, 191, 196, 283–284 breast cancer, 46, 77, 86–87 contraceptive carcinogenicity, 50, 51, 56 drugs, 12, 14, 41–42 oncogenes, 105, 263, 279 research, 108, 122–123, 287n.25, viruses and, 263, 265, 266, 268–269, 278 Cantor, Charles R., 106, 113, 121, 128, 129, 154, 160–161, 169–170 Capron, Alexander Morgan, 250, 254n.9, Carey, James, 188–189 Case studies, 3–5, 309 Catastrophic health insurance, 193, 194, 202 Cell, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 39, 137 Cervical dilation, 54, 86–87 Cesarean section, 54, 86–87 Children's Hospital (San Francisco), 80 Chiles, Lawton, 133, 137–138, 151, 170 China, 45, 61, 64–65, 73, 74, 76, 78 Chronic granulomatous disease, 104 Church, George, 111, 113 Civil rights movement, 309–310, 327 Clinical trials AIDS drugs, 10, 12, 15–16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35n.1, birth control pill, 48, 59 dideoxyinosine (ddI), 10, 21–22, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36n.11, drugs, 11, 12–14, 36n.6 fetal tissue transplantation, 234 RU-486, 46, 50, 51–52, 54, 73, 76, 80, 83, 94–95 Cohen, Stanley, 270, 271, 276, 282, 289n.38, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 100, 266, 267 human genome conference, 123–125, 126, 127–128, 131, 174 Collaborative Research, Inc., 108–109 Color blindness, 102 Comings, David, 115 Committee to Save Unborn Children, 61 Compassionate use, 24, 25, 38 Conable, Barber, 119, 188 Congressional Budget Office, 183, 198 Congressional Budget Reform Act (1974), 183, 198 Congressional Research Service, 183, 314–315 Constantine, Jay, 185, 191, 192, 193, 203, 205–206n.1, 206n.1 Consumer interests, 23–24, 55 Conte, Silvio, 142 Contraceptives, 49, 52, 68, 75, 85 carcinogenicity, 50, 51, 56 innovation, 48, 50, 57 liability, 55, 83–84, 95 regulation, 47–48, 51, 54, 55 research, 51, 55, 60, 83, 85, 86, 96 side effects, 84 Cooper, Ellen, 19, 25–26, 28, 30, 34 Cost-benefit analysis, 96, 253 Costs, 321 abortion, 44–45 FDA approval procedure, 82–83 human genome project, 112–113, 114, 116, 124, 140, 141, 142–145, 159–162, 163–164, 316, 319 Medicare ESRD program, 195–201, 202–203, 204, 206nn.8 and 9, risk events, 305 RU-486, 45, 52–53, 76 Cowan, Max, 127 Cranston, Alan, 191 Crick, Francis H. C., 104, 127, 260, 285n.7,n.8, 286n.8 Crossen, David, 52–53 Curtiss, Roy, 276, 279 Cushing's syndrome, 46, 70, 77, 86–87 Cyanide gas, 59, 70 Cystic fibrosis, 104 Cytotec, 68–69 Dalkon shield, 48, 56, 83 Davis, Ronald W., 111, 269 Decision making, 2–3, 5, 6, 8, 308–317, 318, 319, 320, 321–322, 329–330 Asilomar conference, 7, 277, 281–282, 299–300, 311, 313, 315–316 early release of ddI, 9, 10, 33–35, 39, 41–42 fetal tissue research, 215–216, 219–220, 251–252, 255–257 human genome project, 99–100, 169 kidney disease entitlement, 201–203, 210, 211, 213–214 RU-486 availability, 46–47, 58–60, 63–64, 96, 97–98

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Decorum (Hippocrates), 327 de Gaulle, Charles, 49 Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, 5 Delbrück, Max, 105, 285n.7 286n.8 Delegation for Biomedical Research, 118 DeLisi, Charles, 138 and establishment of genome project, 114, 115–117, 119, 121, 128, 134, 147, 149, 153, 160, 169–170, 174–175, 313 and genome project funding, 116, 118, 132 Democracy, 3, 4, 308, 309–310, 321, 326 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cancer, 122 gene mapping, 102–103, 151–152 gene splicing, 105–106, 264, 269, 271, 273 fragment analysis, 111 sequencing, 106–108, 110–111, 113, 114, 115, 123–124, 128, 134, 140, 163–164, 170–171 structure, 104–105, 260 viral, 259, 263 Department of Agriculture, 156 Department of Energy (DOE), 100 genome project budget, 99, 101, 116, 118, 119, 132, 134, 139, 145, 147, 159–160, 172 genome project initiative, 113–123, 130, 131–132, 137, 149, 155, 156, 162, 170, 173, 174 genome project of, opposition to, 125, 127, 128, 134, 136, 138, 155 joint genome project with NIH, 133, 141, 151, 152, 153, 154, 164, 171 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and fetal tissue panel, 215–216, 217, 218, 255, 256 fetal tissue research funding ban, 235–238, 241–242, 251 NIH funding, 136, 144, 145 Depo-Provera, 48, 50–51, 59, 82 Deregulation, 11, 313 DeVita, Vincent, 121 Diabetes, 216, 227, 234 Dialysis. See Hemodialysis Dideoxyinosine (ddI) AIDS activists and, 10, 15, 23, 24, 31–33, 310, 313–314, 318 Bristol-Myers and, 24–25, 27, 28–30 clinical trials, 10, 21–22, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36n.11, early release decision, 6, 7, 10–11, 24–28, 33–35, 38–40, 41–42, 311, 316–317, 320 FDA and, 6, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25–26, 27–28, 30, 33–34, 38, 39, 42, 313 Diethyl stilbestrol (DES), 56 Diffusion-adoption continuum, 5–6 Dingell, John D., 132 Dinkins, David N., 80 Disease fetal tissue research and, 43, 216, 217, 234, 238 genetic, 104, 105, 150, 157 germ theory of, 262 pathogens and, 263, 278 RU-486 treatment applications, 46, 72, 77–78, 86–87 Domenici, Pete V., 118, 119–120, 133, 137, 138, 139–140, 170 Domestic Policy Council, 136 Donis-Keller, Helen, 109, 111, 129 Dor, Xavier, 57–58 Dornan, Robert, 53, 70, 77, 78, 81 Double Helix (Watson), 148 Drosophila, Drugs. See also AIDS drugs cancer, 12, 14, 41–42 clinical trials, 11, 12–14, 36n.6 experimental, 12, 15, 17, 19–20, 21, 23, 35n.1, regulation, 10–15, 18–19, 23, 30, 32, 35–36n.4, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, 104 Dulbecco, Renato, 122–123, 124, 153, 154, 169–170, 265, 289n.37 Dupin, Kenneth, 69, 71 DuPont de Nemours, E.I., & Co., Inc., 155 Dupree, A. Hunter, 259–260 Dworkin, Roger, 281 Eastern Virginia Medical School CONRAD program, 83, 86 Economic development, 157, 158 EcoRI, Edgar, Robert, 110, 111 Efficacy ddI, 26, 38, 39 drugs, 11, 12, 15, 18–19, 22, 23 RU-486, 44, 45, 50, 54, 55, 73, 78–79, 81, 84, 95 Eigo, Jim, 15 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 47 Eisenhower, Mamie, 191 Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), 48 Elderly, 200 Electrophoretic separation, 106, 113 Endometriosis, 46, 72, 86–87 End-stage renal disease (ESRD), 180–181 Congressional entitlement, 7, 185, 187–195, 228, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 319

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS costs of treatment, 195–201, 202–203, 204, 210–211, 213, 313, 319 Gottschalk Committee report on, 178, 179, 181, 197, 206n.4, 212–213, 315 Engelhardt, Tristram, 310 Environmental Protection Agency, 284 Epostane, 51–52, 59 Epstein-Barr virus, 263 Ervin, Sam, 193 Escherichia coli DNA recombination, 262, 268, 269, 270, 273, 276, 277, 278, 280 DNA sequencing, 108 mutation studies, 264, 265 Ethics Advisory Board, 43 Etzioni, Amitai, 272 Eugenics, 147, 150 Eukaryotic cells, 262, 265, 279, 280 Europe, 119 abortion laws, 239 contraceptive research in, 85 human genome mapping in, 129, 147 RU-486 in, 74, 75, 83 European Economic Community, 284 European Medical Research Council, 134 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBO), 108, 264 “Every Child a Wanted Child,” Evin, Claude, 58, 59, 62, 68 Evolution, 300 Experimental drugs, 12, 15, 17, 19–20, 21, 23, 35,n.1 40, 314 Falkow, Stanley, 276, 279 Falmouth conference, 277 Falwell, Jerry, 53 Family Health International, 86 Farben, I.G., 59, 70, 75 Fauci, Anthony, 15–17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27–28, 31, 32, 33–34, 36,n.7 313 Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), 198, 200–201 Feinstein, Diane, 79 Feminists, 48, 68, 72 Fetal tissue research, 78, 251–252, 315, 320 animal studies, 216, 217, 234, 242 donation decision, 225, 226, 227–228, 230–231, 232, 233–234, 236, 252 federal funding ban, 43, 78, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29 information to women, 225, 231–233 morality of abortion and, 7, 215–223, 233–234, 251, 252–253, 256, 310, 318 and number of abortions, 223–228, 235–236, 241, 256, 314 public policy and, 234–240, 241–243, 255–257, 310, 311 and societal legitimation of abortion, 216, 228–229, 239 tissue dispositional authority, 229–231 Fetus, definition of, 53, 220 Florida, 137–138, 173 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 9, 36n.5 Anti-Infectives Advisory Committee, 17, 21, 22, 23 Anti-Viral Products Division, 19 contraceptive approval process, 50, 51, 54, 68–69, 82–83 drug regulation, 10, 11, 12–13, 14, 18, 19, 79 early release of ddI, 6, 24, 25–26, 28, 29–30, 33–34, 38, 39, 42, 313 parallel track protocol, 15, 16, 17, 18–20, 23, 25, 31, 40 and RU-486, 45, 46–47, 53, 54, 70, 73, 76–78, 81, 83, 86, 94 Food and Drugs Act (1906), 11 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938), 11 Kefauver amendments (1962), 11, 36n.5 Ford, Wendell H., 118 Ford Foundation, 49 France, 264, 290n.41 abortion controversy in, 62, 63 abortion law, 44, 52, 65 coercion of Roussel, 46, 65–67 contraceptive law, 49 and development of RU-486, 50, 52, 57 RU-486 approval, 60, 64–65, 69, 70, 83, 94, 98 RU-486 availability in, 43, 44, 45, 61, 68, 73, 76 Fredrickson, Donald, 111, 119, 125, 126 French Family Planning Association, 64 French Movement for Family Planning, 63 Friends of the National Library of Medicine, 143 Froelich, Edwin, 149–150 Fruit fly (Drosophila), 171, 261, 273 Fuji Photo Film Company, Ltd., 108 Fullerton, William D., 185, 188, 190, 191, 195, 205–206n.1 Fund for the Feminist Majority, 76 Funding abortion research, 70, 72, 78, 288n.29 contraceptive research, 60 fetal tissue research, 217, 221, 228–229, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238, 256–257, 288n.29 fetal tissue research, federal funding ban, 43, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29 human genome project, 99, 101, 112–113, 118, 119, 121, 126, 140, 141, 142–147, 171–172

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS kidney research and treatment, 180–181 scientific research, 169, 259–260 Gabelnick, Henry, 83, 86 GenBank, 120, 134 General Accounting Office (GAO), 183 “General altruism,” Genetic discrimination, 148, 159 Genetic disease, 104, 105, 150, 157 Genome Corporation, 129 Germ theory of disease, 262 Giglio, Camille, 79–80 Gilbert, Walter DNA research, 106–107, 111 and genome project, 111–112, 124, 127–128, 129, 130, 140–141, 147, 154, 169–170 Glasow, Richard, 43–44, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 69, 74–75, 79 Glazer, Shep, 187–189, 194, 313 Gordon Conferences, 107, 112, 114, 289n.37 on nucleic acids, 270–272 Gore, Albert, 147, 148, 149 Gottschalk, Carl W., 177, 179, 205–206n.1 Gottschalk Committee, 180, 182 Report of the Committee on Chronic Kidney Disease, n.4, Gough, Mike, 113–114 Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit targets, 143 Great Instauration of 1940, 259–260 Greenhouse, Steven, 58 Greenslade, Forrest, 85, 87 Grimes, David, 56, 81, 87 Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), 48 Group C drugs, 14, 42 Guyer, Mark, 141, 151, 152 GynoPharma, Inc., 59–60, 83, 85, 86 Handler, Philip, 272, 283, 289n.40 Harkin, Tom, 142 Hartke, Vance, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196–199, 201, 203 Harvard Medical School, 300 Harvard University, 182 Hatch, Orrin G., 149 HCG vaccine, 86 Health care technology, 3 Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC), 114–115, 116, 117, 121, 160 Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke Amendments (1965), 181 Hemodialysis, 177–178, 180, 190, 197, 319 cost of, 196, 204 demonstration in Congress, 187–189 Gottschalk Committee and, 179, 181–182, 206n.4 Medicare coverage, 198–199, 200, 205, 209–210, 211, 212–213, 214 Hemoglobin, 103, 105, 157 Hennepin County Hospital (Minneapolis), 182 Herrington, John S., 114 Hinton, Diane, 127, 151 Hippocratic oath, 326–327 Hiroshima, Japan, 113, 119 Hoben, Patricia, 132, 138 Hoechst A.G., 46, 57, 58–59, 61, 63, 64, 66–67, 69–70, 71, 75–76 Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (HRPI), 68, 94 Hoffman, Max, 109–110 Hoffman Foundation, 109–110, 112–113 Holland, 177 Homicide victims, 222, 225, 228, 229, 233 Homosexuality, 9–10 Homosexuals, 9–10, 35n.1, Hood, Leroy, 111, 112, 118–119, 126, 128, 129, 140–141, 154, 160, 162, 169–170 Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), 3, 101, 108–109, 111, 125–126, 127, 128, 130, 156 Hughes, Howard, 126 Human Cell Biology Steering Committee (HCBSC), 265, 268, 274, 286n.15 Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research (NIH), 234–235 Human Gene Mapping Library (HHMI), 126 Human genetics, 102, 104, 107, 150 Human genome project, 6–7, 99–102, 152–155, 157–159, 169–172, 173–175, 312, 313, 315 costs of, 112–113, 114, 116, 124, 140, 141, 142–145, 159–162, 163–164, 316, 319 DOE plan, 113–123, 130, 131–132, 137, 149, 155, 156, 162, 170, 173, 174 DOE plan, opposition to, 125, 127, 128, 134, 136, 138, 155 ethical and social issues, 147–151, 164, 171, 174, 318 genetic linkage mapping, 103–104, 108, 111, 121–122, 123–124, 126, 127, 130, 140, 162 NIH-DOE joint project, 133, 138, 140–141, 142–147, 151–152, 153, 154, 164, 170, 171 NIH plan, 108, 125, 130, 134–137, 156, 173 NRC report on, 128–31, 133, 141, 144, 145, 152, 154, 161, 170

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS OTA report on, 131–133, 159, 162, 170 physical mapping, 107, 111, 113, 114, 115, 123–124, 128, 130, 162, 170 public and, 152, 154–155, 171, 174–175, 316, 317, 331 Santa Cruz plan, 109–113 scientific community and, 123–128, 154–155, 171–172, 174 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 10, 22 Humphrey, Hubert H., 143 Huntington's disease, 104, 106, 150 Hyde Amendment, 242 Ice-minus bacteria, 138 Immigration, 9–10 Immunosuppressive drugs, 178 Incest, 230, 231 Incrementalism, 312–313 India, 75 Industrial Biotechnology Association, 138 Infertility, 86–87 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 3, 94, 174, 177, 193, 271, 288n.31 Institutional review boards, 231, 234, 288n.29 Insurance costs, 95, 96 Internal Revenue Code, 183 International AIDS Conference, 16, 24 International Convention on Patents, 74 International Right to Life Federation (IRLF), 70–71 Intrauterine device (IUD), 52, 82, 83, 84, 85, 95 Dalkon shield, 48, 56, 83 ParaGard, 85, 86 Investigational new drug (IND) application, 12, 13–14, 54, 94–95 treatment IND, 14, 19, 24, 26, 27, 30, 33 In vitro fertilization, 43 Ireland, 68 Issues in Science and Technology, Italy, 74 Jackson, Henry M., 181, 206n.2 Jacob, François, 264, 286n.8 Japan, 96, 108, 148 Ministry of Education, 156–157 Science and Technology Agency, 108, 156–157 Johnson, Lyndon B., 47, 186 Johnson & Johnson Products, Inc., 86 Joly, Pierre, 61–62, 65 Jordan, Elke, 141, 152 Judson, Horace Freeland, 285n.7 Karølinska Hospital (Stockholm), 74 Karyotyping, 102–103 Kass, Leon, 266–267 Katz, Jay, 254n.10 Keck Foundation, 110 Keck telescope, 109–110, 313 Kefauver amendments (1962, Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act), 11, 36n.5 Kennedy, Edward M., 137, 138, 185, 186 Kerry, John, 149 Kidney disease, 177–178, 182 costs of treatment, 195–201, 204, 210–211, 213–214 Gottschalk report on, 178, 179–180, 181, 197, 206n.4, Medicare coverage, 176, 178, 179, 187–195, 201–202, 205, 206n.6, research, 178, 180–181, 201–202 Kidney Disease Control Program (KDCP), 178, 180 Kidney transplantation, 177, 178, 182, 189 costs of, 196, 197, 204, 211 Gottschalk Committee and, 179, 181, 206n.4 Medicare coverage, 198–199, 200, 205, 209–210, 212–213 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 327 Kingsbury, David, 128, 136–137 Kirschstein, Ruth, 128, 131, 134, 135, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 149–150 Kissinger, Henry A., 174 Kolff, Willem, 177, 180 Korean War, 177 Kornberg, Arthur, 286n.8 Kountz, Samuel, 193, 196, 197, 201, 206n.7 Kourilsky, Philippe, 258, 282, 284n.1 Krimsky, Sheldon, 265, 271, 292n.58 Lac operon, 279–280 Laetrile, 23, 40 Landers, Ann, 60 Lear, John, 266, 271, 289n.38 Lederberg, Joshua, 262, 278, 282, 286n.8 Leonard, Victoria, 67, 68 Levinson, Rachel, 135, 140 Lewin, Roger, 125, 126 Lewis, Andrew M., 267–268, 269, 278, 279, 287n.24 Lewis, Herman, 265, 268, 272, 274 Liability and contraceptive development, 55, 83–84, 95 and recombinant DNA research, 281, 306 and RU-486, 55–56, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 96 Library of Congress, 183 Lincoln, Abraham, 135 Litigation, 55, 320 Livermore National Laboratory, 120, 121

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Long, Russell B., 184–185, 186, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 199, 200, 203–204 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 114, 115, 120, 174–175 Los Angeles Times, Lujan, Manuel, 118 Luria, Salvatore, 105, 285n.7, 286n.8 Lustinger, Jean-Marie (archbishop of Paris), 59 Lwoff, André, 264, 286n.8 McCarty, Maclyn, 104, 259 McClintock, Barbara, 261, 286n.8 McConnell, Jack, 119–120, 137 McCusick, David, 205–206n.1, 206n.8 McDonnell Foundation, 128 McGovern, George, 176, 201 McKusick, Victor A., 123–124, 126, 129, 131 MacLeod, Colin M., 104, 259 Magnuson, Warren G., 181 Manchester Guardian, Mason, James O., 16, 17, 18, 225–226, 236–237 Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein test, 5 Matsui Knowledge Industries, 108 Maxam, A. M., 106–107 Media, 318, 320 Medicaid, 176, 180, 183, 186, 189, 214, 329 Medical Advisory Board, 126 Medical innovation, 5–6 Medical Research Council (U.K.), 264, 274 Medicare, 329 Congress and, 183, 186, 190, 192, 202 kidney disease coverage, 176, 178, 179–180, 189, 193, 200, 202, 204, 205n.6, kidney treatment costs, 195, 197, 203, 210–211, 214 Medicare and Medicaid: Problems, Prospects, and Alternatives (Constantine and Fullerton), 185 Meningioma, 46 Mendel, Gregor, 259 Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 123, 126 Mendelsohn, Mortimer, 113, 117 Mertz, Janet E., 265, 266, 269 Metheny, Bradie, 118, 142 Methodology, 3 Michelin, 69 Mifepristone, 44 Mikulski, Barbara A., 150 Mills, Wilbur, 183, 184, 188, 189, 190, 194, 195, 199, 200, 206n.7 Mishell, Daniel, Jr., 51–52 Molecular biology, 112, 123, 125, 127, 143 development of, 104–105, 259–260, 261 and gene mapping, 102, 103, 106, 107 and recombinant DNA research, 263–265, 267, 279, 291n.55 Mondale, Walter F., 206n.3 Mongan, James J., 185, 191–192, 193, 198–199, 203, 205–206, 206n.8 Monod, Jacques, 264, 286n.8 Moral Majority, 71 Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 261, 286n.8 Mortality abortion and pregnancy, 71 ddI, 40 kidney disease, 196 Mouse genome, 171 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 185 Mutations, 113, 136 Nagasaki, Japan, 113, 119 Najarian, John S., 182, 206n.3 Natcher, William, 142, 144 Nathans, Daniel, 129, 267, 271, 272, 286n.8 National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL), 64, 72 National Academy of Engineering, 288n.31 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 177, 288n.31 and human genome project, 112, 127 and recombinant DNA research, 271, 272, 273–274, 276, 281, 289n.38 National AIDS Program Office (NAPO), 17–18, 26 National Association of Patients on Hemodialysis (NAPH), 187 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 14, 137, 265, 268, 279, 287n.25 National Center for Biotechnology Information, 143 National Center for Human Genome Research, 100, 150, 152 National Center for Nursing Research, 150 National Committee to Review Current Procedures for Approval of New Drugs for Cancer and AIDS, 24 National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 222 National health insurance, 185, 189, 194, 202, 312 National Health Insurance Partnership Act (1971), 186 National Heart Institute, 178 National Institute on Aging, 137 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 15, 17, 20, 137, 178 National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, 178, 179 National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 112, 121, 140, 141, 142, 143, 145 National Institute of Mental Health, 137

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, 137, 216 National Institutes of Health (NIH) abortion controversy and, 43 AIDS drug clinical trials, 16, 36n.11 AIDS research, 15, 20 Biohazards Committee, 287n.24 Director's Advisory Committee, 134–135, 140, 218, 234–235 and DOE genome project, 117, 119, 121, 126–127, 131–132, 134, 137, 153, 155 and drug parallel track, 16, 17, 19 and early access to ddI, 25, 26, 27–28, 31 and fetal tissue research, 215–216, 217, 218, 222, 234–235, 236 genome project budget, 99, 101, 112, 132, 139, 140, 141, 142–147, 158, 172 genome project development, 108, 125, 130, 134–135, 156, 173 and genome research ethics, 149–151, 171 joint genome project with DOE, 133, 138, 140–141, 151–152, 164, 170 kidney disease research, 178, 180–181, 201–202 Office of Human Genome Research, 148 and recombinant DNA, 264–265, 267–268, 274, 302 Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, 277, 283 research funding, 260, 270, 288n.29 and RU-486 research, 77 National Kidney Foundation, 179, 180, 182, 188, 189, 191, 193, 196, 197, 201, 210 National Library of Medicine (NLM), 143 National Medical Care, Inc., 182 National Organization for Women (NOW), 72–73 National Organ Transplant Act (1984), 218, 227 National Policy Board on the Human Genome, 137 National Research Council (NRC), 100, 128, 162, 273–274, 288n.31 Committee on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome report, 128–131, 133, 141, 144, 145, 152, 154, 161, 170 National Right to Life Committee (NRLC), 47, 54–56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 67, 76, 78 National Right to Life News, National Science Foundation (NSF), 108, 119, 136–137, 156, 170, 265, 268 Nature, Nazi Germany, 58–59, 70, 75, 177, 223, 327 Nematodes, 106, 162, 164, 171 Nephrology, 180, 181 Netherlands, 74 New drug application (NDA), 12, 13, 14, 30, 94, 95 New England Journal of Medicine, New Mexico, 119, 173, 174–175 New Republic, New Scientist, Newsweek, New York City, 80–81 New York Times, Nixon, Richard M., 176, 185–186, 187, 195, 201, 210 Nobel Prize, 75, 286n.8 Noller, Harry, 110, 111 Norplant, 81 Nouvel Observateur, Novick, Richard P., 274, 275, 277 Nuclear power, 303, 304, 305–306 Nuclear weapons, 119 Nucleic acids, Gordon Conference on, 270–272 Nuremberg Code, 327–328 Obesity, 46 Obey, David R., 135, 136, 150 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 281 O'Connor, Sandra Day, 47 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health (OASH), 201 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 116, 119, 121, 136, 139, 144, 156, 164, 170, 174 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 136, 155–157, 178, 210 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 100, 183, 314–315 and genome project costs, 141, 143, 159, 161, 162 and genome project establishment, 113–114, 118, 129–130, 152, 154, 173, 174 report on genome project policy, 131–133, 159, 162, 170 Olson, Maynard V., 106, 113, 130, 151–152, 154 Oncogenes, 105, 263, 279 Operation Rescue, 70, 71 Operon, 264 Oregon, 81 Organ transplantation, 222, 225, 227, 228 Orphan drugs, 96 Ortho-Novum, 52 Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, 52, 84, 86 Ovral, 52 Oxman, Michael N., 268, 287n.25

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Pancreatitis, 40 ParaGard, 85, 86 Parallel track protocol, 14–18, 313, 316 AIDS activists and, 14–15, 22–23, 31–32 and clinical trials, 10, 15–16, 21–22, 27–28, 38, 39–40 early release of ddI and, 6, 10, 18, 24–25, 26, 30 evaluation of, 28, 34–35, 40, 42 FDA and, 15, 16, 17, 18–20, 23, 25, 31, 33–34, 40 research community and, 20–22, 31 Parkinson's disease, 43, 216, 217, 234, 238 Pasteur, Louis, 262 Pasteur Institute, 264 Patent protection, RU-486, 46, 64–65, 74, 76, 82, 87 Pathogens, 263, 264, 268, 278, 280, 290n.44, Patients, 328–329 Pauling, Linus, 105, 285n.7 Peer review, 234 Penicillin, 213 Pentamidine, 20 Pepper, Claude, 143 Perrier, 69 Perutz, Max, 285n.7 Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (Boston), 180, 182 Phage research, 105, 265, 273, 276, 278 Pharmaceutical industry constraints on RU-486 development, 47, 59–60, 81–86, 317 and early release of ddI, 36n.8 and Medicare drug coverage, 194 regulation and, 10–11, 12–13 Physicians and early release of ddI, 25, 27, 29, 34, 39 and human genetics, 150 and kidney disease treatment, 182 in policy decisions, 326–327, 328–329, 330 and RU-486 marketing, 46, 54, 64, 76, 77, 84 Planned Parenthood, 47, 56, 57, 60, 64, 87 Plante, Charles L., 180, 182, 188, 191, 193, 205–206n.1 Plasmids, 269–270, 271, 273, 276, 278 Pluralism, 309–310 Pneumococcus, 259 Policymaking, 2, 312, 319 early release of ddI, 32, 34 ESRD program, 177, 202, 203, 212–214 fetal tissue transplantation research, 215, 221, 223, 234–238, 239, 249–250, 251, 252–253, 255–256 human genome project, 153–155, 159, 162, 163, 169, 174, 316 public and, 2, 5, 8, 309–310, 312, 315, 316, 317–318, 320, 321–322, 325–331 recombinant DNA research, 277, 284, 315 Poliomyelitis vaccine, 217, 265–266, 268 Politics, 314, 318–319, 320 Polkinghorne Committee (U.K.), 232–233, 239 Pollack, Robert, 266, 268 Polycystic kidney disease, 104 Population Council, 46, 54, 55, 57, 78, 86 Porton Company, 136–137 Postmarketing studies, 13 Pregnancy, 53, 71 Premarketing approval, drugs, 12–13 President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 250 President's Task Force on Regulatory Relief, 13 Press, Frank, 128 Privacy rights, 48, 300 Private funding, 236, 238 Progesterone, 49, 51–52 Project Inform, 22 Prokaryotic cells, 262, 278, 279, 280 Prostaglandin, 44, 45, 68, 73, 78, 94 and RU-486 effectiveness, 50, 51, 52, 54, 95 and U.S. trials of RU-486, 46, 79, 83 Proteins, 104, 262, 271 sequencing, 106 synthesis, 105, 107, 265 Psychotropic drugs, 300 Public and ESRD program, 210 and human genome project, 152, 154–155, 171, 174–175, 316, 317, 331 involvement in policymaking, 2, 5, 8, 309–310, 312, 315, 316, 317–318, 320, 321–322, 325–331 and recombinant DNA research, 257, 279, 280–281, 300–301, 302–307, 311 and RU-486, 45–46, 56, 60, 61, 62, 66, 71–72, 318 and scientific research, 270, 272, 279, 300, 306 Public Health Service (PHS), 137, 260 and AIDS, 9–10 and early release of ddI, 16, 17–18 and fetal tissue research, 241 and human genome project, 142 and kidney disease treatment, 178, 180, 181, 201–202, 210 Public Health Service Act (1944), 181, 191 Puerto Rico, 48 Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 106, 113

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Racism, 148, 150, 159 Radiation effects, 119 Rape, 230, 231 Raub, William F., 235 RCR Alliance, 69–70, 71 Reagan, Ronald, 134, 227, 235 and deregulation, 11, 313 and genome research budget, 117, 119, 132, 141, 143–144 Recombinant DNA research, 103, 260 Asilomar Conference on, 7, 258–259, 268–269, 274–283, 284, 292n.58, development of, 261–264, 273 potential hazards of, 267–268, 271–272, 280, 299, 304, 305–306 public and, 257, 279, 280–281, 300–301, 302–307, 311 safety guidelines, 279, 281, 283–284, 288n.29, Regional Medical Program, 178, 180–181 Regulation contraceptive development, 47–48, 51, 54, 55 drugs, 10–15, 18–19, 23, 30, 32, 35–36n.4, fetal tissue research, 53, 78, 217, 230, 234, 235 recombinant DNA, 281, 284, 302, 306, 318 “Reproductive Health Technologies Project,” Research, 270, 327–328 AIDS, 15, 20, 135, 137, 142 cancer, 108, 122–123, 287n.25, contraceptive, 51, 55, 60, 83, 85, 86, 96 fetal tissue, federal funding ban, 43, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29 human genome, 99, 171–172 kidney disease, 178, 180–181, 201–202 on policymaking, 317–320 public and, 270, 272, 279, 300, 306 recombinant DNA, 279, 281, 302, 306 RU-486, 77–78 Restriction enzymes, 103, 264, 269, 271 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 170 Retinoblastoma, 104 Retroviruses, 263 Rettig, Paul, 185, 206n.6 Rhône-Poulenc, Inc., 67 Ribicoff, Abraham, 185, 186 Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 105, 106, 263, 271, 273 Risk-benefit analysis, 13, 234 Risk perception, 302–307, 317–318 Robertson, John A., 219, 225, 227, 230–231, 253 Robins, A. H., Company, Inc., 48, 83 Robinson, Daniel N., 218, 219, 229 Roblin, Richard O., III, 272–273, 274, 283, 289nn.37, Rockefeller Foundation, 58 Roe v. Wade (1973), 56, 217 Rogers, Michael, 277–278 Rolling Stone, Roman Catholic Church, 49, 63, 64, 65, 67 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 135, 259 Roussel Uclaf, 45, 49 development of RU-486, 50, 52, 94 and international market, 73–75, 76 return of RU-486 to market, 65–66, 67 threats against, 46, 57–60, 61, 62–63, 64, 65, 69–70, 71 and U.S. market, 46, 68, 73, 75, 76, 78, 80, 87, 98 Ruddle, Francis, 114, 126, 128, 129 RU-486, 7–8, 94–96, 97–98, 316 anti-abortion opposition to, 43, 54–58, 76, 310–311, 317, 318 black market, 68 boycott threats against, 54–55, 69–71, 74, 96 commercial interest in, 51–53 corporate withdrawal of, 58–63, 76 cost of, 45, 52–53, 76 development of, 48, 49–51 efficacy, 44, 45, 50, 54, 55, 78–79, 84, 95 French government's coercion of Roussel, 63–67 industry constraints, 47, 59–60, 81–86, 317 international availability, 73–75 non-abortion treatment applications, 46, 72, 77–78, 86–87 public and, 45–46, 56, 60, 61, 62, 66, 71–72, 318 safety, 44–45, 59, 73, 81, 95 side effects, 44, 52, 54, 56, 61, 72, 77, 78, 79 U.S. market and, 6, 43, 71–73, 75–81, 86–87, 97 Sachs, Linda, 80–81 Safety contraceptives, 48 ddI, 26, 38, 39 drugs, 11, 12, 18–19, 22, 23 RU-486, 44–45, 59, 73, 81, 95 Sakiz, Edouard, 49, 50, 57–58, 59, 61, 63–64, 66, 67, 73, 81 San Francisco General Hospital, 80 Sanger, Frederick, 106, 108, 111 San Jose Mercury, Santa Fe Workshop, 115, 123, 124, 159,160

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Sarcoma, 263 Scandinavia, 45, 61, 74 Schering A. G., 52 Scheuer, James, 51 Schneider, Claudine, 118, 119 Schreiner, George E., 179, 180, 182, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 205–206n.1 Schroeder, Patricia, 72 Schwartz, David C., 106, 111, 113 Science politics and, 314, 315–316, 317, 320, 322 public and, 300–301, 309–311, 325–326, 329–331 Science, Science and Babies (IOM), 94 Science for the People, 279, 306 Scientific community and early release of ddI, 20–22, 31 and human genome project, 123–128, 154–155, 171–172, 174 and recombinant DNA, 299–300, 302, 317–318 Scientist, Scorsese, Martin, 63 Scribner, Belding, 177, 180, 181, 197, 201, 206n.2 Scriver, Charles, 111, 125, 126 Searle, G. D., & Company, 59, 60, 68–69, 83, 84 Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, 181–182 Segal, Sheldon, 58, 63, 67 Seiko Instruments, Inc., 108 Sexually transmitted diseases, 9 Shatkin, Aaron J., 274, 275, 278–279 Shaw, George Bernard, 290n.44 Shultze, Charles L., 179 Shumway, Norman Edward, 193 Sickle cell anemia, 105, 150, 157 Side effects contraceptives, 84 RU-486, 44, 52, 54, 56, 61, 72, 77, 78, 79 Sikorsky, Gerry, 55–56 Simian virus 40 (SV40), 265–266, 267, 268, 269, 278 Singer, Daniel, 277, 280 Singer, Maxine F., 125, 266, 271, 272, 274, 278, 283, 288nn.31, Sinsheimer, Robert L., 109, 110, 111, 122, 124, 153, 169–170, 279 Sloane, Kay, 206n.2 Sloan Foundation, 100 Smeal, Eleanor, 72, 73 Smith, David, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 125, 127, 313 Snell, Rand, 138, 151 Social Security Act (1935), 183, 187 Social Security Administration (SSA), 192, 210 Bureau of Health Insurance, 179–180, 185, 200, 201 Office of the Actuary, 198, 199 Social Security Amendments (1972), 198 Congressional deliberation, 187–195, 201–202, 210, 213 cost estimates, 195–201, 202–203, 204, 210–211, 213–214 Section 299I (kidney disease provision), 7, 176, 178, 182–187, 205, 206n.6, Söll, Dieter, 271, 288n.31 Somatic cell hybridization, 102, 103 Soviet Union, 75, 115, 291n.55 Spain, 61 Special interest groups, 6, 306 “Specific altruism,” Speidel, Joseph, 68, 82, 87 Spitz, Irving, 55 Stanford University, 238, 265 “Statement on a Patient's Bill of Rights” (AHA), 328 States drug regulation, 11, 35–36n.4, fetal tissue research restrictions, 217, 231, 242 kidney programs, 181 Sterling Drug, Inc., 51–52 Suicide, 225 Sulfanilamide, 11 Sullivan, Louis W., 70, 152, 235–236, 237, 238, 239–240 Sulston, John, 106, 111 Sununu, John H., 70 Superior Oil Company, Inc., 110 Suramin, 40 Sweden, 51 Sweig, Neil, 84–85 Syntex Corporation, 83 Szilard, Leo, 285n.7 Szybalski, Waclaw, 282 Talmadge, Herman E., 184, 191 Tatum, Edward L., 261–262, 286n.8 Tay-Sachs disease, 150 Thalidomide, 11, 36n.5, Third World, 51, 57, 69 Three Mile Island, 305 Time, Tinoco, Ignacio, 116, 117 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 310 Toulmin, Stephen, 250–251 Tower, John G., 181 Toxicity, drug, 20, 24, 39, 40 Trapnell, Gordon R., 198–200, 205–206n.1, 206n.9

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS Treatment IND, 14, 19, 24, 26, 27, 30, 33 Trivelpiece, Alvin, 114–115 Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA), 217, 230, 231, 232, 242 United Kingdom, 213 and Depo-Provera, 51 and fetal tissue research, 232–233, 239 and recombinant DNA research, 264, 274, 284 and RU-486, 45, 61, 73–74, 76 United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 73 United States, 11, 83, 108, 148 abortion rate, 52, 82, 217, 236, 237 and contraceptive innovation, 47–48, 50, 51, 55 fetal tissue research ban, 43, 78, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29 and human genome project, 156, 157, 158–159 RU-486 import ban, 6, 43, 59, 77–78, 97–98 RU-486 market, 52–53, 61, 62, 85, 86 RU-486 potential availability, 45–47, 62, 68, 71–73, 75–81, 85, 86–87, 94 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 50, 86 U.S. Congress, 51 and early drug release, 17, 19, 29 and fetal tissue research, 219, 227, 235, 239–240 House Ways and Means Committee, 187–190, 194–195, 198, 213, 313 and human genome project, 6–7, 114, 117–120, 128, 130, 131, 137–138, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 164, 316 human genome project funding, 101, 112, 133, 139–140, 142–143, 146–147, 172 and kidney disease, 179, 181 kidney disease Medicare entitlement, 176–177, 178, 182–185, 186–195, 198–199, 200–201, 202, 203, 210, 213, 315, 319 and NIH budget, 132, 135–136 and recombinant DNA research, 259 and RU-486, 47, 54, 55–56, 70, 73, 77, 78, 96 and science, 148, 260, 314–315 Senate Finance Committee, 190–194, 198, 204 U.S. Constitution, 48, 72, 117, 183, 260, 310 U.S. News and World Report, U.S. Supreme Court, 48, 72, 217, 228 University of California, 112–113, 114, 120 University of California at Los Angeles, 148 University of California at San Francisco, 80 University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC), 100, 109–110, 111, 112–113, 124 University of Colorado, 236 University of Minnesota, 182 University of Southern California (USC), 46, 54, 78–79 University of Washington, 181–182 Upjohn Company, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 82, 83 Vaccine development, 5 Valine, 105 Van Buren, Abigail, 60–61 Van de Kamp, John, 79, 80 Var, Le, Veterans Administration (VA), 177–178, 181, 210 Village Voice, Virology, 264–265 Viruses, 262–263 bacteriophages, 105, 259, 265 and cancer, 263, 265, 266, 268–269, 278–279 hazards in research, 263, 267–268, 278–279, 287n.25 Vocational Rehabilitation Program, 180–181 Walters, LeRoy, 218, 238, 249 Warner-Lambert Company, 83 Washington Post, Washington Times, Washington University, 106 Waterston, Robert, 106, 111 Watson, James D. DNA research, 104, 112, 127, 260, 285n.7, 286n.8 and establishment of genome project, 118, 124, 126, 127–128, 129, 140–141, 142, 144, 147, 154, 170 and ethical implications of DNA manipulation, 148–149, 174, 175, 318 as head of genome project, 141–142, 151, 152, 153, 161 and recombinant DNA controversy, 267, 272–273, 278, 282, 287n.25 Wattleton, Faye, 68 Waxman, Henry, 17, 238 Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989), 72, 74 Weicker, Lowell P., Jr., 142 Weingart Institute, 108 Weiss, Ted, 77, 81, 237 Weissman, Sherman, 272, 274 Welfare reform, 184–185, 186 West Germany, 51, 67

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BIOMEDICAL POLITICS White, Ray, 109, 113, 125–126, 128, 129 Willke, John, 53, 62, 67, 76, 85 Windom, Robert E., 216, 218, 229, 234, 243 Wolfe, Sidney, 24 Wolkstein, Irwin, 185, 191, 205–206n.1 Women abortion decision, 56, 220–221, 223, 224, 229, 230, 232–233, 235, 236, 241 abortion opponents and, 43, 57, 59, 63, 64 advocacy groups, 55, 57, 85, 87, 309–310, 327 contraceptive development and, 47, 48, 55–56, 59 fetal tissue donation decision, 225, 226–228, 229–230, 231, 232–233, 234, 236, 252, 253 pregnancy mortality, 71 in RU-486 studies, 44, 50, 74, 78–79, 80 RU-486 use, 45, 66, 68, 73, 75, 84, 94, 96 Women and Health, Wood, Francis Aloysius, 137–138 World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 63 World Health Organization (WHO), 51, 54, 65, 71, 73, 83, 86, 94 World War II, 325, 327 Wyden, Ron, 46, 77–78, 81 Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., 52 Wyngaarden, James B., 216 and establishment of genome project, 112, 128, 129–130, 131, 142, 153, 170 and genome project funding, 134, 135–136, 139–140, 141, 144–145, 146–147 Yale University, 236 Yard, Molly, 72 Yeast, DNA mapping, 106, 109, 113, 162, 171 Young, Frank, 51 and ddI early release, 10, 13, 16, 18–19, 25, 26, 27–28, 30, 32, 33–34, 36n.8 and RU-486, 73, 77 Zinder, Norton D., 151, 153, 272–273, 274 ZK 98.299, 52 ZK 98.734, 52