Index

A

Actinium, 61, 64

Activity median thermodynamic diameter, 32-33, 40, 41-42, 45, 49, 108, 139, 215, 224

Adenocarcinomas, 172, 173, 179, 184, 187, 189

Aerosols, 2, 21, 32-33, 90-131

characteristics, 32-33, 72, 142-143

penetration, 92-93

see also Clearance;

Deposition;

Diffusion;

Particle size

Age factors, 1, 2-4, 12, 14, 16, 34, 42-43, 53, 54, 63, 72, 113, 148, 204, 230, 233

cancer and, 53, 55-56, 175, 177, 188

cell proliferation, 54, 175

disease effects, 154

lung volume, 144, 147, 148

see also Children;

Infants

Airway diseases

allergies, 151

bronchitis, 2, 45, 46, 49, 152, 153, 154, 155, 183, 196, 232, 233

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 153

dose effects, 46-49, 180

Algorithms, 118, 122

Allergies, 151

Alpha radiation, 1, 3-4, 6, 9, 15, 26-27, 106, 137, 166-189

age and susceptibility, 54

cell-level dose, 56, 166, 186, 194-195

dosimetry, general, 1, 3-4, 6, 14, 166, 186

in equations, 22-23, 24

Altitude, 157

Alveoli, 38, 72, 76, 77, 139, 146-147, 148, 149, 152-153, 154, 167-168, 170, 172, 189, 202, 208

AMAD, 108-109

Anatomical factors, 144, 147-148, 157

deposition, 6, 138, 141, 144, 147-148

see also Morphometry;

specific anatomical systems

Animal studies, 6, 54, 55-56, 137, 154, 155, 157, 189, 223-224

Atom bomb survivors, 53, 57

Automated tape samplers, 115-116

B

Basal cells, 2, 3, 6, 35, 37, 41, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 166, 167, 181-184, 194-195, 197, 198, 231

carcinogenesis, 166, 167, 181-184

thoron, 50

BEIR IV report, 4, 5, 14, 16, 17, 31, 32, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57

Belgium, 110-113

Benzo[a]pyrene, 55

Biological processes, general, 52

Bismuth, 61, 104, 124, 126-128, 130, 205, 224

Breathing patterns, 1, 6, 77, 137, 138, 140, 144, 148-149, 208, 214, 218-219

altitude factors, 157

in equations, 208-209, 224

ethnic differences, 156

physical activity and, 2, 12, 13, 149-150, 151, 227, 230, 231, 233

reference rates, 6, 226

see also Nasal processes;

Oral processes

Bronchi, 3, 6, 28, 54, 79, 80, 148, 168, 203, 206

adult females, 42-43

cellular pathology of cancer, 167, 172, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 189, 223

epithelium, 35-37, 43, 46-48, 145, 157, 168, 170, 175, 181, 183, 184, 186, 189, 194-197, 199, 234

hyperplasia, 46-47, 48, 55, 233, 234



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Comparative Dosimetry of Radon in Mines and Homes Index A Actinium, 61, 64 Activity median thermodynamic diameter, 32-33, 40, 41-42, 45, 49, 108, 139, 215, 224 Adenocarcinomas, 172, 173, 179, 184, 187, 189 Aerosols, 2, 21, 32-33, 90-131 characteristics, 32-33, 72, 142-143 penetration, 92-93 see also Clearance; Deposition; Diffusion; Particle size Age factors, 1, 2-4, 12, 14, 16, 34, 42-43, 53, 54, 63, 72, 113, 148, 204, 230, 233 cancer and, 53, 55-56, 175, 177, 188 cell proliferation, 54, 175 disease effects, 154 lung volume, 144, 147, 148 see also Children; Infants Airway diseases allergies, 151 bronchitis, 2, 45, 46, 49, 152, 153, 154, 155, 183, 196, 232, 233 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 153 dose effects, 46-49, 180 Algorithms, 118, 122 Allergies, 151 Alpha radiation, 1, 3-4, 6, 9, 15, 26-27, 106, 137, 166-189 age and susceptibility, 54 cell-level dose, 56, 166, 186, 194-195 dosimetry, general, 1, 3-4, 6, 14, 166, 186 in equations, 22-23, 24 Altitude, 157 Alveoli, 38, 72, 76, 77, 139, 146-147, 148, 149, 152-153, 154, 167-168, 170, 172, 189, 202, 208 AMAD, 108-109 Anatomical factors, 144, 147-148, 157 deposition, 6, 138, 141, 144, 147-148 see also Morphometry; specific anatomical systems Animal studies, 6, 54, 55-56, 137, 154, 155, 157, 189, 223-224 Atom bomb survivors, 53, 57 Automated tape samplers, 115-116 B Basal cells, 2, 3, 6, 35, 37, 41, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 166, 167, 181-184, 194-195, 197, 198, 231 carcinogenesis, 166, 167, 181-184 thoron, 50 BEIR IV report, 4, 5, 14, 16, 17, 31, 32, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57 Belgium, 110-113 Benzo[a]pyrene, 55 Biological processes, general, 52 Bismuth, 61, 104, 124, 126-128, 130, 205, 224 Breathing patterns, 1, 6, 77, 137, 138, 140, 144, 148-149, 208, 214, 218-219 altitude factors, 157 in equations, 208-209, 224 ethnic differences, 156 physical activity and, 2, 12, 13, 149-150, 151, 227, 230, 231, 233 reference rates, 6, 226 see also Nasal processes; Oral processes Bronchi, 3, 6, 28, 54, 79, 80, 148, 168, 203, 206 adult females, 42-43 cellular pathology of cancer, 167, 172, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 189, 223 epithelium, 35-37, 43, 46-48, 145, 157, 168, 170, 175, 181, 183, 184, 186, 189, 194-197, 199, 234 hyperplasia, 46-47, 48, 55, 233, 234

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Comparative Dosimetry of Radon in Mines and Homes morphometry, 67-71, 73, 75, 200, 202, 204, 211 particle deposition, 1, 6, 20, 38-39, 47-48, 73-74, 77, 145-146, 148, 152, 195, 200, 206-207, 208, 211, 212-213, 218 stem cells, 6-7 target cells, 35-38, 42, 189, 227-230, 234 Bronchioles, 37, 38, 67, 71, 72, 145, 148, 168, 181, 184, 185, 198-201, 204, 206, 212 Bronchitis, 2, 45, 46, 49, 152, 153, 154, 155, 183, 196, 232, 233 C Carbon tetrachloride, 56 Carcinogenesis and carcinogens, 2, 5-6, 31, 52 age factors, 175, 177, 188 basal cells, 166, 167, 181-184 bronchial cells, 167, 172, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 189, 223 classification, carcinomas, 172-173, 175-176 epidemiological data, 1, 11-12, 56, 169, 176, 186-188 epithelia, 168, 169-170, 175, 181-183, 189, 194, 233 genetics, 54, 177, 178-180 hyperplasia, 46-47, 48, 49, 53-56, 233, 234 liver cancer, 54, 56 mucosal processes, 168, 181-182, 186 other than radon, 1, 12, 15, 26 secretory cells, 166, 167, 172, 181, 183, 184, 186, 189 skin, 54 smoking, 169, 170, 174, 175, 176, 177, 185-188 see also Hyperplasia; Lung cancer; specific carcinomas Cell cultures, 54, 167 Cells and cellular processes, 38, 166-189 alpha dosimetry, cell level, 56, 166, 186, 194-195 basal cells, 2, 3, 6, 35, 37, 41, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 166, 167, 181-184, 194-195, 197, 198, 231 bronchi, carcinogenesis, 167, 172, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 189, 223 goblet cells, 168, 181 hyperplasia, 46-47, 48, 49, 53-56, 233, 234 Kulchitsky cells, 7, 168 lung cancer, cells of origin, 56, 166-189 proliferation, 53-55, 175, 180-182, 189 smoking and cellular carcinogenesis, 169, 170, 174, 175, 176, 177, 185-188 stem cells, 6-7 target cells, 15, 25, 31, 32, 35-38, 39, 42, 43, 49, 166, 189, 194-195, 198, 227-230, 234 see also Secretory cells and processes Children, 2, 3-4, 14, 35, 43-44, 45, 46, 148, 201, 202, 204, 228; see also Infants Chemical processes, unattached fraction, 24-25 Chromosomes, 178-180 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 153 Cilia, 46-47, 67, 78, 79, 138, 144, 145, 147, 168, 181, 182, 195, 196, 203 ''A Citizen's Guide to Radon,'' 10 Classification, carcinomas, 172-173, 175-176 Clearance, respiratory tract, 73, 137, 138, 144-147, 148, 151, 227-230 coughing, 147 models, 77-81, 202-207 mucus, 15, 35, 46, 78-80, 145-146, 202-203, 205, 206, 227 nasal, 78, 145 preexisting conditions, 152-155 trachea, 79, 80, 146, 151, 195, 203 Clusters, particles, 24-25, 92, 116, 125, 126 Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, see BEIR IV report Concentration levels, 15-16, 20, 26, 90-131 diffusion, 95-96, 101-102, 109-110 wire screen samplers, 25, 27, 94, 95, 96-100, 102-107, 110-124 Cost factors, mitigation, 11, 14 Coughing, 147 D Decay, radioactive, 9, 10, 26, 61, 62, 63, 64, 101, 110, 122, 194, 199, 203 equation, 21-22, 23, 205 Density factors, 139, 142-143 Department of Energy, 194 Deposition, respiratory tract, 3, 6, 72, 137-144, 147-155 anatomical factors, general, 6, 138, 141, 144, 147-148 bronchial, 1, 6, 20, 38-39, 47-48, 73-74, 77, 145-146, 148, 152, 195, 200, 206-207, 208, 211, 212-213, 218 diffusional, 73, 76, 90, 138, 139, 140, 141, 144, 149, 208, 210 electrostatic, 24, 25, 138, 141 in equations, 94, 207-212, 215, 216, 220, 222 geometry of, 66-67, 138, 195 gravitational sedimentation, 74, 76, 139-140, 144, 149, 209-210 historical perspectives, research, 137-138

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Comparative Dosimetry of Radon in Mines and Homes impaction factors, 74, 76, 117, 149, 150, 151, 208, 210 inertial factors, 117, 138, 140, 145, 149, 150, 152 localized, 37-38, 76, 77, 81, 155 in lungs, 6, 137-144, 147-148, 149-157 models, 1, 14, 15, 24, 39, 66-67, 71, 72-77, 200, 207-215 nasal, 1, 3, 38, 39-40, 66-67, 72-73, 74, 149, 150-152, 216, 218-222 oral, 72-73, 74, 216 particle size and, 72-73, 75, 76, 138-143, 157, 212-215 preexisting conditions, 17, 152-155 regional, 37-38, 77 theory, 39, 74, 76, 207, 209-210 tracheal, 6, 20, 73-74, 77, 148, 151, 154, 207, 212 see also Wiremesh screens Diffusion, 24, 139 Brownian, 139, 210 concentration levels and, 95-96, 101-102, 109-110 conversion coefficients, 24, 33, 90-92 deposition, diffusional, 73, 76, 90, 138, 139, 140, 141, 144, 149, 208, 210 equations, 24, 90-95, 208 particle size and, 25, 90-95 samplers, 95-96, 101-102, 109-110, 118 theoretical models, 91, 92 through tubes, 92-93, 95, 101, 195 Disease, preexisting, 2, 6, 46-49, 148, 151, 152-155, 234 see also specific diseases DNA, 31, 178, 179, 180-181, 195 Dose and dosimetry, 15-16, 31-57, 60-82 airway disease, general dose effects, 46-49, 180 alpha energy, general, 1, 3-4, 6, 14, 166, 186 cell-level, 56, 166, 186, 194-195 defined, 60 exposure and, 2-4, 5-6, 31-32, 34-35, 137, 225, 226-227, 228 historical perspectives, 24, 60-82 models, 1-4, 14, 15, 31-51, 60-82, 180, 194-202 risk assessment, extrapolation, 1, 4, 5, 12, 14, 31-57, 110, 137, 157 target cells, 194-195 thoron, 49-51, 54, 225-226, 228 E Einstein-Cunningham constant, 91 Electricity and electrostatics, 24, 25, 32, 109, 113-114, 118-119, 138, 141 Electron microscopes, 72, 175 Emphysema, 153, 154 Environmental Protection Agency, 4, 10 Epidemiological data, 1, 5, 11, 12, 20, 32, 137, 155-157, 169, 173, 176, 177, 184, 186-188 cancer, 1, 11-12, 56, 169, 176, 186-188 historical perspectives, 11, 169, 176 international, 11, 12 smoking, 56, 186-188 see also Risk assessment Epithelia, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 14, 53, 146, 198-199, 206, 234 bronchial, 35-37, 43, 46-48, 145, 157, 168, 170, 175, 181, 183, 184, 186, 189, 194-197, 199, 234 cancer pathology, 168, 169-170, 175, 181-183, 189, 194, 233 lung, 167-169, 174 thoron uptake, 49-50 tracheal, 53, 145, 181, 182, 183 Equations, 51 alpha radiation, 22-23, 24 breathing, 208-209, 224 particle deposition, 94, 207-212, 215, 216, 220, 222 particle diffusion, 24, 90-95, 208 particle growth, 143 radioactive decay, 21-22, 23, 205 smoking, 23 unattached fractions, 104-107, 114-115 working level month, 15, 22, 32, 223-227 Ethnic factors, 148, 156 Evaporation, 143 Exercise, see Physical activity Exposure, 15-16, 32-33 defined, 223-224 dose and, 2-4, 5-6, 31-32, 34-35, 137, 225, 226-227, 228 duration, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 55, 155-156, 186 indoor atmospheres, 12, 27-28, 32-33, 109-117, 130 mine atmospheres, 12, 26, 107-109 standards, 26 working level months, 15, 22, 32, 223-227 F Fibrosis, 153, 154 Formaldehyde, 56 Formulas, see Equations Fractionation, 55 G Gender differences, 1, 2-3, 4, 5, 12, 13, 15, 34, 42-43, 45, 46, 53, 148, 176, 184, 201-202, 228, 230, 233

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Comparative Dosimetry of Radon in Mines and Homes Genetics, 54, 177, 178-180, 189 anatomy, 148 carcinogenesis, general, 54, 177, 178-180 DNA, 31, 178, 179, 180-181, 195 lung cancer, 54, 177, 178-180 target cell damage, 31 Geometry airway, 15, 35, 63, 156, 195, 196, 199-202, 203, 204 particle deposition, 66-67, 138, 195 see also Morphometry Germany, Federal Republic, 11, 111-113, 118 Goblet cells, 168, 181 Gravitational factors impaction, 74, 76, 117, 149, 150, 151, 208, 210 sedimentation, 74, 76, 139-140, 144, 149, 209, 210 H Historical perspectives, 9-11, 26 cancer epidemiology, 169, 176 concentration measurement, 15 deposition of aerosols, research, 137-138 dosimetric models, 24, 60-82 epidemiology, 11, 169, 176 unattached fractionation, 15, 95, 105-109 Hygroscopicity, 7, 33, 143, 144 Hyperplasia, 46-47, 48, 53-56, 233, 234 I Impaction, 74, 76, 117, 149, 150, 151, 208, 210 Inertia, 117, 138, 140, 145, 149, 150, 152 Infants, 2, 3-4, 14, 35, 43-44, 45, 46, 201, 204, 228; see also Children Inflammation, 5, 14, 152 Injury, 53, 55-56, 174, 180, 186 Insulation, 33 International activities and perspectives, 11, 172 epidemiological investigations, 11, 12 measurement standards, 15 International Commission on Radiological Protection, 3-4, 14, 16, 17, 95-96, 101-102, 103, 105-106 J Japan, atom bomb survivors, 53, 57 Joule-hours per cubic meter, 15 K Kinetic theory, 91 Kulchitsky cells, 7, 168 L Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma, 172, 173, 175-176, 184, 187 Lead, 49, 61, 104, 106, 110, 115, 126-128, 130, 203, 205, 206-207, 224 Liver cancer, 54, 56 Localized deposition, 37-38, 75, 76, 77, 81, 155 Lung cancer, 1, 4, 6, 9, 11, 16, 72, 137 adenocarcinomas, 172, 173, 179, 184, 187, 189 age, growth, injury and, 53, 55-56, 175, 177, 188 cells of origin, 56, 166-189 gender differences, 53 genetics, general, 54, 177, 178-180 large cell undifferentiated carcinoma, 172, 173, 175-176, 184, 187 plutonium and, 56 small cell undifferentiated carcinoma, 171-172, 173, 175, 178-179, 183-184, 186-187, 188 squamous cell carcinoma, 170-171, 173, 174-175, 177, 179, 181-184, 186, 187, 188 Lungs, 215 age factors, 144, 147, 148 clearance of aerosols, 79-80, 144-147, 157 deposition of aerosols, 6, 137-144, 147-148, 149-157 emphysema, 153, 154 epithelia, 167-169, 174 fibrosis, 153, 154 morphometry, 6, 68-69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 147, 199-200, 201 volume, 138, 142, 144, 147-148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156 199-200, 201, 202 M Magnetic resonance imaging, 217, 218 Mass factors, particles, 142 Measurement and measurement techniques, 11, 24-25 changes, 20 diffusion sampler, 95-96, 101-102, 109-110, 118 international standards, 15 Joule-hours per cubic meter, 15 mucous clearance, 77-78 particle size, 90 radiolabeling, 78-80, 145, 149, 154 unattached fraction, 23-25, 26, 95-130 wire screen samplers, 25, 27, 94, 95, 96-100, 102-107, 110-124 working level months, 15, 22, 32, 223-227 see also Dose and dosimetry; Equations; Morphometry

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Comparative Dosimetry of Radon in Mines and Homes Mitigation measures, cost of, 11, 14 Models and modeling age factors, 54 airway, 15, 35, 64, 156, 195, 196, 199-202, 203, 204 clearance, 77-81, 202-207 deposition, 1, 14, 15, 24, 39, 66-67, 71, 72-77, 200, 207-215 diffusion, 91, 92 dosimetric, 1-4, 14, 15, 24, 31-51, 60-82, 180, 194-202 historical perspectives, 24, 60-82 morphometric, 61, 63-82 radon progeny behavior, indoor, 21 respiratory tract, 16, 61, 64, 71-82 time factors, 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 55, 60, 155-156, 186, 208 see also Animal studies; Equations; Risk assessment; Theory Moisture, 143, 151 atmospheric, 25 hygroscopicity, 7, 33, 143, 144 Monte Carlo methods, 70, 122 Morphometry, 61-82 bronchial, 67-71, 73, 75, 200, 202, 204, 211 head airways, 63-67 lungs, 6, 68-69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 147, 199-200, 201 nasal, 63-67, 72-73 oral processes, 66-67, 72-73, 74 particle size and, 72-76 respiratory tract, general, 61, 63, 67, 71-72 tracheal, 67-71, 73, 75, 204 Mouth, see Oral processes Mucus, 1, 7, 52, 54, 56, 65, 67, 152, 155, 195, 197 carcinogenesis, 168, 181-182, 186 clearance, 15, 35, 46, 78-80, 145-146, 202-203, 205, 206, 227 smoking, 56, 196 N Nasal processes, 1, 2, 6, 38, 39-40, 43-44, 56, 215-223 clearance and, 78, 145 deposition, 1, 3, 38, 39-40, 66, 72-73, 74, 149, 150-152, 216, 218-222 morphometry, 63-67, 72-73 unattached fraction, 40, 218, 219 volume, 151 NCRP, 16, 17 Nucleation theory, 24-25 O Oral processes, 3, 6, 38, 39-40, 72, 142, 151-152, 215-223 deposition of particles, 72-73, 74, 216 morphometry, 67, 72-73, 74 P Parenchyma, 150, 155 Particle size, 1, 2, 6, 7, 20, 227-230, 231, 232 activity median thermodynamic diameter, 32-33, 40, 41-42, 45, 49, 108, 139, 215, 224 aerodynamic diameter, 139-143 behavior, aerodynamic, 21 clearance and, 144 clusters, particles, 24-25, 92, 116, 125, 126 deposition and, 72-73, 75, 76, 138-143, 157, 212-215 diffusion, 25, 90-95, 208 distributions, 12, 15, 25, 26, 27-28, 110, 117-130, 131, 142, 215 morphometry, 72-76 ultrafine particles, 16, 75, 76, 92, 94, 95, 139, 212 unattached fraction, 1, 2, 11, 12, 15, 23-25, 26, 32, 40, 55, 95-130, 169, 176, 218, 219, 230 Pharynx, 77, 142, 145, 149, 151 Physical activity, 2, 12, 13, 149-150, 151, 227, 230, 231, 233 Polonium, 9, 24, 25, 26, 56, 61, 96, 101-102, 103, 106, 110, 111, 113, 116, 118, 124-125, 128, 194-197, 199, 200, 203, 205, 216, 217, 218, 224 Plutonium, 54, 56 Preexisting conditions, 17, 152-155 see also Disease, preexisting; Smoking Pulmonary acinus, 72 R Racial/ethnic factors, 148, 156 Radiolabeling, 73-74, 78-81, 145, 149, 154 Radium, 26, 54 Reading Prong Formation, 10 Regional deposition, 37-38, 77 Retention, of aerosols, 138, 144, 157; see also Clearance Respiratory tract, 6 aerosol growth, 2 morphometry, 61, 63, 67, 71-72 models, 16, 61, 63, 71-82 see also specific anatomical subsystems Risk assessment, 3, 4, 11-12, 16-17, 166, 185 dosimetric extrapolation, 1, 4, 5, 12, 14, 31-57, 110, 137, 157

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Comparative Dosimetry of Radon in Mines and Homes S Sampling and samplers diffusion, 95-96, 101-102, 109-110 wire screen samplers, 25, 27, 94, 95, 96-100, 102-107, 110-124 Secretory cells and processes, 2, 3, 6, 25, 37, 41, 42-43, 45, 46, 47, 77, 163, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 227, 229, 230 carcinogenesis, 166, 167, 172, 181, 183, 184, 186, 189 hyperplasia and, 46, 48, 233, 234 thoron, 50 see also Mucus Sedimentation, gravitational, 74, 76, 139-140, 144, 149, 209, 210 Sex differences, see Gender differences SIMPLEX algorithms, 118 Skin tumorigenesis, 54 Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma, 171-172, 173, 175, 178-179, 183-184, 186-187, 188 Smoking, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 27, 28, 32, 45, 52, 56-57, 79, 128, 129, 130, 155, 196 cellular carcinogenesis and, 169, 170, 174, 175, 176, 177, 185-188 in equations, 23 Squamous cell carcinoma, 170-171, 173, 174-175, 177, 179, 181-184, 186, 187, 188 Standards, 11 carcinoma classification, 172-172, 175-176 exposure, 26 international, 15 wire screen samplers, 96 State-level action, 10 Stem cells, 6-7 Sulfur dioxide, 25 T Target cells, 15, 25, 31, 32, 35-38, 39, 42, 43, 49, 166, 189, 194-195, 198, 227-230, 234 Temporal factors exposure duration, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 55, 155-156, 186 tumor formation, 6 Testing and test methodology, see Measurement and measurement techniques Thermal processes and effects, 212, 223 activity median thermodynamic diameter, 32-33, 40, 41-42, 45, 49, 108, 139, 215, 224 Brownian diffusion, 139, 210 cooking, 128, 130 evaporation, 143 Theory, 194 deposition, 39, 74, 76, 207, 209-210 diffusion, 91, 92 nucleation, 24-25 wire screen penetration, 96 Thorium, 26, 61, 63 Thoron, 49-51, 54, 225-226, 228 Time factors, see Temporal factors Tissue damage, see Injury Tobacco, see Smoking Toxins, other than radon, 1, 12, 15, 25, 56 Trachea, 53, 67-71 clearance, 79, 80, 146, 151, 195, 203 deposition, 6, 20, 73-74, 77, 148, 151, 154, 207, 212 epithelium, 53, 145, 181, 182, 183 morphometry, 67-71, 73, 75, 204 wounding, 55-56 Tubes, diffusion, 92-93, 95, 101, 195 U Ultrafine particles, 16, 75, 76, 92, 94, 95, 139, 212 Unattached fraction, 1, 2, 12, 23-25, 26, 32, 55, 95-130, 230 in equations, 104-107, 114-115 measurement techniques, 23-25, 26, 95-130 nasal processes, 40, 218, 219 Urethane, 56 V Volumetrics, 76, 95, 220 alveolar, 208 lungs, 138, 142, 144, 147-148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156, 199-200, 201, 202 nasal, 151 W Wire screen samplers, 25, 27, 94, 95, 96-100, 102-107, 110-124 Women, 42-43, 46 see also Gender differences Working level month, 15, 223-227 formula, 22, 32, 225-226 World Health Organization, 172 Wounds, 53, 55-56, 174, 180, 186